1887

Chapter 2 : Pathogens of Rats and Mice

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Pathogens of Rats and Mice, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817824/9781555812669_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817824/9781555812669_Chap02-2.gif

Abstract:

The observation that infectious diseases of laboratory rats and mice have been on the decline for decades could lead one to a general sense of complacency regarding the plethora of pathogens to which these animals are susceptible. This chapter presents a wide, although certainly not exhaustive, scope of natural pathogens of laboratory rats and mice, and their effects on host physiology. Potential research-altering effects of H-1 virus include hepatocellular necrosis in rats exposed to pathogens or chemicals causing liver injury; reduction of the incidence of -associated arthritis, although other copathogens could also be present; alteration of lipid metabolism; induction of a caspase-3-dependent apoptosis activation pathway in the cerebellum; and inhibition of human tumor cell growth in mice. All mice and rats should be certified free of all parvoviruses prior to entry into the animal facility. Sendai virus (SV) is one of the most important pathogens infecting laboratory mice and rats. is, without question, one of the most important pathogens infecting laboratory rats and mice, and is the cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM). The primary importance of Salmonella serotypes is as zoonotic agents and as pathogens in immunocompromised mice and rats. While many species of mites infest wild rodents, only three species of nonburrowing mites are commonly found on laboratory mice and rats. and infest mice, and infests rats.

Citation: Baker D. 2003. Pathogens of Rats and Mice, p 19-107. In Natural Pathogens of Laboratory Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817824.ch2
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817824.chap2
1. Baker, D. G. 1998. Natural pathogens of laboratory mice, rats, and rabbits and their effects on research. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:231266.
1. Blailock, Z. R.,, E. R. Rabin,, and J. L. Melnick. 1967. Adenovirus endocarditis in mice. Science 157:6970.
2. Cauthen, A. N.,, C. C. Brown,, and K. R. Spindler. 1999. In vitro and in vivo characterization of a mouse adenovirus type 1 early region 3 null mutant. J. Virol. 73:86408646.
3. Charles, P. C.,, X. Chen,, M. S. Horwitz,, and C. F. Brosnan. 1999a. Differential chemokine induction by the mouse adenovirus type-1 in the central nervous system of susceptible and resistant strains of mice. J. Neurovirol. 5:5564.
4. Charles, P. C.,, J. D. Guida,, C. F. Brosnan,, and M. S. Horwitz. 1998. Mouse adenovirus type-1 replication is restricted to vascular endothelium in the CNS of susceptible strains of mice. Virology 245:216228.
5. Charles, P. C.,, K. S. Weber,, B. Cipriani,, and C. F. Brosnan. 1999b. Cytokine, chemokine and chemokine receptor mRNA expression in different strains of normal mice: implications for establishment of a Th1/Th2 bias. J. Neuroimmunol. 100: 6473.
6. Einarsson, O.,, G. P. Geba,, Z. Zhu,, M. Landry,, and J. A. Elias. 1996. Interleukin-11: stimulation in vivo and in vitro by respiratory viruses and induction of airways hyperresponsiveness. J. Clin. Invest. 97:915924.
7. Ginder, D. R. 1964. Increased susceptibility of mice infected with mouse adenoviruses to Escherichia coli-induced pyelonephritis. J. Exp. Med. 120:11171128.
8. Guida, J. D.,, G. Fejer,, L. A. Pirofski,, C. F. Brosnan,, and M. S. Horwitz. 1995. Mouse adenovirus type 1 causes a fatal hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis in adult C57BL/6 but not BALB/c mice. J. Virol. 69:76747681.
9. Hamelin, C.,, and G. Lussier. 1988. Genotypic differences between the mouse adenovirus strains FL and K87. Experientia 44:6566.
10. Hartley, J. W.,, and W. P. Rowe. 1960. A new mouse virus apparently related to the adenovirus group. Virology 11:645647.
11. Hashimoto, K.,, T. Sugiyama,, M. Yoshikawa,, and S. Sasaki. 1970. Intestinal resistance in the experimental enteric infection of mice with a mouse adenovirus. I. Growth of the virus and appearance of a neutralizing substance in the intestinal tract. Jpn. J. Microbiol. 14:381395.
12. Heck, F. C.,Jr., W. C. Sheldon, and C. A. Gleiser. 1972. Pathogenesis of experimentally produced mouse adenovirus infection in mice. Am. J. Vet. Res. 33:841846.
13. Kajon, A. E.,, C. C. Brown,, and K. R. Spindler. 1998. Distribution of mouse adenovirus type 1 in intraperitoneally and intranasally infected adult outbred mice. J. Virol. 72:12191223.
14. Kring, S. C.,, C. S. King,, and K. R. Spindler. 1995. Susceptibility and signs associated with mouse adenovirus type 1 infection of adult outbred Swiss mice. J. Virol. 69:80848088.
15. Kring, S. C.,, and K. R. Spindler. 1996. Lack of effect of mouse adenovirus type 1 infection on cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens. J. Virol. 70:54955502.
16. Margolis, G.,, L. Kilham,, and E. M. Hoenig. 1974. Experimental adenovirus infection of the mouse adrenal gland. I. Light microscopic observations. Am. J. Pathol. 75:363372.
17. Markine-Goriaynoff, D.,, J. T. van der Logt,, C. Truyens,, T. D. Nguyen,, F. W. Heessen,, G. Bigaignon,, Y. Carlier,, and J. P. Coutelier. 2000. IFN-γ-independent IgG2a production in mice infected with viruses and parasites. Int. Immunol. 12:223230.
18.National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats: a Report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
19. Smith, K.,, C. C. Brown,, and K. R. Spindler. 1998. The role of mouse adenovirus type 1 early region 1A in acute and persistent infections in mice. J. Virol. 72:56995706.
20. Spindler, K. R.,, L. Fang,, M. L. Moore,, G. N. Hirsch,, C. C. Brown,, and A. Kajon. 2001 SJL/J mice are highly susceptible to infection by mouse adenovirus type 1. J. Virol. 75:1203912046.
21. Takeuchi, A.,, and K. Hashimoto. 1976. Electron microscopy study of experimental enteric adenovirus infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 13: 569580.
22. Umehara, K.,, M. Hirakawa,, and K. Hashimoto. 1984. Fluctuation of antiviral resistance in the intestinal tracts of nude mice infected with a mouse adenovirus. Microbiol. Immunol. 28:679690.
23. VanderVeen, J.,, and A. Mes. 1973. Experimental infection with mouse adenovirus in adult mice. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 42:235241.
1. Berencsi, K.,, V. Endresz,, D. Klurfeld,, L. Kari,, D. Kritchevsky,, and E. Gonczol. 1998. Early atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta following cytomegalovirus infection of mice. Cell. Adhes. Commun. 5:3947.
2. Bolger, G.,, N. Lapeyre,, M. Rheaume,, P. Kibler,, C. Bousquet,, M. Garneau,, and M. Cordingley. 1999. Acute murine cytomegalovirus infection: a model for determining antiviral activity against CMV induced hepatitis. Antivir. Res. 44:155165.
3. Booth, T. W.,, A. A. Scalzo,, C. Carrello,, P. A. Lyons,, H. E. Farrell,, G. R. Singleton,, and G. R. Shellam. 1993. Molecular and biological characterization of new strains of murine cytomegalovirus isolated from wild mice. Arch. Virol. 132:209220.
4. Bruggeman, C. A.,, H. Meijer,, P. H. J. Dormans,, W. M. H. Debie,, G. E. L. M. Grauls,, and C. P. A. van Boven. 1982. Isolation of a cytomegalovirus-like agent from wild rats. Arch. Virol. 73:231241.
5. Cassell, H. S.,, P. Price,, S. D. Olver,, and G. C. Yeoh. 1998. The association between murine cytomegalovirus induced hepatitis and the accumulation of oval cells. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 79:433441.
6. Cavanaugh, V. J.,, L. G. Guidotti,, and F. V. Chisari. 1998. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication during adenovirus and cytomegalovirus infections in transgenic mice. J. Virol. 72: 26302637.
7. Collins, T.,, C. Pomeroy,, and M. C. Jordan. 1993. Detection of latent cytomegalovirus DNA in diverse organs of mice. J. Infect. Dis. 168:725729.
8. Cretney, E.,, M. A. Degli-Esposti,, E. H. Densley,, H. E. Farrell,, N. J. Davis-Poynter,, and M. J. Smyth. 1999. m144, a murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-encoded major histocompatibility complex class I homologue, confers tumor resistance to natural killer cell-mediated rejection. J. Exp. Med. 190:435444.
9. Dangler, C. A.,, S. F. Baker,, M. Kariuki Njenga,, and S. H. Chia. 1995. Murine cytomegalovirus- associated arteritis. Vet. Pathol. 32: 127133.
10. Duan, Y.,, and S. S. Atherton. 1996. Immunosuppression induces transcription of murine cytomegalovirus glycoprotein H in the eye and at non-ocular sites. Arch. Virol. 141:411423.
11. Fairweather, D.,, C. M. Lawson,, A. J. Chapman,, C. M. Brown,, T. W. Booth,, J. M. Papadimitriou,, and G. R. Shellam. 1998. Wild isolates of murine cytomegalovirus induce myocarditis and antibodies that cross-react with virus and cardiac myosin. Immunology 94:263270.
12. Fleck, M.,, E. R. Kern,, T. Zhou,, B. Lang,, and J. D. Mountz. 1998. Murine cytomegalovirus induces a Sjogren’s syndrome-like disease in C57Bl/6-lpr/lpr mice. Arthritis Rheum. 41:21752184.
13. Furrarah, A. M.,, and C. Sweet. 1994. Studies of the pathogenesis of wild-type virus and six temperature-sensitive mutants of mouse cytomegalovirus. J. Med. Virol. 43:317330.
14. Goetz, L.,, and C. Pomeroy. 1996. Impact of prophylactic ganciclovir on bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte numbers and phenotypes in murine cytomegalovirus-induced reactivation of Toxoplasma pneumonia. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 128: 384391.
15. Griffiths, M. M.,, C. B. Smith,, L. S. Wei,, and S. C. Ting-Yu. 1991. Effects of rat cytomegalovirus infection on immune functions in rats with collagen induced arthritis. J. Rheumatol. 18: 497504.
16. Hamano, S.,, H. Yoshida,, H. Takimoto,, K. Sonoda,, K. Osada,, X. He,, Y. Minamishima,, G. Kimura,, and K. Nomoto. 1998. Role of macrophages in acute murine cytomegalovirus infection. Microbiol. Immunol. 42:607616.
17. Hangai, M.,, Y. Kaneda,, H. Tanihara,, and Y. Honda. 1996. In vivo gene transfer into the retina mediated by a novel liposome system. Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37:26782685.
18. Huber, B. T.,, P. N. Hsu,, and N. Sutkowski. 1996. Virus-encoded superantigens. Microbiol. Rev. 60:473482.
19. Inkinen, K.,, A. Soots,, L. Krogerus,, C. Bruggeman,, J. Ahonen,, and I. Lautenschlager. 2002. Cytomegalovirus increases collagen synthesis in chronic rejection in the rat. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 17:772779.
20. Karupiah, G.,, T. E. Sacks,, D. M. Klinman,, T. N. Fredrickson,, J. W. Hartley,, J. H. Chen,, and H. C. Morse, III. 1998. Murine cytomegalovirus infection-induced polyclonal B cell activation is independent of CD4_ T cells and CD40. Virology 240:1226.
21. Kloover, J. S.,, A. P. Soots,, L. A. Krogerus,, H. O. Kauppinen,, R. J. Loginov,, K. L. Holma,, C. A. Bruggeman,, P. J. Ahonen,, and I. T. Lautenschlager. 2000. Rat cytomegalovirus infection in kidney allograft recipients is associated with increased expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and their ligans leukocyte function antigen-1 and very late antigen-4 in the graft. Transplantation 27:16412647.
22. Kloover, J. S.,, A. E. van den Bogaard,, J. G. van Dam,, G. E. Grauls,, C. Vink,, and C. A. Bruggeman. 2002. Persistent rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) infection of the salivary glands contribute to the anti-RCMV humoral immune response. Virus Res. 85:163172.
23. Koskinen, P.,, K. Lemstrom,, H. Bruning,, M. Daemen,, C. Bruggeman,, and P. Hayry. 1995. Cytomegalovirus infection induces vascular wall inflammation and doubles arteriosclerotic changes in rat cardiac allografts. Transplant. Proc. 27:574575.
24. Kosugi, I.,, H. Kawasaki,, Y. Arai,, and Y. Tsutsui. 2002. Innate immune responses to cytomegalovirus infection in the developing mouse brain and their evasion by virus-infected neurons. Am. J. Pathol. 161:919928.
25. Lee, S. H.,, S. Girard,, D. Macina,, M. Busa,, A. Zafer,, A. Belouchi,, P. Gros,, and S. M. Vidal. 2001. Susceptibility to mouse cytomegalovirus is associated with deletion of an activating natural killer cell receptor of the C-type lectin superfamily. Nat. Genet. 28:4245.
26. Mitchell, B. M.,, A. Leung,, and J. G. Stevens. 1996. Murine cytomegalovirus DNA in peripheral blood of latently infected mice is detectable only in monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Virology 223:198207.
27. Mori, T.,, K. Ando,, K. Tanaka,, Y. Ikeda,, and Y. Koga. 1997. Fas-mediated apoptosis of the hematopoietic progenitor cells in mice infected with murine cytomegalovirus. Blood 89: 35653573.
28.National Research Council. 1991.Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats: a Report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
29. Ninomiya, T.,, H. Takimoto,, G. Matsuzaki,, S. Hamano,, H. Yoshido,, Y. Yoshikai,, G. Kimura,, and K. Nomoto. 2000. Vγ1+ γδ T cells play protective roles at an early phase of murine cytomegalovirus infection through production of interferon-γ. Immunology 99:187194.
30. O’Donoghue, H. L.,, C. M. Lawson,, and W. D. Reed. 1990. Autoantibodies to cardiac myosin in mouse cytomegalovirus myocarditis. Immunology 71:2028.
31. Olver, S. D.,, and P. Price. 1998. Contrasting phenotypes of liver-infiltrating leucocytes isolated from MCMV-infected BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 79:3346.
32. Osborn, J. E., 1982. Cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses, p. 267292. In H. L. Foster, , H. D. Small, , and J. G. Fox (ed.), The Mouse in Biomedical Research, vol. II. Diseases. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.
33. Palmon, A.,, S. Tel-or,, E. Shai,, B. Rager- Zisman,, and Y. Burstein. 2000. Development of a highly sensitive quantitative competitive PCR assay for the detection of murine cytomegalovirus DNA. J. Virol. 86:107114.
34. Peacock, C. D.,, and P. Price. 1999. The role of IL-12 in the control of MCMV is fundamentally different in mice with a retroviral immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS). Immunol. Cell. Biol. 77:131138.
35. Pollock, J. L.,, and H. W. Virgin, IV. 1995. Latency, without persistence, of murine cytomegalovirus in the spleen and kidney. J. Virol. 69: 17621768.
36. Price, P.,, S. D. Olver,, M. Silich,, T. Z. Nador,, S. Yerkovich,, and S. G. Wilson. 1996. Adrenalitis and the adrenocortical response of resistant and susceptible mice to acute murine cytomegalovirus infection. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 26: 811819.
37. Redpath, S.,, A. Angulo,, N. R. Gascoigne,, and P. Ghazal. 1999. Murine cytomegalovirus infection down-regulates MHC class II expression on macrophages by induction of IL-10. J. Immunol. 162:67016707.
38. Ruzek, M. C.,, A. H. Miller,, S. M. Opal,, B. D. Pearce,, and C. A. Biron. 1997. Characterization of early cytokine responses and an interleukin (IL)-6-dependent pathway of endogenous glucocorticoid induction during murine cytomegalovirus infection. J. Exp. Med. 185: 11851192.
39. Shanley, J. D.,, R. S. Thrall,, and S. J. Forman. 1997. Murine cytomegalovirus replication in the lungs of athymic BALB/c nude mice. J. Infect. Dis. 175:309315.
40. Shinmura, Y.,, I. Kosugi,, M. Keneta,, and Y. Tsutsui. 1999. Migration of virus-infected neuronal cells in cerebral slice cultures of developing mouse brains after in vitro infection with murine cytomegalovirus. Acta Neuropathol 98:590596.
41. Stals, F. S.,, G. Steinhoff,, S. S. Wagenaar,, J. P. van Breda Vriesman,, A. Haverich,, P. Dormans,, F. Moeller,, and C. A. Bruggeman. 1996. Cytomegalovirus induces interstitial lung disease in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient rats independent of acute graft-versushost response. Lab. Invest. 74:343352.
42. Tay, C. H.,, and R. M. Welsh. 1997. Distinct organ-dependent mechanisms for the control of murine cytomegalovirus infection by natural killer cells. J. Virol. 71:267275.
43. Tsutsui, Y.,, A. Kashiwai,, N. Kawamura,, S. Aiba-Masago,, and I. Kosugi. 1995. Prolonged infection of mouse brain neurons with murine cytomegalovirus after pre- and perinatal infection. Arch. Virol. 140:17251736.
44. Wang, L. L.,, D. T. Chu,, A. O. Dokun,, and W. M. Yokoyama. 2000. Inducible expression of the gp49B inhibitory receptor on NK cells. J. Immunol. 164:52155220.
45. Ziegler, H.,, W. Muranyi,, H. G. Burgert,, E. Kremmer,, and U. H. Koszinowski. 2000. The luminal part of the murine cytomegalovirus glycoprotein gp40 catalyzes the retention of MHC class I molecules. EMBO J. 19:870881.
1. Born, T. L.,, L. A. Morrison,, D. J. Esteban,, T. VandenBos,, L. G Thebeau,, N. Chen,, M. K. Spriggs,, J. E. Sims,, and R. M. Buller. 2000. A poxvirus protein that binds to and inactivates IL-18, and inhibits NK cell response. J. Immunol. 164:32463254.
2. Brownstein, D. G.,, and L. Gras. 1997. Differential pathogenesis of lethal mousepox in congenic DBA/2 mice implicates natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1 in necrotizing hepatitis and the fifth component of complement in recruitment of circulating leukocytes to spleen. Am. J. Pathol. 150:14071420.
3. Chen, N.,, R. M. Buller,, E. M. Wall,, and C. Upton. 2000. Analysis of host response modifier ORF’s of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox. Virus Res. 66:155173.
4. Delano, M. L.,, and D. G. Brownstein. 1995. Innate resistance to lethal mousepox is genetically linked to the NK gene complex on chromosome 6 and correlates with early restriction of virus replication by cells with an NK phenotype. J. Virol. 69:58755877.
5. Dick, E. J., Jr.,, C. L. Kittell, , H. Meyer, , P. L. Farrar, , S. L. Ropp, , J. J. Esposito, , R. M. L. Buller, , H. Neubauer, , Y. H. Kang, , and A. E. McKee. 1996. Mousepox outbreak in a laboratory mouse colony. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46:602611.
6. Fenner, F. 1981. Mousepox (Infectious ectromelia): past, present, and future. Lab. Anim. Sci. 31:553559.
7. Karupiah, G.,, R. M. Buller,, N. Van Rooijen,, C. J. Duarte,, and J. Chen. 1996. Different roles for CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophage subsets in the control of a generalized virus infection. J. Virol. 70:83018309.
8. Karupiah, G.,, J. H. Chen,, C. F. Nathan,, S. Mahalingam,, and J. D. MacMickling. 1998. Identification of nitric oxide synthase 2 as an innate resistance locus against ectromelia virus infection. J. Virol. 72:77037706.
9. Gierynska, M.,, F. N. Toka,, I. S. Cespedes,, A. Schollenberger,, E. Malicka,, A. Popis,, and M. G. Niemialtowski. 2000. Homing studies on distribution of ectromelia (mousepox) virus-specific T cells adoptively transferred into syngeneic H-2d mice: paradigm of lymphocyte migration. Viral Immunol. 13:107123.
10. Lipman, N. S.,, S. Perkins,, H. Nguyen,, M. Pfeffer,, and H. Meyer. 2000. Mousepox resulting from use of ectromelia viruscontaminated, imported mouse serum. Comp. Med. 50:426435.
11. Mossman, K.,, C. Upton,, R. M. Buller,, and G. McFadden. 1995. Species specificity of ectromelia virus and vaccinia virus interferon-γ binding proteins. Virology 208:762769
12. Mullbacher, A.,, P. Waring,, R. Tha Hla,, T. Tran,, S. Chin,, T. Stehle,, C. Museteanu,, and M. M. Simon. 1999. Granzymes are the essential downstream effector molecules for the control of primary virus infections by cytolytic leukocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1395013955.
13.National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats: a Report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
14. Neubauer, H.,, M. Pfeffer,, and H. Meyer. 1997. Specific detection of mousepox virus by polymerase chain reaction. Lab. Anim. 31:201205.
15. Niemialtowski, M. G.,, I. Spohr de Faundez,, M. Gierynska,, E. Malicka,, F. N. Toka,, A. Schollenberger,, and A. Popis. 1994. The inflammatory and immune response to mousepox (infectious ectromelia) virus. Acta Virol. 38:299307.
16. Senkevich, T. G.,, E. V. Koonin,, and R. M. Buller. 1994. A poxvirus protein with a RING zinc finger motif is of crucial importance for virulence. Virology 198:118128.
17. Smith, V. P.,, and N. A. Alcami. 2000. Expression of secreted cytokine and chemokine inhibitors by ectromelia virus. J. Virol. 74:8460.
18. Smith, V. P.,, N. A. Bryant,, and A. Alcami. 2000. Ectromelia, vaccinia and cowpox viruses encode secreted interleukin-18-binding proteins. J. Gen. Virol. 81:12231230.
19. Toka, F. N.,, M. G. Niemialtowski,, I. Spohr de Faundez,, and M. Gierynska. 1996. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte control during ectromelia (mousepox) virus infection: interaction between MHC-restricted cells analyzed by non-radioactive fluorometry. Acta Virol. 40:239244.
1. Besselsen, D. G.,, C. L. Besch-Williford,, D. J. Pintel,, C. L. Franklin,, R. R. Hook, Jr., and L. K. Riley. 1995. Detection of H-1 parvovirus and Kilham rat virus by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:16991703.
2. Faisst, S.,, D. Guittard,, A. Benner,, J. Y. Cesbron,, J. R. Schlehofer,, J. Rommelaere,, and T. Dupressoir. 1998. Dose-dependent regression of HeLa cell-derived tumours in SCID mice after parvovirus H-1 infection. Int. J. Cancer 75: 584589.
3. Gripenberg-Lerche, C.,, and P. Toivanen. 1993. Yersinia associated arthritis in SHR rats: effect of the microbial status of the host. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 52:223228.
4. Jacoby, R. O.,, L. Ball-Goodrich,, D. G. Besselsen,, M. D. McKisic,, L. K. Riley,, and A. L. Smith. 1996. Rodent parvovirus infections. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46:370380.
5. Kraft, V.,, and B. Meyer. 1990. Seromonitoring in small laboratory animal colonies. A five year survey: 1984-1988. Z. Verstierkd. 33:2935.
6.National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats: a Report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
7. Ohshima, T.,, M. Iwama,, Y. Ueno,, F. Sugiyama,, T. Nakajima,, A. Fukamizu,, and K. Yagami. 1998. Induction of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo by H-1 parvovirus infection. J. Gen. Virol. 79:30673071.
8. Ran, Z.,, B. Rayet,, J. Rommelaere,, and S. Faisst. 1999. Parvovirus H-1-induced cell death: influence of intracellular NAD consumption on the regulation of necrosis and apoptosis. Virus Res. 65:161174.
9. Ruffolo, P. R.,, G. Margolis,, and L. Kilham. 1966. The induction of hepatitis by prior partial hepatectomy in resistant adult rats injected with H-1 virus. Light and electron microscopy and virologic studies. Am. J. Pathol. 49:795824.
10. Schuster, G. S.,, G. B. Caughman,, and N. L. O’Dell. 1991. Altered lipid metabolism in parvovirus- infected cells. Microbios 66:143155.
11. Van Pachterbeke, C.,, M. Tuynder,, A. Brandenburger,, G. Leclercq,, M. Borras,, and J. Rommelaere. 1997. Varying sensitivity of human mammary carcinoma cells to the toxic effect of parvovirus H-1. Eur. J. Cancer 33:16481653.
12. Zenner, L.,, and J. P. Regnault. 2000. Tenyear long monitoring of laboratory mouse and rat colonies in French facilities: a retrospective study. Lab. Anim. 34:7683.
1. Chung, Y. H.,, H. S. Jun,, Y. Kang,, K. Hirasawa,, B. R. Lee,, N. Van Rooijen,, and J. W. Yoon. 1997. Role of macrophages and macrophage-derived cytokines in the pathogenesis of Kilham rat virus-induced autoimmune diabetes in diabetes-resistant BioBreeding rats. J. Immunol. 159:466471.
2. Chung, Y. H.,, H. S. Jun,, M. Son,, M. Bao,, H. Y. Bae,, Y. Kang,, and J. W. Yoon. 2000. Cellular and molecular mechanism for Kilham rat virus-induced autoimmune diabetes in DR-BB rats. J. Immunol. 165:28662876.
3. Coleman, G. L.,, R. O. Jacoby,, P. N. Bhatt,, A. L. Smith,, and A. M. Jonas. 1983. Naturally occurring lethal parvovirus infection in juvenile and young adult rats. Vet. Pathol. 20:4445.
4. Gabaldon, M.,, C. Capdevila,, and A. Zuniga. 1992. Effect of spontaneous pathology and thrombin on leukocyte adhesion to rat aortic endothelium. Atherosclerosis 93:217228.
5. Gaertner, D. J.,, R. O. Jacoby,, E. A. Johnson,, F. X. Paturzo,, and A. L. Smith. 1995. Persistent rat virus infection in juvenile athymic rats and its modulation by antiserum. Lab. Anim. Sci. 45:249253.
6. Gripenberg-Lerche, C.,, and P. Toivanen. 1993. Yersinia associated arthritis in SHR rats: effect of the microbial status of the host. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 52:223228.
7. Jacoby, R. O.,, L. Ball-Goodrich,, D. G. Besselsen,, M. D. McKisic,, L. K. Riley,, and A. L. Smith. 1996. Rodent parvovirus infections. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46:370380.
8. Jacoby, R. O., National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats: a Report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
9. Nicklas, W.,, V. Kraft,, and B. Meyer. 1993. Contamination of transplantable tumors, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies with rodent viruses. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:296300.
10. Schuster, G. S.,, G. B. Caughman,, and N. L. O’Dell. 1991. Altered lipid metabolism in parvovirus-infected cells. Microbios 66:143155.
1. Anderson, G. W.,, G. A. Palmer,, R. R. Rowland,, C. Even,, and P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus entry into the central nervous system and replication in anterior horn neurons. J. Gen. Virol. 76:581592.
2. Anderson, G. W.,, R. R. Rowland,, G. A. Palmer,, C. Even,, and P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus replication persists in liver, spleen, lymph node, and testis tissues and results in accumulation of viral RNA in germinal centers, concomitant with polyclonal activation of B cells. J. Virol. 69:51775188.
3. Chen, Z.,, K. Li,, and P. G. Plagemann. 2000. Neuropathogenicity and sensitivity to antibody neutralization of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus are determined by polylactosaminoglycan chains on the primary envelope glycoprotein. Virology 266:8898.
4. Chen, Z.,, R. R. Rowland,, G. W. Anderson,, G. A. Palmer,, and P. G. Plagemann. 1997. Coexistence in lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus pools of variants that differ in neuropathogenicity and ability to establish a persistent infection. J. Virol. 71:29132920.
5. Coutelier, J. P.,, J. Van Broeck,, and S. F. Wolf. 1995. Interleukin-12 gene expression after viral infection in the mouse. J. Virol. 69:19551958.
6. Even, C.,, R. R. Rowland,, and P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Cytotoxic T cells are elicited during acute infection of mice with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus but disappear during the chronic phase of infection. J. Virol. 69: 56665676.
7. Even, C.,, R. R. Rowland,, and P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Mouse hepatitis virus infection of mice causes long-term depletion of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus-permissive macrophages and T lymphocyte alterations. Virus Res. 39:355364
8. Faaberg, K. S.,, G. A. Palmer,, C. Even,, G. W. Anderson,, and P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Differential glycosylation of the ectodomain of the primary envelope glycoprotein of two strains of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus that differ in neuropathogenicity. Virus Res. 39:331340.
9. Gomez, K. A.,, J. Coutelier,, P. A. Mathieu,, L. Lustig,, and L. A. Retegui. 2000. Autoantibodies to cryptic epitopes elicited by infection with lactate dehyrogenase-elevating virus. Scand. J. Immunol. 51:447453.
10. Gomez, K. A.,, J. P. Coutelier,, and L. A. Retegui. 1997. Changes in the specificity of antibodies in mice infected with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Scand. J. Immunol. 46:168174.
11. Goto, K.,, A. Takakura,, M. Yoshimura,, Y. Ohnishi,, and T. Itoh. 1998. Detection and typing of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus RNA from transplantable tumors, mouse liver tissues, and cell lines, using polymerase chain reaction. Lab. Anim. Sci. 48:99102.
12. Hayashi, T.,, S. Hashimoto,, and A. Kawashima. 1994. Effect of infection by lactic dehydrogenase virus on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on vascular endothelial cells of pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced insulitis of CD-1 mice. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 75:211217.
13. Hayashi, T.,, H. Iwata,, T. Hasegawa,, M. Ozaki,, H. Yamamoto,, and T. Onodera. 1991. Decrease in neutrophil migration induced by endotoxin and suppression of interleukin-1 production by macrophages in lactic dehydrogenase virus-infected mice. J. Comp. Pathol. 104: 161170.
14. Hayashi, T.,, Y. Koike,, T. Hasegawa,, M. Tsurudome,, M. Ozaki,, H. Yamamoto,, and T. Onodera. 1991. Inhibition of contact sensitivity by interferon in mice infected with lactic dehydrogenase virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 104:357366.
15. Hayashi, T.,, T. Onodera,, and H. Yamamoto. 1992. Detection of the binding of IgG2a and IgG2b on the surface of macrophages from mice chronically infected with lactic dehydrogenase virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 107:3540.
16. Hayashi, T.,, M. Ozaki,, Y. Ami,, T. Onodera,, and H. Yamamoto. 1992. Increased superoxide anion release by peritoneal macrophages in mice with a chronic infection of lactic dehydrogenase virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 106:9398.
17. Kameyama, Y.,, and T. Hayashi. 1994. Suppression of development of glomerulonephritis in NZB_NZWF1 mice by persistent infection with lactic dehydrogenase virus: relations between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on endothelial cells and leucocyte accumulation in glomeruli. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 75: 295304.
18. Lawson, C. M. 2000. Evidence for mimicry by viral antigens in animal models of autoimmune disease including myocarditis. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 57:552560.
19. Li, K.,, T. Schuler,, Z. Chen,, G. E. Glass,, J. E. Childs,, and P. G. Plagemann. 2000. Isolation of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating viruses from wild house mice and their biological and molecular characterization. Virus Res. 67:153162.
20. Lipman, N. S.,, K. Henderson,, and W. Shek. 2000. False negative results using RT-PCR for detection of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus in a tumor cell line. Comp. Med. 50:255256.
21. Markine-Goriaynoff, D.,, J. T. van der Logt,, C. Truyens,, T. D. Nguyen,, F. W. Heessen,, G. Bigaignon,, Y. Carlier,, and J. P. Coutelier. 2000. IFN-γ-independent IgG2a production in mice infected with viruses and parasites. Int. Immunol. 12:223230.
22. Meite, M.,, S. Leonard,, M. E. Idrissi,, S. Izui,, P. L. Masson,, and J. P. Coutelier. 2000. Exacerbation of autoantibody-mediated hemolytic anemia by viral infection. J. Virol. 74:60456049.
23. Monteyne, P.,, P. G. Coulie,, and J. P. Coutelier. 2000. Analysis of the Fv1 alleles involved in the susceptibility of mice to lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus-included polioencephalomyelitis. J. Neurovirol. 6:8993
24. Monteyne, P.,, M. Meite,, and J.P. Coutelier. 1997. Involvement of CD4+ cells in the protection of C58 mouse against polioencephalomyelitis induced by lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. J. Neurovirol. 3:380384.
25. Mori, I.,, T. Hayashi,, S. Kitazima,, and H. Yamamoto. 1992. Binding of asparaginase to mouse monocytes. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 73:585592.
26.National Research Council. 1991Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats: a Report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
27. Nicklas, W.,, V. Kraft,, and B. Meyer. 1993. Contamination of transplantable tumors, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies with rodent viruses. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:296300.
28. Ohnishi, Y.,, M. Yoshimura,, and Y. Ueyama. 1995. Lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDHV) contamination in human tumor xenografts and its elimination. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87: 538539.
29. Schlenker, E. H.,, Q. A. Jones,, R. R. Rowland,, M. Steffen-Bien,, and W. A. Cafruny. 2001. Age-dependent poliomyelitis in mice is associated with respiratory failure and viral replication in the central nervous system and lung. J. Neurovirol. 7:265271.
30. vandenBroek, M. F.,, R. Sporri,, C. Even,, P. G. Plagemann,, E. Hanseler,, H. Hengartner,, and R. M. Zinkernagel. 1997. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV): lifelong coexistence of virus and LDV-specific immunity. J. Immunol. 159:15851588.
31. Zitterkopf, N. L.,, T. R. Haven,, M. Huela,, D. S. Bradley,, and W. A. Cafruny. 2002. Transplacental lactate dehyrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) transmission: immune inhibition of umbilical cord infection, and correlation of fetal virus susceptibility with development of F4/80 antigen expression. Placenta 23:438446.
1. Bartholdy, C.,, J. P. Christensen,, D. Wodarz,, and A. R. Thomsen. 2000. Persistent virus infection despite chronic cytotoxic Tlymphocyte activation in gamma interferondeficient mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J. Virol. 74:1030410311.
2. Barton, L. L.,, and N. J. Hyndman. 2000. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: reemerging central nervous system pathogen. Pediatrics 105:E35.
3. Binder, D.,, J. Fehr,, H. Hengartner,, and R. M. Zinkernagel. 1997. Virus-induced transient bone marrow aplasia: major role of interferon- α/β during acute infection with the noncytopathic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J. Exp. Med. 185:517530.
4. Borrow, P.,, C. F. Evans,, and M. B. Oldstone. 1995. Virus-induced immunosuppression: immune system-mediated destruction of virusinfected dendritic cells results in generalized immune suppression. J. Virol. 69:10591070.
5. Christensen, J. P.,, J. Johansen,, O. Marker,, and A. R. Thomsen. 1995. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as an early and sensitive marker for virus-induced T cell activation. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 102:268273.
6. Ciurea, A.,, P. Klenerman,, L. Hunziker,, E. Horvath,, B. Odermatt,, A. F. Ochsenbein,, H. Hengartner,, and R. M. Zinkernagel. 1999. Persistence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus at very low levels in immune mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1196411969.
7. Colle, J. H.,, M. F. Saron,, and P. Truffa-Bachi. 1993. Altered cytokine genes expression by conA-activated spleen cells from mice infected by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Immunol. Lett. 35:247253.
8. de la Torre, J. C.,, M. Mallory,, M. Brot,, L. Gold,, G. Koob,, M. B. Oldstone,, and E. Masliah. 1996. Viral persistence in neurons alters synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions without destruction of brain cells. Virology 220:508515.
9. Dykewicz, C. A.,, V. M. Dato,, S. P. Fisher-Hoch,, M. V. Howarth,, G. I. Perez-Oronoz,, S. M. Ostroff, , H. Gary, Jr.,. L. B. Schonberger, , and J. B. McCormick. 1992. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis outbreak associated with nude mice in a research institute. JAMA 267: 13491353.
10. El Azami El Idrissi, M.,, G. Mazza,, P. Monteyne,, C. J. Elson,, M. J. Day,, C. J. Pfau,, and J. P. Coutelier. 1998. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced alterations of T helpermediated responses in mice developing autoimmune hemolytic anemia during the course of infection. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 218:349356.
11. Gold, L. H.,, M. D. Brot,, I. Polis,, R. Schroeder,, A. Tishon,, J. C. de la Torre,, M. B. Oldstone,, and G. F. Koob. 1994. Behavioral effects of persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice. Behav. Neural Biol. 62: 100109.
12. Gossmann, J.,, J. Lohler,, O. Utermohlen,. and F. Lehmann-Grube. 1995. Murine hepatitis caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. II. Cells involved in pathogenesis. Lab. Invest. 72:559570.
13. Guidotti, L. G.,, P. Borrow,, M. V. Hobbs,, B. Matzke,, I. Gresser,, M. B. Oldstone,, and F. V. Chisari. 1996. Viral cross talk: intracellular inactivation of the hepatitis B virus during an unrelated viral infection of the liver. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:45894594.
14. Kagi, D.,, and H. Hengartner. 1996. Different roles for cytotoxic T cells in the control of infections with cytopathic versus noncytopathic viruses. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 8:472477.
15. Kagi, D.,, P. Seiler,, J. Pavlovic,, B. Ledermann,, K. Burki,, R. M. Zinkernagel,, and H. Hengartner. 1995. The roles of perforin- and Fas-dependent cytotoxicity in protection against cytopathic and noncytopathic viruses. Eur. J. Immunol. 25:32563262.
16. Mazza, G.,, M. E. el Idrissi,, J. P. Coutelier,, A. Corato,, C. J. Elson,, C. J. Pfau,, and M. J. Day. 1997. Infection of C3HeB/FeJ mice with the docile strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus induces autoantibodies specific for erythrocyte Band 3. Immunology 91:239245.
17. Morita, C.,, K. Tsuchiya,, H. Ueno,, Y. Muramatsu,, A. Kojimahara,, H. Suzuki,, N. Miyashita,, K. Moriwaki,, M. L. Jin,, X. L. Wu,, and F. S. Wang. 1996. Seroepidemiological survey of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in wild house mice in China with particular reference to their subspecies. Microbiol. Immunol. 40: 313315.
18. Moskophidis, D.,, M. Battegay,, M. van den Broek,, E. Laine,, U. Hoffmann-Rohrer,, and R. M. Zinkernagel. 1995. Role of virus and host variables in virus persistence or immunopathological disease caused by a non-cytolytic virus. J. Gen. Virol. 76:381391.
19.National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats: a Report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
20. Nicklas, W.,, V. Kraft,, and B. Meyer. 1993. Contamination of transplantable tumors, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies with rodent viruses. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:296300.
21. Orange, J. S.,, and C. A. Biron. 1996. An absolute and restricted requirement for IL-12 in natural killer cell IFN-γ production and antiviral defense. Studies of natural killer and T cell responses in contrasting viral infections. J. Immunol. 156:11381142.
22. Ou, R.,, S. Zhou,, L. Huang,, and D. Moskophidis. 2001. Critical role for α/β and γ interferons in persistence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by clonal exhaustion of cytotoxic T cells. J. Virol.75:84078423.
23. Peacock, C. D.,, M. Y. Lin,, J. R. Ortaldo,, and R. M. Welsh. 2000. The virus-specific and allospecific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is modified in a subpopulation of CD8+T cells coexpressing the inhibitory major histocompatibility complex class I receptor Ly49G2. J. Virol. 74:70327038.
24. Percy, D. H.,, and S. W. Barthold. 2001. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
25. Rai, S. K.,, D. S. Cheung,, M. S. Wu,, T. F. Warner,, and M. S. Salvato. 1996. Murine infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus following gastric inoculation. J. Virol. 70:72137218.
26. Slifka, M. K.,, and R. Ahmed. 1996. Longterm antibody production is sustained by antibody- secreting cells in the bone marrow following acute viral infection. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 797:166176.
27. Spence, P. M.,, V. Sriram,, L. Van Kaer,, J. A. Hobbs,, and R. R. Brutkiewicz. 2001. Generation of cellular immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is independent of CD1d1 expression. Immunology 104:168174.
28. Sydora, B. C.,, B. D. Jamieson,, R. Ahmed,, and M. Kronenberg. 1996. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes respond to systemic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Cell. Immunol. 167:161169.
29. Varga, S. M.,, and R. M. Welsh. 2000. High frequency of virus-specific interleukin-2- producing CD4+ T cells and Th1 dominance during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. J. Virol. 74:44294432.
1. Besselsen, D. G.,, D. J. Pintel,, G. A. Purdy,, C. L. Besch-Williford,, C. L. Franklin, , R. R. Hook, Jr.,, and L. K. Riley. 1996. Molecular characterization of newly recognized rodent parvoviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 77:899911.
2. Besselsen, D. G.,, A. M. Wagner,, and J. K. Loganbill. 2000. Effect of mouse strain and age on detection of Mouse Parvovirus 1 by use of serologic testing and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Comp. Med. 50:498502.
3. Brownstein, D. G.,, A. L. Smith,, R. O. Jacoby,, E. A. Johnson,, G. Hansen,, and P. Tattersall. 1991. Pathogenesis of infection with a virulent allotropic variant of minute virus of mice and regulation by host genotype. Lab. Invest. 65:357364.
4. Colomar, M. C.,, B. Hirt,, and P. Beard. 1998. Two segments in the genome of the immunosuppressive minute virus of mice determine the host-cell specificity, control viral DNA replication and affect viral RNA metabolism. J. Gen. Virol. 79:581586.
5. Hansen, G. M.,, F. X. Paturzo,, and A. L. Smith. 1999. Humoral immunity and protection of mice challenged with homotypic or heterotypic parvovirus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 49:380384.
6. Jacoby, R. O.,, E. A. Johnson,, L. Ball-Goodrich,, A. L. Smith,, and M. D. McKisic. 1995. Characterization of mouse parvovirus infection by in situ hybridization. J. Virol. 69:39153919.
7. Kapil, S. 1995. Minute virus of mice (MVM) nucleic acid production in susceptible and resistant strains of mice and F1 hybrids. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:245252.
8.National Research Council. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats: a Report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Committee on Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
9. Nicklas, W.,, V. Kraft,, and B. Meyer. 1993. Contamination of transplantable tumors, cell lines, and monoclonal antibodies with rodent viruses. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:296300.
10. Ramirez, J. C.,, A. Fairen,, and J. M. Almendral. 1996. Parvovirus minute virus of mice strain I multiplication and pathogenesis in the newborn mouse brain are restricted to proliferative areas and to migratory cerebellar young neurons. J. Virol. 70:81098116.
11. Redig, A. J.,, and D. G. Besselsen. 2001. Detection of rodent parvoviruses by use of fluorogenic nuclease polymerase chain reaction assays. Comp. Med. 51:326331.
12. Segovia, J. C.,, J. A. Bueren,, and J. M. Almendral. 1995. Myeloid depression follows infection of susceptible newborn mice with the parvovirus minute virus of mice (strain I). J. Virol. 69:32293232.
13. Segovia, J. C.,, J. M. Gallego,, J. A. Bueren,, and J. M. Almendral. 1999. Severe leukopenia and dysregulated erythropoiesis in SCID mice persistently infected with the parvovirus minute virus of mice. J. Virol. 73:17741784.
14. Zenner, L.,, and J. P. Regnault. 2000. Tenyear long monitoring of laboratory mouse and rat colonies in French facilities: a retrospective study. Lab. Anim. 34:7683.
1. Barthold, S. W.,, D. S. Beck,, and A. L. Smith. 1993. Enterotropic coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus) in mice: influence of host age and strain on infection and disease. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:276284.
2. Barthold, S. W.,, and A. L. Smith. 1992. Viremic dissemination of mouse hepatitis virusJHM following intranasal inoculation of mice. Arch. Virol. 122:3544.
3. Belyavskyi, M.,, E. Belyavskaya,, G. A. Levy,, and J. L. Leibowitz. 1998. Coronavirus MHV-3-induced apoptosis in macrophages. Virology 250:4149.
4. Belyavskyi, M.,, G. A. Levy,, and J. L. Leibowitz. 1998. The pattern of induction of apoptosis during infection with MHV-3 correlates with strain variation in resistance and susceptibility to lethal hepatitis. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 440: 619625.
5. Besselsen, D. G.,, A. M. Wagner,, and J. K. Loganbill. 2002. Detection of rodent coronaviruses by sue of fluorogenic reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction analysis. Comp. Med. 52:111116.
6. Braunwald, J.,, H. Nonnenmacher,, C. A. Pereira,, and A. Kirn. 1991. Increased susceptibility to mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3) infection induced by a hypercholesterolaemic diet with increased adsorption of MHV3 to primary hepatocyte cultures. Res. Virol. 142:515.
7. Casebolt, D. B.,, B. Qian,, and C. B. Stephensen. 1997. Detection of enterotropic mouse hepatitis virus fecal excretion by polymerase chain reaction. Lab. Anim. Sci. 47:610.
8. Chen, B. P.,, and T. E. Lane. 2002. Lack of nitric oxide synthase type 2 (NOS2) results in reduced neuronal apoptosis and mortality following mouse hepatitis virus infection of the central nervous system. J. Neurovirol. 8:5863.
9. Cray, C.,, M. O. Mateo,, and N. H. Altman. 1993. In vitro and long-term in vivo immune dysfunction after infection of BALB/c mice with mouse hepatitis virus strain A59. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:169174.
10. de Souza, M. S.,, A. L. Smith,, and K. Bottomly. 1991. Infection of BALB/cByJ mice with the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus alters in vitro splenic T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Lab. Anim. Sci. 41:99105.
11. Ding, J. W.,, Q. Ning,, M. F. Liu,, A. Lai,, K. Peltekian,, L. Fung,, C. Holloway,, H. Yeger,, M. J. Phillips,, and G. A. Levy. 1998. Expression of the fg12 and its protein product (prothrombinasse) in tissues during murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3) infection. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 440:609618.
12. Dufour, J. H.,, M. Dziejman,, M. T. Liu,, J. H. Leung,, T. E. Lane,, and A. D. Luster. 2002. IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10; CXCL10)-deficient mice reveal a role for IP-10 in effector T cell generation and trafficking. J. Immunol. 168:31953204.
13. Even, C.,, R. R. Rowland,, and P. G. Plagemann. 1995. Mouse hepatitis virus infection of mice causes long-term depletion of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus-permissive macrophages and T lymphocyte alterations. Virus Res. 39:355364.
14. Fallon, M. T., , W. H. Benjamin, Jr.,, T. R. Schoeb, , and D. E. Briles. 1991. Mouse hepatitis virus strain UAB infection enhances resistance to Salmonella typhimurium in mice by inducing suppression of bacterial growth. Infect. Immun. 59:852856.
15. Gagne, S.,, L. Thibodeau,, and L. Lamontagne. 1998. Clonal deletion of some V betaβ T cells in peripheral lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice infected with MHV3. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 440:485489.
16. Godfraind, C.,, K. V. Holmes,, and J. P. Coutelier. 1995. Thymus involution induced by mouse hepatitis virus A59 in BALB/c mice. J. Virol. 69:65416547.
17. Godfraind, C.,, S. G. Langreth,, C. B. Cardellichio,, R. Knobler,, J. P. Coutelier,, M. Dubois-Dalcq,, and K. V. Holmes. 1995. Tissue and cellular distribution of an adhesion molecule in the carcinoembryonic antigen family that serves as a receptor for mouse hepatitis virus. Lab. Invest. 73:615627.
18. Glass, W. G.,, B. P. Chen,, M. T. Liu,, and T. E. Lane. 2002. Mouse hepatitis virus infection of the central nervous system: chemokinemediated regulation of host defense and disease. Virol. Immunol. 15:261272.
19. Homberger, F. R. 1997. Enterotropic mouse hepatitis virus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 31:97115.
20. Homberger, F. R.,, and S. W. Barthold. 1992. Passively acquired challenge immunity to enterotropic coronavirus in mice. Arch. Virol. 126:3543.
21. Homberger, F. R.,, S. W. Barthold,, and A. L. Smith. 1992. Duration and strainspecificity of immunity to enterotropic mouse hepatitis virus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 42:347351.
22. Homberger, F. R.,, and P. E. Thomann. 1994. Transmission of murine viruses and mycoplasma in laboratory mouse colonies with respect to housing conditions. Lab. Anim. 28:113120.
23. Hooks, J. J.,, C. Percopo,, Y. Wang,, and B. Detrick. 1993. Retina and retinal pigment epithelial cell autoantibodies are produced during murine coronavirus retinopathy. J. Immunol. 151: 33813389.
24. Huang, D. S.,, S. N. Emancipator,, D. R. Fletcher,, M. E. Lamm,, and M. B. Mazanec. 1996. Hepatic pathology resulting from mouse hepatitis virus S infection in severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46:167173.
25. Jolicoeur, P.,, and L. Lamontagne. 1995. Impairment of bone marrow pre-B and B cells in MHV3 chronically-infected mice. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 380:193195.
26. Komurasaki, Y.,, C. N. Nagineni,, Y. Wang,, and J. J. Hooks. 1996. Virus RNA persists within the retina in coronavirus-induced retinopathy. Virology 222:446450.
27. Kyuwa, S. 1997. Replication of murine coronaviruses in mouse embryonic stem cell lines. Exp. Anim. 46:311313.
28. Kyuwa, S.,, K. Machii,, A. Okumura,, and Y. Toyoda. 1996. Characterization of T cells expanded in vivo during primary mouse hepatitis virus infection in mice. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 58:431437.
29. Kyuwa, S.,, K. Machii,, and S. Shibata. 1996. Role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mouse hepatitis virus infection in mice. Exp. Anim. 45:8183.
30. Lamontagne, L.,, S. Lusignan,, and C. Page. 2001. Recovery from mouse hepatitis virus infection depends on recruitment of CD8_ cells rather than activation of intrahepatic CD4+αβTCRinter or NKT cells. Clin. Immunol. 101:345356.
31. Lardans, V.,, C. Godfraind,, J. T. van der Logt,, W. A. Heessen,, M. D. Gonzalez,, and J. P. Coutelier. 1996. Polyclonal B lymphocyte activation induced by mouse hepatitis virus A59 infection. J. Gen. Virol. 77:10051009.
32. Lavi, E.,, Q. Wang,, S. R. Weiss,, and N. K. Gonatas. 1996. Syncytia formation induced by coronavirus infection is associated with fragmentation and rearrangement of the Golgi apparatus. Virology 221:325334.
33. Lee, S. K.,, H. Y. Youn,, A. Hasegawa,, H. Nakayama,, and N. Goto. 1994. Apoptotic changes in the thymus of mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus, MHV-2. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 56:879882.
34. Liang, S.-C.,, W.-C. Lian,, F.-J. Leu,, P.-J. Lee,, A.-J. Chao,, C.-C. Hong,, and </