MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

12 HIV/AIDS, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817831/9781555812409_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817831/9781555812409_Chap12-2.gif


The period from 1994 to 1996 was in many ways a turning point for AIDS care in the western world, with significantly increased survival resulting. Treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission; the introduction of a powerful class of antiretroviral drugs, the protease inhibitors; the recognition of continued high-level human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication throughout the course of the infection; the importance of the plasma viral load for prognosis; and the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which combined classes of antiretrovirals, all emerged during this time. There are two recognized variants of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both belong to the lentivirus subgroup of retroviruses, which are, by definition, single-stranded RNA viruses that catalyze the production of a DNA strand complementary to their viral RNA. The target cells for infection with HIV are lymphocytes and macrophages. Central nervous system (CNS) disease clinically affected up to two-thirds of cases of AIDS presenting before treatment was available. In adults, cerebrovascular pathology has been described in 8 to 34% of autopsy series of AIDS cases. The diagnosis of the acute retroviral syndrome is established by the finding of viral RNA or p24 antigen in the blood in the absence of antibodies as tested for by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. A wide range of infectious agents are associated with subacute or chronic meningitis in non-HIV-infected individuals. The laboratory evaluation of subacute or chronic meningitis is extensive and may prove to be frustrating in its failure to identify a causative agent.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 12.1

Sparse lymphocytic cuffing of meningeal veins overlying the cerebellum in a case of pre-AIDS HIV infection in a hemophiliac.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12.2

An isolated multinucleated giant cell in white matter from a case of HIVE. Sparse HIV p24 antigen is visible at the periphery of the cytoplasm. Immunostain for p24 HIV core protein, counterstained with hematoxylin.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12.3

Group of multinucleated cells of macrophage origin in the basal ganglia of a case of HIVE. Ricinus communis agglutinin I immunostain, counterstained with hematoxylin.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12.4

Diffuse pallor of myelin staining of cerebral white matter in HIVE.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12.5

Reactive microglia (a) and astrocytes (b) in HIVE, (a) Ricinus communis agglutinin I, (b) GFAP immunostain, both counterstained with hematoxylin.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12.6

Focus of β-amyloid precursor-positive (damaged) axons in deep white matter from a case of HIVE. Counterstained with hematoxylin.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12.7

The suggested pathogenic cascade leading to oligodendrocyte and myelin damage in the CNS in AIDS.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12.8

MRI of HIV leukoencephalopathy. Axial FLAIR image shows symmetric hyperintense diffuse white matter lesions. (Courtesy of Judith Donovan Post, University of Miami School of Medicine.)

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 12 HIV/AIDS, p 193-220. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abgrall, S.,, C. Rabaud,, and D. Costagliola. 2001. Incidence and risk factors for toxoplasmic encephalitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients before and during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:17471755.
2. Achim, C. L.,, M. R. Heyes,, and C. A. Wiley. 1993. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus, immune activation factors, and quinolinic acid in AIDS brains. J . Clin. Invest. 91:2769 2775.
3. Achim, C. L.,, R. Wang,, D. K. Miners,, and C. A. Wiley. 1994. Brain viral burden in HIV infection. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 53:284294.
4. Adamson, D. C.,, T. M. Dawson,, M. C. Zink,, J. E. Clements,, and V. L. Dawson. 1996. Neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus infection induces neuronal, endothelial, and glial apoptosis. Mol. Med. 2:417428.
5. Adle-Biassette, H.,, Y. Levy,, M. Colombel, E Poron, S. Natchev, C Keohane, and F. Gray. 1995. Neuronal apoptosis in HIV infection in adults. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 21:218227.
6. Adle-Biassette, H.,, L . Wingertsmann,, F. J. Authier,, H. Kondo,, F. Poron,, C. Hery,, J. Bell,, M. Tardieu,, R. Gherardi,, and F. Gray. 1997. [Neuronal apoptosis in the central and peripheral nervous system in HIV infection.] Arch. Anat. Cytol. Pathol. 45:8693.
7. Adle-Biassette, H.,, F. Chretien,, L. Wingertsmann,, C. Hery,, T. Ereau,, F. Scaravilli,, M. Tardieu,, and F. Gray. 1999. Neuronal apoptosis does not correlate with dementia in HIV infection but is related to microglial activation and axonal damage. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 25:123133.
8. Alkhatib, G.,, C. Combadiere,, C. C. Broder,, Y. Feng,, P. E. Kennedy,, P. M. Murphy,, and E. A. Berger. 1996. C C CKR5: a RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-lbeta receptor as a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Science 272:19551958.
9. American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force.1991. Nomenclature and research case definitions for neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Neurology 41:778785.
10. Ammassari, A.,, A. Cingolani,, P. Pezzotti,, A. DeLuca,, R. Murri,, M. L . Giancola,, L . M. Larocca,, and A. Antinori. 2000. AIDS related focal brain lesions in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Neurology 55:11941200.
11. An, S. E.,, B. Giometto,, T. Scaravilli,, B. Tavolato,, F. Gray,, and F. Scaravilli. 1996. Programmed cell death in brains of HIV-1 -positive AIDS and pre-AIDS patients. Acta Neuropathol 91:169173.
12. Anders, K. H.,, W. F. Guerra,, U. Tomiyasu,, M. A. Verity,, and H. V. Vinters. 1986. The neuropathology of AIDS. UCLA experience and review. Am. J. Pathol. 124:537558.
13. Antinori, A.,, G. DeRossi,, A. Ammassari,, A. Cingolani,, R. Murri,, D. DiGuida,, A. DeLuca,, F. Pierconti,, T. Tartaglione,, M. Scerrati,, L . M. Larocca,, and L. Ortona. 1999. Value of a combined approach with thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase chain reaction in CSF for the diagnosis of AIDS related primary CNS lymphoma. J . Clin. Oncol 17:554560.
14. Antinori, A.,, A. Ammassari,, R. Luzzati,, A. Castagna,, R. Maserati,, G. Rizzardini,, A. Ridolfo,, M. Fasan,, E. Vaccher,, G. Landonio,, M. Scerrati,, A. Rocca,, G. Butti,, A. Nicolato,, A. Lazzarin, and U. Tirelli for the Gruppo Italiano Cooperative AIDS & Tumori.2000. Role of brain biopsy in the management of ocalbrainlesions in HIV infected patients. Neurology 54:993997.
15. Arango-Viano, J. C. 2001. The influence of drug use and apolipoprotein E on HIV related disease of the central nervous system. Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
16. Atwood, W. J.,, J. R. Berger,, R. Kaderman,, C. S. Tornatore,, and E. O. Major. 1993. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain. Clin. Microbiol Rev. 6:339366.
17. Badley, A. D.,, J . A. McElhinny,, P. J . Leibson,, D. H. Lynch,, M. R. Alderson,, and C. V. Paya. 1996. Upregulation of Fas ligand expression by human immunodeficiency virus in human macrophages mediates apoptosis of uninfected T lymphocytes. J. Virol 70:199206.
18. Badley, A. D.,, D. Dockrell,, M. Simpson,, R. Schut,, D. H. Lynch,, P. Leibson,, and C. V. Paya. 1997. Macrophage-dependent apoptosis of C D 4+ T lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals is mediated by FasL and tumor necrosis factor. J. Exp. Med. 185:5564.
19. Bagasra, O.,, E. Lavi,, L. Bobroski,, K. Khalili,, J . P. Pestaner,, R. Tawadros,, and R. J . Pomerantz. 1996. Cellular reservoirs of HIV-1 in the central nervous system of infected individuals: identification by the combination of in situ polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. AIDS 10:573585.
20. Bagasra, O.,, L. Bobroski,, A. Sarker,, A. Bagasra,, P. Saikumari,, and R. J. Pomerantz. 1997. Absence of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase in the brains of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Neurovirol. 3:153167.
21. Ball, J. K.,, R. Curran,, W. L. Irving,, and A. A. Dearden. 1999. HIV-1 in semen: determination of proviral and viral titres compared to blood, and quantification of semen leukocyte populations. J . Med. Virol 59:356363.
22. Banda, N. K.,, J. Bernier,, D. K. Kurahara,, R. Kurrle,, N. Haigwood,, R. P. Sekaly,, and T. H. Finkel. 1992. Crosslinking CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus gpl20 primes T cells for activation-induced apoptosis. J. Exp. Med. 176:10991106.
23. Bartlett, J. G.,, and J. E. Gallant. 2001. 2001-2002 Medical Management of HIV Infection. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
24. Bell, J. E.,, A. Busuttil,, J. W. Ironside,, S. Rebus,, Y. K. Donaldson,, P. Simmonds,, and J. F. Peutherer. 1993. Human immunodeficiency virus and the brain: investigation of virus load and neuropathologic changes in pre-AIDS subjects. J. Infect. Dis. 168:818824.
25. Bell, J. E.,, Y. K. Donaldson,, S. Lowrie,, C. A. McKenzie,, R. A. Elton,, A. Chiswick,, R. P. Brettle,, J. W. Ironside,, and P. Simmonds. 1996. Influence of risk group and zidovudine therapy on the development of HIV encephalitis and cognitive impairment in AIDS patients. AIDS 10:493499.
26. Bell, J. E.,, R. P. Brettle,, A. Chiswick,, and P. Simmonds. 1998. HIV encephalitis, proviral load and dementia in drug users and homosexuals with AIDS. Effect of neocortical involvement. Brain 121:20432052.
27. Belman, A. L., 1997. Infants, children, and adolescents, p. 223253. In J. R. Berger, and R. M. Levy (ed.), AIDS and the Nervous System, 2nd ed. Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
28. Berger, J. R-,, W. A. Sheremata,, L. Resnick,, S. Atherton,, M. A. Fletcher,, and M. Norenberg. 1989. Multiple sclerosislike illness occurring with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Neurology 39:324329.
29. Berger, J. R.,, J . O. Harris,, J . Gregorios, andM. Norenberg. 1990. Cerebrovascular disease in AIDS: a case-control study. AIDS 4:239244.
30. Berger, E. A.,, P. M. Murphy,, and J. M. Farber. 1999. Chemokine receptors as HIV-1 coreceptors: roles in viral entry, tropism, and disease. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17:657700.
31. Bhigjee, A. I.,, S. Madurai,, P. L. A. Bill,, V. Patel,, P. Corr,, M. N. Naidoo,, W. M. Gopaul,, A. Smith,, and D. York. 2001. Spectrum of myelopathies in HIV seropositive South African patients. Neurology 5 7:348351.
32. Booss, J. 2000. Chronic-treated HIV: a neurologic disease. J. Urban Health 77:204212.
33. Booss, J.,, and S. A. Harris. 1987. Neurology of AIDS virus infection: a clinical classification. Yale J. Biol. Med. 60:537543.
34. Boufassa, F.,, C. Bachmeyer,, N. Carre,, C. Deveau,, A. Persoz,, C. Jadand,, D. Sereni,, and D. Bucquet. 1995. Influence of neurologic manifestations of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection on disease progression. SEROCO Study Group. J. Infect. Dis. 171:11901195.
35. Bouwman, F. H.,, R. L. Skolasky,, D. Hes,, O. A. Seines,, J. D. Glass,, T. E. Nance-Sproson,, W. Royal,, G. J. Dal Pan,, and J . C. Mc Arthur. 1998. Variable progression of HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 50:18141820.
36. Boven, L. A.,, L. Gomes,, C. Hery,, F. Gray,, J. Verhoef,, P. Portegies,, M. Tardieu,, and H. S. Nottet. 1999. Increased peroxynitrite activity in AIDS dementia complex: implications for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. J. Immunol. 162:43194327.
37. Boven, L. A.,, J . Middel,, E. C. Breij,, D. Schotte,, J. Verhoef,, C. Soderland,, and H. S. Nottet. 2000. Interactions between HIV-infected monocyte-derived macrophages and human brain microvascular endothelial cells result in increased expression of CC chemokines. J. Neurovirol. 6:382389.
38. Brengel-Pesce, K.,, P. Innocenti-Francillard,, P. Morand,, B. Chanzy,, and J . M. Seigneurin. 1997. Transient infection of astrocytes with HIV-1 primary isolates derived from patients with and without AIDS dementia complex. J. Neurovirol. 3:449454.
39. Brenner, B. G.,, and M. A. Wainberg. 2000. The role of antiretrovirals and drug resistance in vertical transmission of HIV-1 infection. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 918:915.
40. Brew, B . J. 1991. MS-like leukoencephalopathy in HIV-1. Neurology 41:1166.
41. Brew, B. J. 2001a. Peripheral nerve involvement in early and moderately advanced HIV disease, p. 183193. In HIV Neurology. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y..
42. Brew, B. J. 2001b. Common spinal cord diseases, p. 165173. In HIV Neurology. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y..
43. Brew, B. J. 2001c. Focal brain disorders in moderately advanced HIV disease: tuberculosis and multiple sclerosis-like illness, p. 111116. In HIV Neurology. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y..
44. Brew, B. J. 2001d. AIDS dementia complex, p. 5390. In HIV Neurology. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y..
45. Brew, B. J.,, M. Perdices,, P. Darveniza,, P. Edwards,, B. Whyte,, W. J. Burke,, R. Garrick,, D. O'Sullivan,, R. Penny,, and D. A. Cooper. 1989. The neurological features of early and "latent" human immunodeficiency virus infection. Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 19:700705.
46. Brown, H. G.,, P. C. Burger,, A. Olivi,, A. K. Sills,, P. A. Barditch- Crovo,, and R. R. Lee. 1999. Intracranial leiomyosarcoma in a patient with AIDS. Neuroradiology 41:3539.
47. Budka, H. 1991. Neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Brain Pathol. 1:163175.
48. Budka, H.,, C. A. Wiley,, P. Kleihues,, J . Artigas,, A. A. Asbury,, E.-S. Cho,, D. R. Cornblath,, M. C DalCanto,, U . DeGirolami,, D. Dickson,, L. G. Epstein,, M. M. Esiri,, F. Giangaspero,, G. Gosztonyi,, F. Gray,, J . W. Griffin,, D. Henin,, Y. Iwasaki,, R. S. Janssen,, R. T. Johnson,, P. L. Lantos,, W. D. Lyman,, J . C McArthur,, K. Nagashima,, N . Peress,, C. K. Petito,, R. W. Price,, R. H. Rhodes,, M. Rosenblum,, G. Said,, E. Scarvavalli,, L. R. Sharer,, and H. V. Vinters. 1991. HIV associated disease of the nervous system: review of nomenclature and proposal for neuropathology based terminology. Brain Pathol. 1:143152.
49. Burns, D. K.,, R. C Risser,, and C. L. White III. 1991. The neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Dallas, Texas, experience. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 115:11121124.
50. Camilleri-Broet, S., E Davi, J . Feuillard, D. Seilhean, J . E Michiels, P. Brousset, B . Epardeau, E. Navratil, K. Mokhtari, C. Bourgeois, L . Marelle, M. Raphael, and J . J . Hauw. 1997. AIDS-related primary brain lymphomas: histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 51 cases. The French Study Group for HIV-Associated Tumors. Hum. Pathol. 28:367374.
51. Carne, C. A.,, A. Smith,, S. G. Elkington,, F. E. Preston,, R. S. Tedder,, S. Sutherland,, H. M. Daly,, and J . Craske. 1985. Acute encephalopathy coincident with seroconversion for anti-HTLV III. Lancet i:12061208.
52. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002a. Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendation of the Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV. Morb. Mortal Wkly. Rep. 51(RR-7):156 plus inside covers. Electronic version including additional information and updates at http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov..
53. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002b. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among HIV-infected persons-2002 recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51(RR-8):l52, plus inside covers. Electronic version including additional information and updates at http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov..
54. Chang, Y.,, E. Cesarman,, M. S. Pessin,, E. Lee,, J. Culpepper,, D. M. Knowles,, and P. S. Moore. 1994- Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 266:18651869.
55. Chang, L.,, T. Ernst,, M. Leonido-Yee,, M. Witt,, O. Speck,, I. Walot,, and E. N. Miller. 1999. Highly active antiretroviral therapy reverses brain metabolic abnormalities in mild HIV dementia. Neurology 53:782789.
56. Chao, C. C , G. Gekker, W. S. Sheng, S. Hu, M. Tsang, and P. K. Peterson. 1994. Priming effect of morphine on the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by microglia: implications in respiratory burst activity and human immunodeficiency virus-1 expression. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 269:198203.
57. Chuck, S. L.,, and M. A. Sande. 1989. Infections with cryptococcus neoformans in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 321:794799.
58. Chun, T. W.,, L. Carruth,, D. Finzi,, X. Shen,, J . A. DiGiuseppe,, H. Taylor,, M. Hermankova,, K. Chad wick,, J . Margolick,, T. C. Quinn,, Y. H. Kuo,, R. Brookmeyer,, M. A. Zeiger,, P. Barditch- Crovo,, and R. F. Siliciano. 1997a. Quantification of latent tissue reservoirs and total body viral load in HIV-1 infection. Nature 387:183188.
59. Chun, T. W.,, L. Stuyver,, S. B . Mizell,, L. A. Ehler,, J . A. Mican,, M. Baseler,, A. L. Lloyd,, M. A. Nowak,, and A. S. Fauci. 1997b. Presence of an inducible HIV-1 latent reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:1319313197.
60. Chun, T. W.,, J . S. Justement,, S. Moir, C W. Hallahan, L. A. Ehler, S. Liu, M. McLaughlin, M. Dybul, J . M. Mican, and A. S. Fauci. 2001. Suppression of HIV replication in the resting CD4+ T cell reservoir by autologous CD8+ T cells: implications for the development of therapeutic strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:253258.
61. Ciacci, J . D.,, C. Tellez,, J . Von Roenn,, and R. M. Levy. 1999. Lymphoma of the central nervous system in AIDS. Semin. Neurol. 19:213221.
62. Clifford, D. B . 1999. Opportunistic viral infections in setting of human immunodeficiency virus. Semin. Neurol. 19:185192.
63. Cocchi, E.,, A. L. DeVico,, A. Garzino-Demo,, S. K. Arya,, R. C. Gallo,, and P. Lusso. 1995. Identification of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta as the major HIVsuppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells. Science 270:18111815.
64. Cohen, B . A. 1999. Neurologic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in AIDS. Semin. Neurol. 19:201211.
65. Corn, B. W.,, S. M. Marcus,, A. Topham,, W. Hauck,, and W. J . Curran, Jr. 1997. Will primary central nervous system lymphoma be the most frequent brain tumor diagnosed in the year 2000? Cancer 79:24092413.
66. Cornblath, D. R.,, J . C McArthur,, P. G. Kennedy,, A. S. Witte,, and J . W. Griffin. 1987. Inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathies associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection. Ann. Neurol. 21:3240.
67. Cornford, M. E.,, J . K. Holden,, M. C. Boyd,, K. Berry,, and H. V. Vinters. 1992. Neuropathology of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): report of 39 autopsies from Vancouver, British Columbia. Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 19:442452.
68. Cote, X R., A. Manns, C. R. Hardy, F. J . Yellin, and P. Hartge. 1996. Epidemiology of brain lymphoma among people with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS/Cancer Study Group. J . Natl. Cancer Inst. 88:675679.
69. Coyle, P. K. 1999. Overview of acute and chronic meningitis. Neurol. Clin. 17:691710.
70. Dal Pan, G. J .,, J. D. Glass,, and J. C. McArthur. 1994. Clinicopathologic correlation of HIV-1 associated vacuolar myelopathy: an autopsy based case-control study. Neurology 44:21592164.
71. Dalgleish, A. G.,, P. C. Beverley,, P. R. Clapham,, D. H. Crawford,, M. F. Greaves,, and R. A. Weiss. 1984. The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature 312:763767.
72. Dallasta, L. M.,, L. A. Pisarov,, J . E. Esplen,, J . V. Werley,, A. V. Moses,, J . A. Nelson,, and C. L. Achim. 1999. Blood-brain barrier tight junction disruption in human immunodeficiency virus-1 encephalitis. Am. J . Pathol. 155:19151927.
73. Davey, R. T., Jr., R. L. Murphy, F. M. Graziano, S. L. Boswell, A. T. Pavia, M. Cancio, J . P. Nadler, D. G. Chaitt, R. L. Dewar, D. K. Sahner, A. M. Duliege, W. B. Capra, W. P. Leong, M. A. Giedlin, H. C Lane, and J . O. Kahn. 2000. Immunologic and virologic effects of subcutaneous interleukin 2 in combination with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 284:183189.
74. Davies, J .,, I. P. Everall,, S. Weich,, J. McLaughlin,, F. Scaravilli,, and P. L. Lantos. 1997. HIV-associated brain pathology in the United Kingdom: an epidemiological study. AIDS 11:11451150.
75. Davis, L. E.,, B. L. Hjelle,, V. E. Miller,, D. L. Palmer,, A. L. Llewellyn,, T. L . Merlin,, S. A. Young,, R. G. Mills,, W. Wachsman,, and C. A. Wiley. 1992. Early viral brain invasion in iatrogenic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Neurology 42:17361739.
76. De Jong, J . J ., , J. Goudsmit,, W. Keulen,, B. Klaver,, W. Krone,, M. Tersmette,, and A. de Ronde. 1992a. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clones chimeric for the envelope V3 domain differ in syncytium formation and replication capacity. J. Virol. 66:757765.
77. De Jong, J . J . , A. De Ronde, W. Keulen, M. Tersmette, and J . Goudsmit. 1992b. Minimal requirements for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 V3 domain to support the syncytium-inducing phenotype: analysis by single amino acid substitution. J. Virol. 66:67776780.
78. Deng, H.,, R. Liu,, W. Ellmeier,, S. Choe,, D. Unutmaz,, M. Burkhart,, P. Di Marzio,, S. Marmon,, R. E. Sutton,, C. M. Hill,, C. B. Davis,, S. C . Peiper,, T. J . Schall,, D. R. Littman,, and N. R. Landau. 1996. Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1. Nature 381:661666.
79. Denning, D. W.,, J . Anderson,, P. Rudge,, and H. Smith. 1987. Acute myelopathy associated with primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Br. Med. J. 294:143144.
80. Detels, R.,, A. Munoz,, G. McFarlane,, L. A. Kingsley,, J . B. Margolick,, J . Giorgi,, L. K. Schrager,, and J . P. Phair. 1998. Effectiveness of potent antiretroviral therapy on time to AIDS and death in men with known HIV infection duration. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Investigators. JAMA 280:14971503.
81. Dickson, D. W., A, L. Belman, Y. D. Park, C Wiley, D. S. Horoupian, J . Llena, K. Kure, W. D. Lyman, R. Morecki, and S. Mitsudo. 1989. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study. APMIS 97(Suppl. 8):4057.
82. Di Rocco, A.,, M. Tagliati,, F. Danisi,, D. Dorfman,, J . Moise,, and D. M. Simpson. 1998. A pilot study of L-Methionine for the treatment of AIDS-associated myelopathy. Neurology 51:266268.
83. Di Rocco, A.,, T. Bottiglieri,, P. Werner,, A. Geraci,, D. Simpson,, J . Godbold,, and S. Morgello. 2002. Abnormal cobalamindependent transmethylation in AIDS-associated myelopathy. Neurology 58:730735.
84. Doranz, B. J . , J . Rucker, Y. Yi, R. J . Smyth, M. Samson, S. C. Peiper, M. Parmentier, R. G. Collman, and R. W. Doms. 1996. A dual-tropic primary HIV-1 isolate that uses fusin and the betachemokine receptors CKR-5, CKR-3, and CKR-2b as fusion cofactors. Cell 85:11491158.
85. Dore, G. J . , P. K. Correll, Y. Li, J . M. Kaldor, D. A. Cooper, and B. J . Brew. 1999. Changes to AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 13:12491253.
86. Dragic, T.,, V. Litwin,, G. P. Allaway,, S. R. Martin,, Y. Huang,, K. A. Nagashima, C Cayanan, P. J . Maddon, R. A. Koup, J . P. Moore, and W. A. Paxton. 1996. HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5. Nature 381:667673.
87. Duffy, J . , M. D. Lidsky, J . T. Sharp, J . S. Davis, D. A. Person, F. B . Hollinger, and K.-W. Min. 1976. Polyarthritis, polyarteritis and hepatitis B. Medicine 55:1937.
88. Egger, M.,, M. May,, G. Chene,, A. N. Phillips,, B. Ledergerber, E Dabis, D. Costagliola, A. D'Armino Monforte, E de Wolf, P. Reiss, J . D. Lundgren, A. C. Justice, S. Staszewski, C Leport, R. S. Hogg, C. A. Sabin, M. J . Gill, B. Salzberger, J . A. C Sterne, and the ART Cohort Collaboration. 2002. Prognosis of HIV-infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies. Lancet 360:119129.
89. Ellis, R. J . , A. C Gamst, E. Capparelli, S. A. Spector, K. Hsia, T. Wolf son, I. Abramson, I. Grant, and J . A. McCutchan. 2000. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA originates from both local CNS and systemic sources. Neurology 54:927936.
90. Ellis, R. J . , D. J . Moore, M. E. Childers, S. Letendre, J . A. McCutchan, T. Wolfson, S. A. Spector, K. Hsia, R. K. Heaton, and I. Grant for the HNRC Group. 2002. Progression to neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus infection predicted by elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels oMuiman immunodeficiency virus RNA. Arch. Neurol. 59:923928.
91. Enting, R. H.,, R. M. W. Hoetelmans,, J . M. A. Lange,, D. M. Burger,, J . H. Beijnen,, and P. Portegies. 1998. Antiretroviral drugs and the central nervous system. AIDS 12:19411955.
92. Esiri, M. M.,, E. Scaravilli,, P. R. Millard,, and J. N. Harcourt-Webster. 1989. Neuropathology of HIV infection in haemophiliacs: comparative necropsy study. Br. Med. J. 299:13121315.
93. Esiri, M. M.,, C. S. Morris,, and P. R. Millard. 1991. Fate of oligodendrocytes in HIV-1 infection. AIDS 5:10811088.
94. Esiri, M. M.,, C. S. Morris,, and P. R. Millard. 1993. Sensory and sympathetic ganglia in HIV-1 infection: immunocytochemical demonstration of HIV-1 viral antigens, increased MHC class II antigen expression and mild reactive inflammation. J. Neurol. Sci. 114:178187.
95. Everall, I. P.,, P. J . Luthert,, and P. L . Lantos. 1991. Neuronal loss in the frontal cortex in HIV infection. Lancet 337:11191121.
96. Everall, I.,, P. Luthert,, and P. Lantos. 1993. A review of neuronal damage in human immunodeficiency virus infection: its assessment, possible mechanism and relationship to dementia. J . Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 52:561566.
97. Everall, I. R.,, R. K. Heaton,, T. D. Marcotte,, R. J. Ellis,, J. A. McCutchan,, J. H. Atkinson,, I. Grant,, M. Mallory,, and E. Masliah. 1999. Cortical synaptic density is reduced in mild to moderate human immunodeficiency virus neurocognitive disorder. HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Brain Pathol. 9:209217.
98. Feng, Y.,, C. C. Broder,, P. E. Kennedy,, and E. A. Berger. 1996. HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seventransmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor. Science 272:872877.
99. Fernandez, E.,, F. Adams,, J. K. Levy,, V. E. Holmes,, M. Neidhart,, and P. W. A. Mansell. 1998. Cognitive impairment due to AIDS related complex and its response to psychostimulants. Psychosomatics 29:3846.
100. Ferrando, S.,, W. van Gorp,, M. McElhiney,, K. Goggin,, M. Sewell,, and J . Rabkin. 1998. Highly active antiretroviral treatment in HIV infection: benefits for neuropsychological function. AIDS 12:F65F70.
101. Fiala, M.,, R. H. Rhodes,, P. Shapshak,, I. Nagano,, O. Martinez- Maza,, A. Diagne,, G. Baldwin,, and M. Graves. 1996. Regulation of HIV-1 infection in astrocytes: expression of Nef, TNF-alpha and IL-6 is enhanced in coculture of astrocytes with macrophages. J. Neurovirol. 2:158166.
102. Finkel, T. H.,, G. Tudor-Williams,, N. K. Banda,, M. F. Cotton,, T. Curiel,, C. Monks,, T. W. Baba,, R. M. Ruprecht,, and A. Kupfer. 1995. Apoptosis occurs predominantly in bystander cells and not in productively infected cells of HIV- and SIVinfected lymph nodes. Nat. Med. 1:129134.
103. Fischl, M. A.,, D. D. Richman,, M. H. Grieco,, M. S. Gottlieb,, P. A. Volberding,, O. L. Laskin,, J . M. Leedom,, J. E. Groopman,, D. Mildvan,, R. T. Schooley,, G. C. Jackson,, D. T. Durack,, D. King, and the AZT Collaborative Working Group. 1987. The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N. Engl. J. Med. 317:185191.
104. Flanigan, T.,, and K. T. Tashima. 2001. Diagnosis of acute HIV infection: it's time to get moving. Ann. Intern. Med. 134:7577.
105. Flor, A.,, J . A. Capdevila,, N . Martin,, J . Gavalda,, and A. Pahissa. 1996. Nontuberculous mycobacterial meningitis: report of two cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:12661273.
106. Floridia, M.,, R. Bucciardini,, D. Ricciardulli,, V. Gragola,, M. F. Pirillo,, L. E. Weimer,, C. Tomino,, G. Giannini,, C. M. Galluzzo,, M. Andreotti,, A. Cargnel,, E. Alberici,, B. De Rienzo,, F. Leoncini,, F. Fiaccadori,, D. Francisci,, W. Grillone,, L. Ortona,, M. Piazza,, A. Scalzini,, E. Nigra,, F. Tumietto,, and S. Vella. 1999. A randomized, double-blind trial on the use of a triple combination including nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase HIV inhibitor, in antiretroviral-na'ive diaeresis patients with advance disease. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 20:1119.
107. Fouchier, R. A.,, M. Groenink,, N. A. Kootstra,, M. Tersmette,, H. G. Huisman,, F. Miedema,, and H. Schuitemaker. 1992. Phenotype-associated sequence variation in the third variable domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gpl20 molecule. J. Virol. 66:31833187.
108. Fox, L.,, M. Alford,, C. Achim,, M. Mallory,, and E. Masliah. 1997. Neurodegeneration of somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in HIV encephalitis. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 56:360368.
109. Garcia-Monco, J . D. 1999. Central nervous system tuberculosis. Neurol. Clin. 17:737759.
110. Gates, A. E.,, and L. D. Kaplan. 2002. AIDS malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncology 16:441451, 456, 459.
111. Gelbard, H. A.,, H. J . James,, L. R. Sharer,, S. W. Perry,, Y. Saito,, A. M. Kazee,, B . M. Blumberg,, and L . G. Epstein. 1995. Apoptotic neurons in brains from paediatric patients with HIV-1 encephalitis and progressive encephalopathy. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 21:208217.
112. Gendleman, H. E.,, S. A. Lipton,, L. Epstein,, and S. Swindells. 1998. The Neurology of AIDS. Chapman and Hall, New York, N.Y..
113. Geraci, A.,, A. Di Rocco,, M. Liu,, P. Werner,, M. Tagliati,, J . Godbold,, D. Simpson,, and S. Morgello. 2000. AIDS myelopathy is not associated with elevated HIV viral load in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurology 55:440442.
114. Gherardi, R. K. 1994. Skeletal muscle involvement in HIVinfected patients. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 20:232237.
115. Glass, J. D.,, S. L. Wesselingh,, O. A. Seines,, and J. C. McArthur. 1993. Clinical-neuropathologic correlation in HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 43:22302237.
116. Glass, J . D.,, S. L. Wesselingh,, O. A. Seines,, and J. C. McArthur. 1993. Clinical-neuropathologic correlation in HIV-associated dementia. Neurology 43:22302237.
117. Gorry, P.,, D. Purcell,, J . Howard,, and D. McPhee. 1998. Restricted HIV-1 infection of human astrocytes: potential role of nef in the regulation of virus replication. J. Neurovirol. 4:377386.
118. Gottlieb, M. S. 2001. AIDS-past and future. N. Engl J. Med. 344:17881791.
119. Gougeon, M. L.,, A. G. Laurent-Crawford,, A. G. Hovanessian,, and L. Montagnier. 1993. Direct and indirect mechanisms mediating apoptosis during HIV infection: contribution to in vivo CD4 T cell depletion. Semin. Immunol. 5:187194.
120. Graber, P.,, A. Rosemund,, A. Probst,, and W. Zimmerli. 2000. Multiple sclerosis-like illness in early HIV infection. AIDS 14:24112413.
121. Graham, D. L.,, and P. L. Lantos. 2002. Greenfield's Neuropathology. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
122. Gray, E.,, L. Chimelli,, M. Mohr,, P. Clavelou,, F. Scaravilli,, and J. Poirier. 1991. Fulminating multiple sclerosis-like leukoencephalopathy revealing human immunodeficiency virus infection. Neurology 41:105109.
123. Gray, E.,, M. Hurtrel,, and B. Hurtrel. 1993. Early central nervous system changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 19:39.
124. Gray, E.,, F. Scaravilli,, I. Everall,, E. Chretien,, S. An,, D. Boche,, H. Adle-Biassette,, L. Wingertsmann,, M. Durigon,, B. Hurtrel,, E. Chiodi,, J. Bell,, and P. Lantos. 1996. Neuropathology of early HIV-1 infection. Brain Pathol. 6:115.
125. Gray, E.,, H. Adle-Biassette,, E. Chretien,, G. Lorin de la Grandmaison,, G. Force,, and C. Keohane. 2001. Neuropathology and neurodegeneration in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pathogenesis of HIV-induced lesions of the brain, correlations with HIV-associated disorders and modifications according to treatments. Clin. Neuropathol. 20:146155.
126. Graybill, J. R.,, J. Sobel,, M. Saag,, C. van der Horst,, W. Powderly,, G. Cloud,, L . Riser,, R. Hamill,, W. Dismukes, and the NIAID Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Cooperative Treatment Group. 2000. Diagnosis and management of increased intracranial pressure in patients with AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:4754.
127. Griffin, J . W.,, S. L . Wesselingh,, D. E. Griffin,, J . D. Glass,, and J . C. McArthur. 1994a. Peripheral nerve disorders in HIV infection. Similarities and contrasts with CNS disorders. Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Meat. Dis. 72:159182.
128. Griffin, D. E.,, S. L. Wesselingh,, and J. C. McArthur. 1994b. Elevated central nervous system prostaglandins in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Ann. Neurol. 35:592597.
129. Haase, A. T. 1999. Population biology of HIV-1 infection: viral and CD4 + T cell demographics and dynamics in lymphatic tissues. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17:625656.
130. Hahn, B . H.,, G. M. Shaw,, K. M. DeCock,, and P. M. Sharp. 2000. AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications. Science 287:607614.
131. Halliwell, B.,, and J . M. C. Gutteridge. 1999. Free Radicals in Biology amd Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
132. Hammer, S. M.,, D. A. Katzenstein,, M. D. Hughes,, H. Gundacker,, R. T. Schooley,, R. H. Haubrich,, W. K. Henry,, M. M. Lederman,, J . P. Phair,, M. Niu,, M. S. Hirsch,, and T. C. Merigan. 1996. A trial comparing nucleoside monotherapy with combination therapy in HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts from 200 to 500 per cubic millimeter. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 175 Study Team. N. Engl.J. Med. 335:10811090.
133. Hammer, S. M.,, K. E. Squires,, M. D. Hughes,, J . M. Grimes,, L. M. Demeter,, J . S. Currier,, J. J. Eron Jr.,, J. E. Feinberg,, H. H. Balfour Jr.,, L. R. Deyton,, J. A. Chodakewitz,, and M. A. Fischl. 1997. A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4 cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team. N. Engl. J. Med. 337:725733.
134. Hanabuchi, S.,, M. Koyanagi,, A. Kawasaki,, N . Shinohara,, A. Matsuzawa,, Y. Nishimura,, Y. Kobayashi,, S. Yonehara,, H. Yagita,, and K. Okumura. 1994. Fas and its ligand in a general mechanism of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:49304934.
135. He, J .,, Y. Chen,, M. Farzan,, H. Choe,, A. Ohagen,, S. Gartner,, J. Busciglio,, X. Yang,, W. Hofmann,, W. Newman,, C. R. Mackay,, J. Sodroski,, and D. Gabuzda. 1997. CCR3 and CCR5 are co-receptors for HIV-1 infection of microglia. Nature 385:645649.
136. Hecht, E. M.,, M. P. Busch,, B. Rawal,, M. Webb,, E. Rosenberg,, M. Swanson,, M. Chesney,, J. Anderson,, J. Levy,, and J. O. Kahn. 2002. Use of laboratory tests and clinical symptoms for identification of primary HIV infection. AIDS 16:11191129.
137. Henin, D.,, T. W. Smith,, U. De Girolami,, M. Sughayer,, and J . J . Hauw. 1992. Neuropathology of the spinal cord in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Hum. Pathol. 23:11061114.
138. Hoffman, P. M.,, B . W. Festoff,, L. T. Giron,, L. C. Hollenbeck,, R. M. Garruto,, and F. W. Ruscetti. 1985. Isolation of LAV/HTLV III from a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 313:324325.
139. Hoffman, C.,, S. Tabrizian,, E. Wolf,, C. Eggers,, A. Stoeha,, A. Plettenberg,, T. Buhk,, H.-J. Stellbrink,, H.-A. Horst,, H. Jager,, and T. Rosenkranz. 2001. Survival of AIDS patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma is dramatically improved by HAART-induced immune recovery. AIDS 5:21192127.
140. Hosmalin, A.,, A. Samri,, M. J. Dumaurier,, Y. Dudoit,, E. Oksenhendler,, M. Karmochkine,, B. Autran,, S. Wain- Hobson,, and R. Cheynier. 2001. HlV-specific effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes and HIV-producing cells colocalize in white pulps and germinal centers from infected patients. Blood 97:26952701.
141. Itoh, K.,, P. Mehraein,, and S. Weis. 2000. Neuronal damage of the substantia nigra in HIV-1 infected brains. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 99:376384.
142. Ives, N. J.,, B. G. Gazzard,, and P. J. Easterbrook. 2001. The changing pattern of AIDS-defining illnesses with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a London clinic. J. Infect. 42:134139.
143. Janssen, R. S.,, D. R. Cornblath,, L. G. Epstein,, J . McArthur,, and R. W. Price. 1989, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the nervous system: report from the American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force. Neurology 39:119122.
144. Jellinger, K. A.,, U. Setinek,, M. Drlicek,, G. Bohm,, A. Steurer,, and F. Lintner. 2000. Neuropathology and general autopsy findings in AIDS during the last 15 years. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 100:213220.
145. Jones, J. R., Jr.,, D. H. Ho,, P. Forgacs,, L. S. Adelman,, M. L. Silverman,, R. A. Baker,, and P. Locuratolo. 1988. Acute fulminating fatal leucoencephalopathy as the only manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann. Neurol. 23:519522.
146. Kahn, J . O.,, and B. D. Walker. 1998. Acute immunodeficiency virus Type I infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 339:3339.
147. Kannagi, M.,, T. Masuda,, T. Hattori,, T. Kanoh,, K. Nasu,, N. Yamamoto,, and S. Harada. 1990. Interference with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by C D 8+ T cells in peripheral blood leukocytes of asymptomatic HIV carriers in vitro. J. Virol. 64:33993406.
148. Katsikis, P. D.,, E. S. Wunderlich,, C. A. Smith,, and L. A. Herzenberg. 1995. Fas antigen stimulation induces marked apoptosis of T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virusinfected individuals. J. Exp. Med. 181:20292036.
149. Katz, D. A.,, J . R. Berger,, and R. C. Duncan. 1993. Neurosyphilis. A comparative study of the effects of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch. Neurol. 50:243249.
150. Kelder, W.,, J . C. McArthur,, T. Nance-Sproson,, D. McClernon,, and D. E. Griffin. 1998. Beta-chemokines MCP-1 and RANTES are selectively increased in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Ann. Neurol. 44:831835.
151. Ketzler, S.,, S. Weis,, H. Haug,, and H. Budka. 1990. Loss of neurons in the frontal cortex in AIDS brains. Acta Neuropathol. 80:9294.
152. Kibayashi, K.,, A. R. Mastri,, and C. S. Hirsch. 1996. Neuropathology of human immunodeficiency virus infection at different disease stages. Hum. Pathol. 27:637642.
153. Kitai, R.,, M. L. Zhao,, N. Zhang,, L. L. Hua,, and S. C. Lee. 2000. Role of MIP-1 beta and RANTES in HIV-1 infection of microglia: inhibition of infection and induction by IFNbeta. J. Neuroimmunol. 110:230239.
154. Klatzmann, D.,, E. Champagne,, S. Chamaret,, J. Gruest,, D. Guetard,, T. Hercend,, J . C. Gluckman,, and L. Montagnier. 1984- T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus LAV. Nature 312:767768.
155. Koenig, S.,, H. E. Gendleman,, J . M. Orenstein,, M. C. DalCanto,, G. H. Pezeshkpour,, M. Yungbluch,, F. Janotta,, A. Aksamit,, M. A. Martin,, and A. S. Fauci. 1986. Detection of AIDS virus in macrophages in brain tissue from AIDS patients with encephalopathy. Science 233:10891093.
156. Korber, B.,, M. Muldoon,, J. Theiler,, F. Gao,, R. Gupta,, A. Lapedes,, B. H. Hah,, S. Wolinsky,, and X. Bhattacharya. 2000. Timing the ancestor of the HIV pandemic strains. Science 288:17891796.
157. Korbo, L.,, and M. West. 2000. No loss of hippocampal neurons in AIDS patients. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 99:529533.
158. Kovacs, J . A.,, and H. Masur. 2000. Prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl J. Med. 342:14161429.
159. Kruman, I. I.,, A. Nath,, and M. P. Mattson. 1998. HIV-1 protein Tat induces apoptosis of hippocampal neurons by a mechanism involving caspase activation, calcium overload, and oxidative stress. Exp. Neurol. 154:276288.
160. Lantos, P. L.,, J . E. McLaughlin,, C. L. Schoitz,, C. L. Berry,, and J . R. Tighe. 1989. Neuropathology of the brain in HIV infection. Lancet i:309311.
161. Letendre, S. L .,, E. R. Lanier,, and J. A. McCutchan. 1999. Cerebrospinal fluid beta chemokine concentrations in neurocognitively impaired individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type l . J . Infect. Dis. 180:310319.
162. Licho, R.,, N. S. Litofsky,, M. Senitko,, and M. George. 2002. Inaccuracy of Tl-2001 brain SPECT in distinguishing cerebral infections from lymphoma in patients with AIDS. Clin. Nucl. Med. 27:8186.
163. Lipkin, W. L.,, G. Parry,, D. Kiprov,, and D. Abrams. 1985. Inflammatory neuropathy in homosexual men with lymphadenopathy. Neurology 35:14791483.
164. Lipton, S. A.,, and H. E. Gendleman. 1995. Dementia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 332:934940.
165. Little, S. J .,, A. R. McLean,, C. A. Spina,, D. D. Richman,, and D. V. Havlir. 1999. Viral dynamics of acute HIV-1 infection. J. Exp. Med. 190:841850.
166. Liuzzi, G. M.,, C. M. Mastroianni,, M. P. Santacroce,, M. Fanelli,, C. D'Agostino,, V. Vullo,, and Riccio. 2000. Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-associated neurological diseases. J. Neurovirol. 6:156163.
167. Lucas, S. 2002. The pathology of HIV infection. Lepr. Rev. 73:6471.
168. Luer, W.,, J . Gerhards,, S. Poser, X Weber, and K. Felgenhauer. 1994. Acute diffuse leukoencephalitis in HIV-1 infection. J. Neurol Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 57:105107.
169. Marra, C. M. 1999. Bacterial and fungal infections in AIDS. Semin. Neurol. 19:177184.
170. Marra, C. M.,, W. X. Longstreth Jr.,, C. L. Maxwell,, and S. A. Lukehart. 1996. Resolution of serum and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities after treatment of neurosyphilis. Influence of concomitant human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex. Transm. Dis. 23:184189.
171. Marra, C. M.,, P. Boutin,, and A. C. Collier. 1998. Screening for distal sensory peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected persons in research and clinical settings. Neurology 51:16781681.
172. Marshall, D. W.,, R. L. Brey,, C. A. Butzin,, D. R. Lucey,, S. M. Abbadessa,, and R. N. Boswell. 1991. CSF changes in a longitudinal study of 124 neurologically normal HIV-1-infected US Air Force personnel. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 4:777781.
173. Maschke, M.,, O. Kastrup,, S. Esser,, B . Ross,, U. Hengge,, and A. Hufnagel. 2000. Incidence and prevalence of neurological disorders associated with HIV since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 69:376380.
174. Masliah, E.,, R. K. Heaton,, X. D. Marcotte,, R. J. Ellis,, C. A. Wiley,, M. Mallory,, C. L. Achim,, J. A. McCutchan,, J. A. Nelson,, J. H. Atkinson,, and I. Grant. 1997. Dendritic injury is a pathological substrate for human immunodeficiency virus-related cognitive disorders. HNRC Group. The HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. Ann. Neurol. 42:963972.
175. Masliah, E.,, R. M. DeTeresa,, M. E. Mallory,, and L. A. Hansen. 2000. Changes in pathological findings at autopsy in AIDS cases for the last 15 years. AIDS 14:6974.
176. McArthur, J . C.,, and I. Grant,. 1998. HIV neurocognitive disorders, p. 499523. In H. E. Gendleman,, S. A. Lipton,, L. Epstein,, and S. Swindells (ed.), The Neurology of AIDS. Chapman and Hall, New York, N.Y..
177. McArthur, J. C.,, D. R. Hoover,, H. Bacellar,, E. N. Miller,, B. A. Cohen,, J. T. Becker,, N. M. H. Graham,, J. H. McArther,, O. A. Seines,, L. P. Jacobson,, B. R. Vissher,, M. Concha, and A. Saah for The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. 1993. Dementia in AIDS patients: incidence and risk factors. Multicenter AIDS cohort study. Neurology 43:22452252.
178. Mellors, J. W.,, A. Munoz,, J. V. Giorgi,, J. B. Margolick,, C. J. Tassolini,, P. Gupta,, L. A. Kingsley,, J. A. Todd,, A. J. Saah,, R. Detels,, J. P. Phair,, and C. R. Rinaldo Jr. 1997. Plasma viral load and CD4 lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 126:946954.
179. Mintz, M. 1999. Clinical features and treatment interventions for human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurologic disease in children. Semin. Neurol 19:165176.
180. Mizusawa, H.,, A. Hirano,, J . E Llena,, and M. Shintaku. 1988. Cerebrovascular lesions in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Acta Neuropathol. 76:451457.
181. Montaner, J. S.,, P. Reiss,, D. Cooper,, S. Vella,, M. Harris,, B. Conway,, M. A. Wainberg,, D. Smith,, P. Robinson,, D. Hall,, M. Myers,, and J. M. Lange. 1998. A randomized, doubleblind trial comparing combinations of nevirapine, didanosine, and zidovudine for HIV-infected patients: the INCAS Trial. Italy, The Netherlands, Canada and Australia Study. JAMA 279:930937.
182. Morgello, S. 1995. Pathogenesis and classification of primary central nervous system lymphoma: an update. Brain Pathol 5:383393.
183. Morgello, S.,, R. Mahboob,, X. Yakoushina,, S. Khan,, and K. Hague. 2002. Autopsy findings in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected population over 2 decades: influences of gender, ethnicity, risk factors, and time. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126:182190.
184. Moulignier, A.,, F.-J. Authier,, M. Baudrimont,, G. Pialoux,, L. Belec,, M. Polivka,, B. Clair,, E. Gray,, J. Mikol,, and R. K. Gherardi. 1997. Peripheral neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with the diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. Ann. Neurol. 41:438445.
185. Moulignier, A.,, A. Moulonguet,, G. Pialoux,, and W. Rozenbaum. 2001. Reversible ALS-like disorder in HIV infection. Neurology 57:9951001.
186. Muller, W. E.,, H. C. Schroder,, H. Ushijima,, J . Dapper,, and J . Bormann. 1992. gpl20 of HIV-1 induces apoptosis in rat cortical cell cultures: prevention by memantine. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 226:209214.
187. Narciso, P.,, S. Galgani,, B. DelGrosso,, M. DeMarco,, A. DeSantis,, P. Balestra,, V. Ciapparoni,, and V. Tozzi. 2001. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis as manifestation of primary HIV infection. Neurology 57:14931496.
188. Nath, A.,, K. Conant,, P. Chen,, C. Scott,, and E. O. Major. 1999. Transient exposure to HIV-1 Tat protein results in cytokine production in macrophages and astrocytes. A hit and run phenomenon. J . Biol. Chem. 274:1709817102.
189. Navia, B. A.,, E.-S. Cho,, C. K. Petito,, and R. W. Price. 1986a. The AIDS dementia complex: II. Neuropathology. Ann. Neurol. 19:525535.
190. Navia, B. A.,, B. D. Jordan,, and R. W. Price. 1986b. The AIDS dementia complex: I. Clinical features. Ann. Neurol. 19:517524.
191. Navia, B . A.,, and R. W. Price,. 1998. Clinical and biological features of the AIDS dementia complex, p. 229240. In H. E. Gendelman,, J. A. Lipton,, L. Epstein,, and S. Swindells (ed.), The Neurology of AIDS. Chapman and Hall, New York, N.Y..
192. Nottet, H. S. L. M.,, M. Jett,, C. R. Flanagan,, Q.-H. Zhai,, Y. Persidsky,, A. Rizzino,, E . W. Bernton,, P. Genis,, T. Baldwin,, J . Schwartz,, C. J . LaBenz,, and H. E. Gendelman. 1995. A regulatory role for astrocytes in HIV 1 encephalitis. An overexpression of eicosanoids, platelet activating factor, and tumor necrosis factor by activated HIV-1 infected monocytes is attenuated by primary human astrocytes. J. Immunol. 154:35673581.
193. Nottet, H. S.,, Y. Persidsky,, V. G. Sasseville,, A. N . Nukuna,, P. Bock,, Q.-H. Zhai,, L. R. Sharer,, R. D. McComb,, S. Swindells,, C. Soderland,, and H. E. Gendelman. 1996. Mechanisms for the transendothelial migration of HIV-1-infected monocytes into brain. J. Immunol. 156:12841295.
194. Nuovo, G. J.,, J. Becker,, M. W. Burk,, M. Margiotta,, J. Fuhrer,, and R. T. Steigbigel. 1994. In situ detection of PCR-amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids in lymph nodes and peripheral blood in patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infection and advanced-stage AIDS. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7:916923.
195. Nuwer, M. R.,, E. N . Muller,, B. R. Visscher,, E. Niedermeyer,, J . W. Packwood,, L . G. Carlson,, P. Satz,, W. Jankel,, and J . C. McArthur. 1992. Asymptomatic HIV infection does not cause EEG abnormalities: results from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Neurology 42:12131219.
196. Oster, S.,, P. Christoffersen,, H. J. Gundersen,, J. O. Nielsen,, C. Pedersen,, and B. Pakkenberg. 1995. Six billion neurons lost in AIDS. A stereological study of the neocortex. APMIS 103:525529.
197. Palella, F. J., Jr.,, K. M. Delaney,, A. C. Moorman,, M. O. Loveless,, J. Fuhrer,, G. A. Satten,, D. J. Aschman,, and S. D. Holmberg. 1998. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N. Engl. J.. Med. 338:853860.
198. Pearson, D. A.,, N . M. McGrath,, M. Nozyce,, S. L. Nichols,, C. Raskino,, P. Brouwers,, M. C Lifschitz,, C. J . Baker,, and J . A. Englund. 2000. Predicting HIV disease progression in children using measures of neuropsychological and neurological functioning. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials 152 Study Team. Pediatrics 106:E76. Full text at http://www.pediatrics.org..
199. Peavy, G.,, D . Jacobs,, D. P. Salmon,, N. Butters,, D. C. Delis,, M. Taylor,, P. Massman,, J. C. Stout,, W. C. Heindel,, D. Kirson,, J . H. Alkinson,, J. L. Chandler, 1. Grant, and the HNRC Group. 1994- Verbal memory performance of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: evidence of subcortical dysfunction. The HNRC Group. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 16:508523.
200. Perry, S. W.,, J. A. Hamilton,, L. W. Tjoelker,, G. Dbaibo,, K. A. Dzenko,, L. G. Epstein,, Y. Hannun,, J. S. Whittaker,, S. Dewhurst,, and H. A. Gelbard. 1998. Platelet-activating factor receptor activation. An initiator step in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. J. Biol. Chem. 273:1766017664.
201. Peterson, P. K.,, G. Gekker,, J. R. Lokensgard,, J. M. Bidlack,, A. C. Chang,, X. Fang,, and P. S. Portoghese. 2001. Kappa-opioid receptor agonist suppression of HIV-1 expression in CD4+ lymphocytes. Biochem. Pharmacol. 61:11451151.
202. Petito, C. K.,, and B. Roberts. 1995. Evidence of apoptotic cell death in HIV encephalitis. Am. J. Pathol. 146:11211130.
203. Petito, C. K.,, B. A. Navia,, E. S. Cho,, B . D . Jordan,, D. C. George,, and R. W. Price. 1985. Vacuolar myelopathy pathologically resembling subacute combined degeneration in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 312:874879.
204. Petito, C. K.,, E. S. Cho,, W. Lemann,, B. A. Navia,, and R. W. Price. 1986. Neuropathology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): an autopsy review. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 45:635646.
205. Petito, C. K.,, B . Roberts,, J. D. Cantando,, A. Rabinstein,, and R. Duncan. 2001. Hippocampal injury and alterations in neuronal chemokine co-receptor expression in patients with AIDS. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60:377385.
206. Piette, A. M.,, F. Tusseau,, D. Vignon,, A. Chapman,, G. Parrot,, J . Leibowitch,, and L. Montagnier. 1986. Acute neuropathy concidents with seroconversion for anti-LAV/HTLV-III. Lancet i:852.
207. Pinto, A. N. 1996. AIDS and cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 27:538543.
208. Piot, P.,, M. Bartos,, P. D. Ghys,, N. Walker,, and B . Schwartlander. 2001. The global impact of HIV/AIDS. Nature 410:968973.
209. Pizzo, P. A.,, and M. Wilfert (ed.). 1998. Pediatric AIDS: the Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md..
210. Post, M. J. D.,, C. Yiannoutsos,, D. Simpson,, J . Booss,, D. B. Clifford,, B. Cohen,, J . K. McArthur,, C. D. Hall, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, 243 Team. 1999. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS: are there any MR findings useful to patient management and predictive of patient survival? Am J. Neuroradiol. 20:18961906.
211. Powderly, W. G. 1993. Cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:837842.
212. Power, C.,, P. A. Kong,, T. O. Crawford,, S. Wesselingh,, J. D. Glass,, J. C. McArthur,, and B. D. Trapp. 1993. Cerebral white matter changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia: alterations of the blood-brain barrier. Ann. Neurol. 34:339350.
213. Power, C.,, J. C. McArthur,, R. T. Johnson,, D. E. Griffin,, J. D. Glass,, R. Dewey,, R.,, and B. Chesebro. 1995. Distinct HIV-1 env sequences are associated with neurotropism and neurovirulence. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 202:89104.
214. Price, R. W. 1998. Neuropathy complicating diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis. Lancet 352:592594.
215. Price, R. W.,, and B. J. Brew. 1988. The AIDS dementia complex. J. Infect. Dis. 158:10791083.
216. Quinn, T. C 1997. Acute primary HIV infection. JAMA 278:5862.
217. Raja, E.,, F. E. Sherriff,, C. S. Morris,, L. R. Bridges,, and M. M. Esiri. 1997. Cerebral white matter damage in HIV infection demonstrated using beta-amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 93:184189.
218. Ratner, L., 1996. Genetic organization of HIV. In S. Gupta (ed.), Immunology of HIV. Plenum, New York, N.Y..
219. Rausch, D. M.,, and M. R. Davis. 2001. HIV in the CNS: pathogenic relationships to systemic HIV disease and other CNS diseases. J. Neurovirol. 7:8596.
220. Rooney, C. M.,, C. A. Smith,, and H. E. Heslop. 1997. Control of virus-induced lymphoproliferation: Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferation and host immunity. Mol. Med. Today 3:2430.
221. Rosenblum, M.,, A. C. Scheck,, K. Cronin,, B . J . Brew,, A. Khan,, M. Paul,, and R. W. Price. 1989. Dissociation of AIDS-related vacuolar myelopathy and productive HIV-1 infection of the spinal cord. Neurology 39:892896.
222. Sacktor, N.,, R. H. Lyles,, R. Skolasky,, C. Kleeberger,, O. A. Seines,, E. N. Miller,, J. T. Becker,, B. Cohen,, J. C. McArthur, and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. 2001a. HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes: multicenter AIDS cohort study, 1990-1998. Neurology 56:257260.
223. Sacktor, N.,, P. M. Tarwater,, R. L. Skolasky,, J. C. McArthur,, O. A. Seines,, J. Becker,, B . Cohen,, and E. N. Miller for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). 2001b. CSF antiretroviral drug penetrance and the treatment of HIVassociated psychomotor slowing. Neurology 53:782789.
224. Sacktor, N.,, M. P. McDermott,, K. Marder,, G. Schifitto,, O. A. Seines,, J. C. McArthur,, Y. Stern,, S. Albert,, D. Palumbo,, K. Kieburtz,, J . A. DeMarcaida,, B. Cohen,, and K. L. Epstein. 2002. HIV associated cognitive impairment before and after the advent of combination therapy. J. Neurovirol. 8:136142.
225. Samson, M.,, O. Labbe,, C. Mollereau,, G. Vassart,, G., and M. Parmentier. 1996. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a new human CC-chemokine receptor gene. Biochemistry 35:33623367.
226. Schacker, T.,, A. C. Collier,, J . Hughes,, T. Shea,, and L. Corey. 1996. Clinical and epidemiologic features of primary HIV infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 125:257264.
227. Schifitto, G.,, M. P. McDermott,, J. C. McArthur,, K. Marder,, N. Sacktor,, L. Epstein,, K. Kieburtz, and the Dana Consortium on the Therapy of HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders. 2002. Incidence of and risk factors for HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy. Neurology 58:17641768.
228. Seilhean, D.,, K. Kobayashi,, Y. He,, T. Uchihara,, O. Rosenblum,, C. Katlama,, F. Bricaire,, C. Duyckaerts,, and J. J. Hauw. 1997. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, microglia and astrocytes in AIDS dementia complex. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 93:508517.
229. Sepkowitz, K. A. 2001. AIDS-the first 20 years. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:17641772.
230. Shankar, P.,, M. Russo,, B. Harnisch,, M. Patterson,, P. Skolnick,, and J . Lieberman. 2000. Impaired function of circulating HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 96:30943101.
231. Sharp, B. M.,, K. McAllen,, G. Gekker,, N. A. Shahabi,, and P. K. Peterson. 2001. Immunofluorescence detection of delta opioid receptors (DOR) on human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells and DOR-dependent suppression of HIV-1 expression. J. Immunol. 167:10971102.
232. Shaw, G. M.,, M. E. Harper,, B. H. Hahn,, L. G. Epstein,, D. C. Gajduske,, R. W. Price,, B. A. Navia,, C. K. Petito,, C. J. O'Hara,, J. E. Groopman,, E. S. Cho,, J. M. Oleske,, E. Wong-Saal,, and R. C. Gallo. 1985. HTLV III infection in brains of children and adults with AIDS encephalopathy. Science 227:177182.
233. Shepherd, E. J.,, R. P. Brettle,, R. P. Liberski,, A. Aguzzi,, J. W. Ironside,, P. Simmonds,, and J. E. Bell. 1999. Spinal cord pathology and viral burden in homosexuals and drug users with AIDS. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 25:210.
234. Sidtis, J. J.,, C. Gatsonis,, R. W. Price,, E. J. Singer,, A. C. Collier,, <