Chapter 5 : Pathogens of Guinea Pigs

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Pathogens of Guinea Pigs, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817824/9781555812669_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817824/9781555812669_Chap05-2.gif


Biomedical uses of guinea pigs have included studies of gnotobiology, nutrition, toxicology, complement biology, pulmonary physiology, opportunistic AIDS infections, and auditory research. Guinea pigs are susceptible to a wide range of pathogens. Despite tremendous improvements in laboratory animal husbandry, a significant number of guinea pigs used in research continue to harbor natural pathogens capable of altering research findings. A more complete discussion of the biology of the cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) is presented. One report described clinical disease in two guinea pigs, one of which died, presumably of natural Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) infection, although other causes of death were not entirely ruled out. Clinical signs of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in guinea pigs are uncommon. most commonly presents as ocular or genital infections. When evident, clinical signs may therefore include mild chemosis (edema in the conjunctiva), conjunctivitis, and ocular discharge; vaginitis; urethritis; and cystitis. Natural infections of laboratory rats and mice with have been shown to alter a variety of physiologic functions. These findings should be extrapolated to the guinea pig with caution. Guinea pigs are host to , an opportunistic protozoon parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. Clinical disease is more common in young guinea pigs and may be potentiated by infection. Clinical signs may include diarrhea, weight loss, emaciation, and death. is an Apicomplexan parasite capable of causing disease in guinea pigs. Prevention is through obtaining -free guinea pigs, and adherence to strict husbandry standards.

Citation: Baker D. 2003. Pathogens of Guinea Pigs, p 129-146. In Natural Pathogens of Laboratory Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817824.ch5
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Arkonac, B.,, K. A. Mauch,, S. Chou,, and J. D. Hosenpud. 1997. Low multiplicity of cytomegalovirus infection of human aortic smooth muscle cells increases levels of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens and induces a proinflammatory cytokine milieu in the absence of cytopathology. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 16:10351045.
2. Booss, J.,, and J. H. Kim. 1989. Cytomegalovirus encephalitis: neuropathological comparison of the guinea pig model with the opportunistic infection in AIDS. Yale J. Biol. Med. 62:187195.
3. Bratcher, D. F.,, N. Bourne,, F. J. Bravo,, M. R. Schleiss,, M. Slaoui,, M. G. Myers,, and D. I. Berstein. 1995. Effect of passive antibody on congenital cytomegalovirus infection in guinea pigs. J. Infect. Dis. 172:944950.
4. Bu, F. R.,, and B. P. Griffith. 1990. Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to cytomegalovirus in non-pregnant and pregnant guinea pigs. Arch. Virol. 110:247254.
5. Cinatl, J., Jr.,, R. Kotchetkov, , M. Scholz, , J. Cinatl, , J. U. Vogel, , P. H. Driever, , and H. W. Doerr. 1999. Human cytomegalovirus infection decreases expression of thrombospondin-1 independent of the tumor suppressor protein 53. Am. J. Pathol. 155:285292.
6. Cook, J. E. 1958. Salivary-gland virus disease of guinea pigs. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 20:905909.
7. Davis, L. E. 1993. Viruses and vestibular neuritis: review of human and animal studies. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. 503:7073.
8. Fong, C. K.,, F. Bia,, and G. D. Hsiung. 1980. Ultrastructural development and persistence of guinea pig cytomegalovirus in duct cells of guinea pig submaxillary gland. Arch. Virol. 64:97108.
9. Geist, L. J.,, and L. Y. Dai. 2000. Immediate early gene 2 of human cytomegalovirus increases interleukin 2 receptor-alpha gene expression. J. Investig. Med. 48:6065.
10. Griffith, B. P.,, M. Chen,, and H. C. Isom. 1990. Role of primary and secondary maternal viremia in transplacental guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection. J. Virol. 64:19911997.
11. Griffith, B. P.,, and G. D. Hsiung. 1980. Cytomegalovirus infection in guinea pigs. IV. Maternal infection at different stages of gestation. J. Infect. Dis. 141:787793.
12. Griffith, B. P.,, H. C. Isom,, and J. T. Lavallee. 1990. Cellular localization of cytomegalovirus nucleic acids in guinea pig salivary glands by in situ hybridization. J. Virol. Methods 27:145157.
13. Harrison, C. J.,, and R. Burger. 1991. Low maternal CD4 count at inception of gestational cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and impaired humoral response: effect on congenital CMV infection in the guinea pig. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 60:171180.
14. Harrison, C. J.,, and N. Caruso. 2000. Correlation of maternal and pup NK-like activity and TNF responses against cytomegalovirus to pregnancy outcome in inbred guinea pigs. J. Med. Virol. 60:230236.
15. Harrison, C. J.,, and M. G. Myers. 1989. Maternal cell-mediated cytolysis of CMV-infected fetal cells and the outcome of pregnancy in the guinea pig. J. Med. Virol. 27:6671.
16. Harrison, C. J.,, and M. G. Myers. 1990. Relation of maternal CMV viremia and antibody response to the rate of congenital infection and intrauterine growth retardation. J. Med. Virol. 31: 222228.
17. Holberg-Petersen, M.,, H. Rollag,, S. Beck,, and M. Degre. 1997. The effect of human cytomegalovirus on selected functions of peripheral blood monocytes. APMIS 105:8998.
18. Johnson, K. P.,, and W. S. Connor. 1976. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus: transplacental transmission. Brief report. Arch. Virol. 59:263267.
19. Kacica, M. A.,, C. J. Harrison,, M. G. Myers,, and D. I. Bernstein. 1990. Immune response to guinea pig cytomegalovirus polypeptides and cross reactivity with human cytomegalovirus. J. Med. Virol. 32:155159.
20. Miller, D. M.,, Y. Zhang,, B. M. Rahill,, K. Kazor,, S. Rofagha,, J. J. Eckel,, and D. D. Sedmak. 2000. Human cytomegalovirus blocks interferon-gamma stimulated up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I expression and the class I antigen processing machinery. Transplantation 69:687690.
21. Motzel, S. L.,, and J. E. Wagner. 1989. Diagnostic Exercise: Fetal death in guinea pigs. Lab. Anim. Sci. 39:342344.
22. Penfold, M. E.,, D. J. Dairaghi,, G. M. Duke,, N. Saederup,, E. S. Mocarski,, G. W. Kemble,, and T. J. Schall. 1999. Cytomegalovirus encodes a potent alpha chemokine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:98399844.
23. Piazze, J.,, G. Nigro,, M. Mazzocco,, E. Marchiani,, V. Brancato,, M. M. Anceschi,, and E. V. Cosmi. 1999. The effect of primary cytomegalovirus infection on fetal lung maturity indices. Early Hum. Dev. 54:137144.
24. Sindre, H.,, H. Rollag,, M. Degre,, and K. Hestadal. 2000. Human cytomegalovirus induced inhibition of hematopoietic cell line growth is initiated by events taking place before translation of viral gene products. Arch. Virol. 145:99111.
25. Strauss, M.,, and B. P. Griffith. 1991. Guinea pig model of transplacental congenital cytomegaloviral infection with analysis of labyrinthitis. Am. J. Otol. 12:97100.
26. Van Hoosier, G. L., Jr.,, W. E. Giddens, Jr., , C. S. Gillett, , and H. Davis. 1985. Disseminated cytomegalovirus disease in the guinea pig. Lab. Anim. Sci. 35:8184.
27. Van Hoosier, G. L., Jr.,, and L. R. Robinette,. 1976. Viral and chlamydial diseases, p. 137152. In J. E. Wagner, and P. J. Manning (ed.), The Biology of the Guinea Pig. Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y.
28. Yourtee, E. L.,, F. J. Bia,, B. P. Griffith,, and R. K. Root. 1982. Neutrophil response and function during acute cytomegalovirus infection in guinea pigs. Infect. Immun. 36:1116.
29. Zheng, Z. M.,, J. T. Lavallee,, F. J. Bia,, and B. P. Griffith. 1987. Thymic hypoplasia, splenomegaly and immune depression in guinea pigs with neonatal cytomegalovirus infection. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 11:407418.
1. Djavani, M.,, I. S. Lukashevich,, and M. S. Salvato. 1998. Sequence comparison of the large genomic RNA segments of two strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus differing in pathogenic potential for guinea pigs. Virus Genes 17: 151155.
2. Kraft, V.,, and B. Meyer. 1990. Seromonitoring in small laboratory animal colonies. A five year survey: 1984-1988. Z. Verstierkd. 33:2935.
3. Martinez-Paralta, L. A.,, M. Laguens,, C. Ponzinibbio,, and R. P. Laguens. 1990. Infection of guinea pigs with two strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Medicina 50:225229.
4. Riviere, Y.,, R. Ahmed,, P. J. Southern,, M. J. Buchmeier,, and M. B. Oldstone. 1985. Genetic mapping of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus pathogenicity: virulence in guinea pigs is associated with the L RNA segment. J. Virol. 55: 704709.
5. Sato, H.,, and H. Miyata. 1986. Detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus antibody in colonies of laboratory animals in Japan. Jikken Dobutsu 35:189192.
6. Van Hoosier, G. L., Jr.,, and L. R. Robinette,. 1976. Viral and chlamydial diseases, p. 137152. In J. E. Wagner, and P. J. Manning (ed.), The Biology of the Guinea Pig. Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y.
7. Webster, J. M.,, and B. E. Kirk. 1974. Neutralizing antibody response of guinea pigs to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Infect. Immun. 10: 516519.
1. Bemis, D. A.,, H. A. Greisen,, and M. J. Appel. 1977. Bacteriological variation among Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates from dogs and other species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:471480.
2. Binns, S. H.,, A. J. Speakman,, S. Dawson,, M. Bennett,, R. M. Gaskell,, and C. A. Hart. 1998. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to examine the epidemiology of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolated from cats and other species. Epidemiol. Infect. 120:201208.
3. Boot, R.,, and H. C. Walvoort. 1986. Otitis media in guinea pigs: pathology and bacteriology. Lab. Anim. 20:242248.
4. Burns, E. H., Jr.,, J. M. Norman, , M. D. Hatcher, , and D. A. Bemis. 1993 . Fimbriae and determination of host species specificity of Bordetella bronchiseptica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:18381844.
5. Cotter, P. A.,, M. H. Yuk,, S. Mattoo,, B. J. Akerley,, J. Boschwitz,, D. A. Relman,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for efficient establishment of tracheal colonization. Infect. Immun. 66:59215929.
6. Endoh, M.,, M. Amitani,, and Y. Nakase. 1986. Effect of purified heat-labile toxin of Bordetella bronchiseptica on the peripheral blood vessels in guinea pigs or suckling mice. Microbiol. Immunol. 30:13271330.
7. Forde, C. B.,, X. Shi,, J. Li,, and M. Roberts. 1999. Bordetella bronchiseptica-mediated cytotoxicity to macrophages is dependent on bvgregulated factors, including pertactin. Infect. Immun. 67:59725978.
8. Gawin, A. Z.,, M. Kaliner,, and J. N. Baraniuk. 1998. Enhancement of histamine-induced permeability to guinea pigs infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Am. J. Rhinol. 12:143147.
9. Hozbor, D.,, F. Fouque,, and N. Guiso. 1999. Detection of Bordetella bronchiseptica by the polymerase chain reaction. Res. Microbiol. 150: 333341.
10. Matherne, C. M.,, E. K. Steffen,, and J. E. Wagner. 1987. Efficacy of commercial vaccines for protecting guinea pigs against Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia. Lab. Anim. Sci. 37:191194.
11. Mattoo, S.,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 2000. Role of Bordetella bronchiseptica fimbriae in tracheal colonization and development of a humoral immune response. Infect. Immun. 68:20242033.
12. Nakagawa, M.,, M. Saito,, E. Suzuki,, K. Nakayama,, J. Matsubara,, and K. Matsuno. 1986. A survey of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Salmonella spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica and Sendai virus in guinea pig colonies in Japan. Jikken Dobutsu 35:517520.
13. Nakai, T.,, A. Sawata,, and K. Kume. 1985. Intracellular locations of dermonecrotizing toxins in Pasteurella multocida and in Bordetella bronchiseptica. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46:870874.
14. Ohnishi, T.,, Y. Horiguchi,, M. Masuda,, N. Sugimoto,, and M. Matsuda. 1998. Pasteurella multocida toxin and Bordetella bronchiseptica dermonecrotizing toxin elicit similar effects on cultured cells by different mechanisms. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60:301305.
15. Percy, D. H.,, and S. W. Barthold. 2001. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
16. Register, K. B.,, A. Boisvert,, and M. R. Ackermann. 1997. Use of ribotyping to distinguish Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:678683.
17. Stephenson, E. J.,, C. J. Trahan,, J. W. Ezzell,, W. C. Mitchell,, T. G. Abshire,, D. D. Oland,, and G. O. Neson. 1989. Efficacy of a commercial bacterin in protecting strain 13 guinea pigs against Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia. Lab. Anim. 23:261269.
18. Trahan, C. J.,, E. H. Stephenson,, J. W. Ezzell,, and W. C. Mitchell. 1987. Airborneinduced experimental Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in strain 13 guinea pigs. Lab. Anim. 21:226232.
19. Wagner, J. E.,, D. R. Owens,, D. F. Kusewitt,, and E. A. Corley. 1976. Otitis media of guinea pigs. Lab. Anim. Sci. 26:902907.
20. Wullenweber, M.,, and R. Boot. 1994. Interlaboratory comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) for detection of Bordetella bronchiseptica antibodies in guinea pigs. Lab. Anim. 28:335339.
21. Yuk, M. H.,, E. T. Harvill,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 2000. Modulation of host immune responses, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by the Bordetella type III secretion system. Mol. Microbiol. 35:9911004.
1. Batteiger, B. E.,, and R. G. Rank. 1987. Analysis of the humoral immune response to chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs. Infect. Immun. 55:17671773.
2. Biberstein, E. L.,, and D. C. Hirsh,. 1999. Chlamydiae, p. 173177. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
3. Darville, T.,, K. K. Laffoon,, L. R. Kishen,, and R. G. Rank. 1995. Tumor necrosis factor alpha activity in genital tract secretions of guinea pigs infected with chlamydiae. Infect. Immun. 63: 46754681.
4. Deeb, B. J.,, R. F. DiGiacomo,, and S. P. Wang. 1989. Guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) in a commercial colony. Lab. Anim. 23: 103106.
5. Everett, K. D.,, and A. A. Andersen. 1997. The ribosomal intergenic spacer and domain I of the 23S rRNA gene are phylogenetic markers for Chlamydia spp. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:461473.
6. Forsey, T.,, and S. Darougar. 1981. Transmission of chlamydiae by the housefly. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 65:147150.
7. Howie, A.,, H. A. Leaver,, I. D. Aitken,, L. A. Hay,, I. E. Anderson,, G. E. Williams,, and G. Jones. 1989. The effect of chlamydial infection on the initiation of premature labour: serial measurements of intrauterine prostaglandin E2 in amniotic fluid, allantoic fluid and utero-ovarian vein, using catheterised sheep experimentally infected with an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 37:203311.
8. Kuroda-Kitagawa, Y.,, C. Suzuki- Muramatsu,, T. Yamaguchi,, H. Fukushi,, and K. Hirai. 1993. Antigenic analysis of Chlamydia pecorum and mammalian Chlamydia psittaci by use of monoclonal antibodies to the major outer membrane protein and a 56- to 64-kd protein. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54:709712.
9. Lammert, J. K.,, and P. B. Wyrick. 1982. Modulation of the host immune response as a result of Chlamydia psittaci infection. Infect. Immun. 35:537545.
10. Ojcius, D. M.,, P. Souque,, J. L. Perfettini,, and A. Dautry-Varsat. 1999. Apoptosis of epithelial cells and macrophages due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia psittaci. J. Immunol. 161:42204226.
11. Perez-Martinez, J. A.,, and J. Storz. 1985. Antigenic diversity of Chlamydia psittaci of mammalian origin determined by microimmunofluorescence. Infect. Immun. 50:905910.
12. Prain, C. J.,, and J. H. Pearce. 1989. Ultrastructural studies on the intracellular fate of Chlamydia psittaci (strain guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis) and Chlamydia trachomatis (strain lymphogranuloma venereum 434): modulation of intracellular events and relationship with endocytic mechanism. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:21072123.
13. Pudjiatmoko, F. H.,, Y. Ochiai,, T. Yamaguchi,, and K. Hirai. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Chlamydia based on 16S rRNA gene expression. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:425431.
14. Rank, R. G.,, H. J. White,, and A. L. Barron. 1979. Humoral immunity in the resolution of genital infection in female guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Infect. Immun. 26:573579.
15. Rank, R. G.,, H. J. White, , A. J. Hough, Jr.,, J. N. Pasley, , and A. L. Barron. 1982. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs. Infect. Immun. 38:699705.
16. Rank, R. G.,, H. J. White,, B. L. Soloff,, and A. L. Barron. 1981. Cystitis associated with chlamydial infection of the genital tract in male guinea pigs. Sex. Transm. Dis. 8:203210.
17. Register, K. B.,, P. A. Morgan,, and P. B. Wyrick. 1986. Interaction between Chlamydia spp. and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro. Infect. Immun. 52:664670.
18. Rothermel, C. D.,, B. Y. Rubin,, and H. W. Murray. 1983. Gamma-interferon is the factor in lymphokine that activates human macrophages to inhibit intracellular Chlamydia psittaci replication. J. Immunol. 131:25422544.
19. Senyk, G.,, R. Kerlan,, D. P. Stites,, D. J. Schanzlin,, H. B. Ostler,, L. Hanna,, H. Keshishyan,, and E. Jawetz. 1981. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Infect. Immun. 32:304310.
20. Soloff, B. L.,, R. G. Rank,, and A. L. Barron. 1985. Electron microscopic observations concerning the in vivo uptake and release of the agent of guinea-pig inclusion conjunctivitis (Chlamydia psittaci) in guinea-pig exocervix. J. Comp. Pathol. 95:335344.
21. Treharne, J. D.,, and A. Shallal. 1991. The antigenic specificity of the humoral immune responses to primary and repeated ocular infections of the guinea pig with the GPIC agent (Chlamydia psittaci). Eye 5:299305.
22. Van Hoosier, G. L., Jr.,, and L. R. Robinette,. 1976. Viral and chlamydial diseases, p. 137152. In J. E. Wagner, and P. J. Manning (ed.) , The Biology of the Guinea Pig. Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y.
23. Watkins, N. G.,, W. J. Hadlow,, A. B. Moos,, and H. D. Caldwell. 1986. Ocular delayed hypersensitivity: a pathogenetic mechanism of chlamydial- conjunctivitis in guinea pigs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:74807484.
24. Westbay, T. D.,, C. C. Dascher,, R. C. Hsia,, M. Zauderer,, and P. M. Bavoil. 1995. Deviation of immune response to Chlamydia psittaci outer membrane protein in lipopolysaccharidehyporesponsive mice. Infect. Immun. 63:13911393.
25. White, H. J.,, R. G. Rank,, B. L. Soloff,, and A. L. Barron. 1979. Experimental chlamydial salpingitis in immunosuppressed guinea pigs infected in the genital tract with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Infect. Immun. 26: 728735.
1. Barry, B.,, M. Muttat-Joly,, P. Gehanno,, and J. J. Pocidalo. 1993. Physiopathological and therapeutic values of experimental model of acute otitis media. Ann. Otolaryngol. Chir. Cervicofac. 110:326331.
2. Blank, A. L.,, G. L. Davis,, T. R. VanDe- Water,, and R. J. Ruben. 1994. Acute Streptococcus pneumoniae meningogenic labyrinthitis. An experimental guinea pig model and literature review. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 120: 13421346.
3. Comis, S. D.,, M. P. Osborne,, J. Stephen,, M. J. Tarlow,, T. L. Hayward,, T. J. Mitchell,, P. W. Andrew,, and G. J. Boulnois. 1993. Cytotoxic effects on hair cells of guinea pig cochlea produced by pneumolysin, the thiol activated toxin of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acta Otolaryngol. 113:152159.
4. Cook, R. D.,, D. S. Postma,, G. M. Brinson,, J. Prazma,, and H. C. Pillsbury. 1999. Cytotoxic changes in hair cells secondary to pneumococcal middle-ear infection. J. Otolaryngol. 28: 325331.
5. Coonrod, J. D.,, R. Varble,, and M. C. Jarrells. 1990. Species variation in the mechanism of killing of inhaled pneumococci. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 116:354362.
6. Gerardoa, S. H.,, D. M. Citron,, and E. J. Goldstein. 2000. PCR fingerprinting analysis for differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae reinfection versus relapse. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 36:275278.
7. Hori, R.,, H. Araki,, M. Yonezawa,, S. Minami,, and Y. Watanabe. 2000. Therapeutic effects of parenteral beta-lactam antibiotics on experimental otitis media caused by penicillinresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in guinea-pigs. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45:311314.
8. Hummell, D. S.,, R. W. Berninger,, A. Tomasz,, and J. A. Winkelstein. 1981. The fixation of C3b to pneumococcal cell wall polymers as a result of activation of the alternative complement pathway. J. Immunol. 127:12871289.
9. Kaneda, N.,, H. Kawauchi,, and G. Mogi. 1991. Role of phagocytes in antimicrobial defense of the middle ear. Auris Nasus Larynx 18: 331342.
10. Keyhani, M.,, and R. Naghshineh. 1974. Spontaneous epizootic of pneumococcus infection in guinea-pigs. Lab. Anim. 8:4749.
11. Kohn, D. F. 1974. Bacterial otitis media in the guinea pig. Lab. Anim. Sci. 24:823825.
12. Mason, E. O., Jr.,, L. B. Lamberth, , N. L. Kershaw, , B. L. Prosser, , A. Zoe, , and P. G. Ambrose. 2000. Streptococcus pneumoniae in the USA: in vitro susceptibility and pharmacodynamic analysis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45:623631.
13. Matsubara, J.,, T. Kamiyama,, T. Miyoshi,, H. Ueda,, M. Saito,, and M. Nakagawa. 1988. Serodiagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in guinea pigs by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lab. Anim. 22:304308.
14. Nakagawa, M.,, M. Saito,, E. Suzuki,, K. Nakayama,, J. Matsubara,, and K. Matsuno. 1986. A survey of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Salmonella spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica and Sendai virus in guinea pig colonies in Japan. Jikken Dobutsu 35:517520.
15. Parker, G. A.,, R. J. Russel,, and A. Paoli. 1977. Extrapulmonary lesions of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in guinea pigs. Vet. Pathol. 14:332337.
16. Percy, D. H.,, and S. W. Barthold. 2001. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
17. Saito, M.,, T. Muto,, S. Haruzono,, M. Nakagawa,, and M. Sato. 1983. An epizootic of pneumococcal infection occurred in inbred guinea pig colonies. Jikken Dobutsu 32:2937.
18. Saito, M.,, K. Nakayama,, J. Matsubara,, K. Matsuno,, and M. Nakagawa. 1988. Enhanced multiplication and transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in guinea pigs by Sendai virus infection. Jikken Dobutsu 37:5965.
19. Schreurs, A. J.,, J. Verhoef,, and F. P. Nijkamp. 1983. Bacterial cell wall components decrease the number of guinea-pig lung betaadrenoceptors. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 87:127132.
20. Szalai, A. J.,, D. E. Briles,, and J. E. Volanakis. 1995. Human C-reactive protein is protective against fatal Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in transgenic mice. J. Immunol. 155:25572563.
21. Szalai, A. J.,, D. E. Briles,, and J. E. Volanakis. 1996. Role of complement in C-reactiveprotein- mediated protection of mice from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 64:48504853.
22. Takashima, K.,, K. Tateda,, T. Matsumoto,, Y. Iizawa,, M. Nakao,, and K. Yamaguchi. 1997. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia in mice. Infect. Immun. 65:257260.
23. Takoudes, T. G., , and J. Haddad, Jr. 2001. Free radical production by antibiotic-killed bacteria in the guinea pig middle ear. Laryngoscope 111:283289.
24. Tino, M. J.,, and J. R. Wright. 1996. Surfactant protein A stimulates phagocytosis of specific pulmonary pathogens by alveolar macrophages. Am. J. Physiol. 270:L677L688.
25. VanderPoll, T.,, A. Marchant,, C. V. Keogh,, M. Goldman,, and S. F. Lowry. 1996. Interleukin-10 impairs host defense in murine pneumococcal pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 9941000.
26. Vinnik, A. L.,, and S. I. Elkina. 1984. Cross infection of guinea pigs with different pneumococcal serotypes in the presence of the carrier state. Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. 2:3236.
27. Winter, A. J.,, S. D. Comis,, M. P. Osborne,, T. L. Hayward,, J. Stephen,, and M. J. Tarlow. 1998. Ototoxicity resulting from intracochlear perfusion of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the guinea pig is modified by cefotaxime or amoxycillin pretreatment. J. Infect. 36:7377.
28. Winter, A. J.,, S. D. Comis,, M. P. Osborne,, M. J. Tarlow,, J. Stephen,, P. W. Andrew,, J. Hill,, and T. J. Mitchell. 1997. A role for pneumolysin but not neuraminidase in the hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by experimental pneumococcal meningitis in guinea pigs. Infect. Immun. 65:44114418.
29. Witt, W. M.,, G. B. Hubbard,, and J. W. Fanton. 1988. Streptococcus pneumoniae arthritis and osteomyelitis with Vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs. Lab. Anim. Sci. 38:192194.
30. Zhao, G.,, T. I. Meier,, J. Hoskins,, and K. A. McAllister. 2000. Identification and characterization of the Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its possible role in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:17451748.
1. Boot, R.,, and H. C. Walvoort. 1986. Otitis media in guinea pigs: pathology and bacteriology. Lab. Anim. 20:242248.
2. Chaussee, M. S.,, R. L. Cole,, and J. P. van Putten. 2000. Streptococcal erythrogenic toxin B abrogates fibronectin-dependent internalization of Streptococcus pyogenes by cultured mammalian cells. Infect. Immun. 68:32263232.
3. Ito, M.,, T. Nishihara,, T. Magaribuchi,, and K. Koshimizu. 1978. Three cases of hemolytic Streptococcus infection in guinea-pigs. Jikken Dobutsu 27:177181.
4. Murphy, J. C.,, J. I. Ackerman,, R. P. Marini,, and J. G. Fox. 1991. Cervical lymphadenitis in guinea pigs: infection via intact ocular and nasal mucosa by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 41:251254.
5. Nakagawa, M.,, M. Saito,, E. Suzuki,, K. Nakayama,, J. Matsubara,, and K. Matsuno. 1986. A survey of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Salmonella spp., Bordetella bronchiseptica and Sendai virus in guinea pig colonies in Japan. Jikken Dobutsu 35:517520.
6. Percy, D. H.,, and S. W. Barthold. 2001. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
7. Rideout, M. I.,, S. J. Burns,, and R. B. Simpson. 1982. Influence of bacterial products on the motility of stallion spermatozoa. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 32:3540.
8. Wibawan, I. W.,, F. H. Pasaribu,, I. H. Utama,, A. Abdulmawjood,, and C. Lammler. 1999. The role of hyaluronic acid capsular material of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus inmediating adherence to HeLa cells and in resisting phagocytosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 67:131135.
1. Argenzio, R. A.,, M. Armstrong,, and J. M. Rhoads. 1996. Role of the enteric nervous system in piglet cryptosporidiosis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 279:11091115.
2. Beier, T. V.,, N. V. Sidorenko,, and N. V. Svezhova. 1995. Cellular interactions in the intracellular parasitism of cryptosporidia. I. The effect of Cryptosporidium parvum on the phosphatase activity in the small intestine of experimentally infected newborn rat pups. Tsitologiia 37:829837.
3. Chai, J. Y.,, S. M. Guk,, H. K. Han,, and C. K. Yun. 1999. Role of intraepithelial lymphocytes in mucosal immune responses of mice experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. J. Parasitol. 85:234239.
4. Checkley, W.,, L. D. Epstein,, R. H. Gilman,, R. E. Black,, L. Cabrera,, and C. R. Sterling. 1998. Effects of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in Peruvian children: growth faltering and subsequent catch-up growth. Am. J. Epidemiol. 148: 497506.
5. Checkley, W.,, R. H. Gilman,, L. D. Epstein,, M. Suarez,, J. F. Diaz,, L. Cabrera,, R. E. Black,, and C. R. Sterling. 1997. Asymptomatic and symptomatic cryptosporidiosis: their acute effect on weight gain in Peruvian children. Am. J. Epidemiol. 145:156163.
6. Chen, X. M.,, G. J. Gores,, C. V. Paya,, and N. F. LaRusso. 1999. Cryptosporidium parvum induces apoptosis in biliary epithelia by a Fas/Fas ligand-dependent mechanism. Am. J. Physiol. 277:G599G608.
7. Chrisp, C. E.,, P. Mason,, and L. E. Perryman. 1995. Comparison of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium wrairi by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and ability to infect severe combined immunodeficient mice. Infect. Immun. 63:360362.
8. Chrisp, C. E.,, M. A. Suckow,, R. Fayer,, M. J. Arrowood,, M. C. Healey,, and C. R. Sterling. 1992. Comparison of the host ranges of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium wrairi from guinea pigs. J. Protozool. 39:406409.
9. Eichelberger, M. C.,, P. Suresh,, and J. E. Rehg. 2000. Protection from Cryptosporidium parvum infection by gammadelta T cells in mice that lack alphabeta T cells. Comp. Med. 50:270276.
10. Gibson, S. V.,, and J. E. Wagner. 1986. Cryptosporidiosis in guinea pigs: A retrospective study. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 189:10331034.
11. Goodgame, R. W.,, K. Kimball,, C. N. Ou, , A. C. White, Jr.,, R. M. Genta, , C. H. Lifschitz, , and C. L. Chappell. 1995. Intestinal function and injury in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cryptosporidiosis. Gastroenterology 108:10751082.
12. Hornok, S.,, Z. Szell,, T. A. Shibalova,, and I. Varga. 1999. Study on the course of Cryptosporidium baileyi infection in chickens treated with interleukin-1 or indomethacin. Acta. Vet. Hung. 47:207216.
13. Kimbell, L. M., III,, D. L. Miller, , W. Chavez, , and N. Altman. 1999. Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium serpentis in a wild-caught corn snake (Elapha guttata guttata) and a five-species restriction fragment length polymorphism-based assay that can additionally discern C. parvum from C. wrairi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:53455349.
14. McCole, D. F.,, L. Eckmann,, F. Laurent,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 2000. Intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis following Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Infect. Immun. 68:17101713.
15. McDonald, V.,, and G. J. Bancroft. 1994. Mechanisms of innate and acquired resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in SCID mice. Parasite Immunol. 16:315320.
16. McDonald, V.,, H. A. Robinson,, J. P. Kelly,, and G. J. Bancroft. 1994. Cryptosporidium muris in adult mice: adoptive transfer of immunity and protective roles of CD4 versus CD8 cells. Infect. Immun. 62:22892294.
17. Ortega-Mora, L. M.,, and S. E. Wright. 1994. Age-related resistance in ovine cryptosporidiosis: patterns of infection and humoral immune response. Infect. Immun. 62:50035009.
18. Patel, S.,, S. Pedraza-Diaz,, and J. Mc- Lauchlin. 1999. The identification of Cryptosporidium species and Cryptosporidium parvum directly from whole faeces by analysis of a multiplex PCR of the 18S rRNA gene and by PCR/ RFLP of the Cryptosporidium outer wall protein (COWP) gene. Int. J. Parasitol. 29:12411247.
19. Percy, D. H.,, and S. W. Barthold. 2001. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
20. Perryman, L. E.,, P. H. Mason,, and C. E. Chrisp. 1994. Effect of spleen cell populations on resolution of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in SCID mice. Infect. Immun. 62:14741477.
21. Rehg, J. E. 1996. Effect of interferon-gamma in experimental Cryptosporidium parvum infection. J. Infect. Dis. 174:229232.
22. Rhee, J. K.,, H. C. Kim,, and B. K. Park. 1998. Effect of Cryptosporidium baileyi infection on antibody response to sRBC in chickens. Korean J. Parasitol. 36:3336.
23. Rhee, J. K.,, H. J. Yang,, S. Y. Yook,, and H. C. Kim. 1998. Immunosuppressive effect of Cryptosporidium baileyi infection on vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis in chicks. Korean J. Parasitol. 36:203206.
24. Smith, L. M.,, M. T. Bonafonte,, and J. R. Mead. 2000. Cytokine expression and specific lymphocyte proliferation in two strains of Cryptosporidium parvum-infected gamma-interferon knockout mice. J. Parasitol. 86:300307.
25. Tatalick, L. M.,, and L. E. Perryman. 1995. Effect of surface antigen-1 (SA-1) immune lymphocyte subsets and naive cell subsets in protecting scid mice from initial and persistent infection with Cryptosporidium parvum. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 47:4355.
26. Urban, J. F., Jr.,, R. Fayer, , S. J. Chen, , W. C. Gause, , M. K. Gately, , and F. D. Finkelman. 1996. IL-12 protects immunocompetent and immunodeficient neonatal mice against infection with Cryptosporidium parvum. J. Immunol. 156: 263268.
1. Augustine, P. C.,, and D. M. Denbow. 1991. Effect of coccidiosis on plasma epinepherine and norepinepherine levels in turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 70:785789.
2. Bessay, M.,, Y. Le Vern,, D. Kerboeuf,, P. Yvore,, and P. Quere. 1996. Changes in intestinal intra-epithelial and systemic T-cell subpopulations after an Eimeria infection in chickens: comparative study between E. acervulina and E. tenella. Vet. Res. 27:503514.
3. Chinchilla, C. M.,, B. O. M. Guerrero,, and R. R. Marin. 1986. Effect of Eimeria falciformis infection on the development of toxoplasmosis in mice. Rev. Biol. Trop. 34:16.
4. de la Fuente, C.,, M. Cuquerella,, L. Carrera,, and J. M. Alunda. 1993. Effect of subclinical coccidiosis in kids on subsequent trichostrongylid infection after weaning. Vet. Parasitol. 45:177183.
5. Fukata, T.,, A. Fageyama,, E. Baba,, and A. Arakawa. 1987. Effect of infection with Eimeria tenella upon the cecal bacterial population in monoflora chickens. Poult. Sci. 66:841844.
6. Hankinson, G. J.,, J. C. Murphy,, and J. G. Fox. 1982. Diagnostic exercise. Lab. Anim. Sci. 32:3536.
7. Henry, D. P. 1932. Coccidiosis of the guinea pig. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 37:211268.
8. Hurley, R. J.,, J. C. Murphy,, and N. S. Lipman. 1995. Diagnostic exercise: Depression and anorexia in recently shipped guinea pigs. Lab. Anim. Sci. 45:305308.
9. McDonald, V. 1999. Gut intraepithelial lymphocytes and immunity to Coccidia. Parasitol. Today 15:483487.
10. Muto, T.,, M. Sugisaki,, T. Yusa,, and Y. Noguchi. 1985. Studies on coccidiosis in guinea pigs. 1. Clinico-pathological observation. Jikken Dobutsu 34:2330.
11. Muto, T.,, T. Yusa,, M. Sugisaki,, K. Tanaka,, Y. Noguchi,, and K. Taguchi. 1985. Studies on coccidiosis in guinea pigs. 2. Epizootiological survey. Jikken Dobutsu 34:3139.
12. Rose, M. E.,, P. Hesketh,, and D. Wakelin. 1992. Immune control of murine coccidiosis: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes contribute differentially in resistance to primary and secondary infections. Parasitology 105:349354.
13. Rose, M. E.,, D. Wakelin,, and P. Hesketh. 1994. Interactions between infections with Eimeria spp. and Trichinella spiralis in inbred mice. Parasitology 108:6975.
14. Ruff, M. D.,, and J. K. Rosenberger. 1985. Interaction of low-pathogenicity reoviruses and low levels of infection with several coccidial species. Avian Dis. 29:10571065.
15. Sambrano, G. R.,, L. F. Mayberry,, and J. R. Bristol. 1992. Effect of Eimeria nieschulzi on Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced IgE. Parasitol. Res. 78:172174.
16. Sundaram, U.,, S. Wisel,, V. M. Rajendren,, and A. B. West. 1997. Mechanism of inhibition of Na+-glucose cotransport in the chronically inflamed rabbit ileum. Am. J. Physiol. 273:G913G919.
17. Symons, L. E.,, and W. O. Jones. 1977. Protein Metabolism. IV. Altered protein synthesis in hosts infected with Eimeria tenella or bacteria compared to synthesis in hosts infected with intestinal nematodes. Exp. Parasitol. 42:194202.
18. Syukuda, Y. 1979. Rearing of germfree guinea pigs and establishment of an SPF guinea pig colony. Jikken Dobutsu 28:4956.
19. Vetterling, J. M., 1976. Protozoan parasites, p. 163196. In J. E. Wagner, and P. J. Manning (ed.), The Biology of the Guinea Pig. Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y.
1. Baker, D. G.,, J. D. Bryant, , J. F. Urban, Jr.,, and J. K. Lunney. 1994. Swine immunity to selected parasites. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 43:127133.
2. Bergman, D. K.,, R. N. Ramachandra,, and S. K. Wikel. 1998. Characterization of an immunosuppressant protein from Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) salivary glands. J. Med. Entomol. 35:505509.
3. Dorrestein, G. M.,, and J. E. M. H. Van Bronswijk. 1977. Mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in guinea pigs. Tijdschr. Diergeneeskd. 102: 748753.
4. Dorrestein, G. M.,, and J. E. M. H. Van Bronswijk. 1979. Trixacarus caviae Fain, Howell and Hyatt, 1972 (Acari: Sarcoptidae) as a cause of mange in guinea pigs and papular urticaria in man. Vet. Parasitol. 5:389398.
5. Fuentealba, C.,, and P. Hanna. 1996. Mange induced by Trixacarus caviae in a guinea pig. Can. Vet. J. 37:749750.
6. Kummel, B. A.,, S. A. Estes,, and L. G. Arlian. 1980. Trixacarus caviae infestation of guinea pigs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 177:903908.
7. Manning, P. J.,, J. E. Wagner,, and J. E. Harkness,. 1984. Biology and diseases of guinea pigs, p. 149181. In J. G. Fox, , B. J. Cohen, , and F. M. Loew (ed.), Laboratory Animal Medicine. Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y.
8. McDonald, S. E.,, and M. M. Lavoipierre. 1980. Trixacarus caviae infestation in two guinea pigs. Lab. Anim. Sci. 30:6770.
9. Rothwell, T. L.,, S. E. Pope,, and G. H. Collins. 1989. Trixacarus caviae infection of guinea pigs with genetically determined differences in susceptibility to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection. Int. J. Parasitol. 19:347348.
10. Rothwell, T. L.,, S. E. Pope,, Z. K. Rajczyk,, and G. H. Collins. 1991. Haematological and pathological responses to experimental Trixacarus caviae infection in guinea pigs. J. Comp. Pathol. 104:179185.
11. Thoday, K. L.,, and W. P. Beresford-Jones. 1977. The diagnosis and treatment of mange in the guinea-pig caused by Trixacarus (Caviacoptes) caviae (Fain, Hovell & Hyatt, 1972). J. Small Anim. Pract. 18:591595.
12. Wikel, S. K.,, R. N. Ramachandra,, and D. K. Bergman. 1994. Tick-induced modulation of the host immune response. Int. J. Parasitol. 24:5966.
13. Zajac, A., , J. F. Williams, , and C. S. Williams. 1980. Mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in guinea pigs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 177:900903.


Generic image for table

Body systems known or likely to be affected by pathogen indicated

Citation: Baker D. 2003. Pathogens of Guinea Pigs, p 129-146. In Natural Pathogens of Laboratory Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817824.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error