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5 Systemic Viral Diseases and Encephalitis

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Abstract:

Encephalitis may appear in the context of systemic viral illness or viral infection of another organ system. Consideration of the diagnostic features of the non-central nervous system (CNS) portion of the disease will facilitate an etiologic diagnosis. Bacterial diseases such as Rocky Mountain fever and meningococcal disease are also associated with CNS disease and skin manifestations. Aseptic meningitis and stroke have also been reported in connection with parvovirus B-19. The virus is a demonstrated cause, albeit rare, of aseptic meningitis. Viral diagnostic studies rely on immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescent antibody determinations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PCR. Exanthem subitum, roseola, and sixth disease are synonyms for a brief illness of infants and children characterized by the appearance of a rash following lysis of fever. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is classified as a beta herpesvirus, and its genetic structure resembles those of HHV-7 and cytomegalovirus (CMV). HHV-7, the herpesvirus bearing the greatest similarity to HHV-6, is another ubiquitous virus; antibody is usually acquired by the age of 3 years. Like HHV-6, it is tropic for CD4 lymphocytes, and it too may cause encephalopathic disease, but details of this remain sketchy. Prior to widespread vaccination, mumps was one of the most common causes of aseptic meningitis. Acute and subacute diffuse encephalopathic signs were reported, including somnolence, confusion, stupor, dysarthria, dysphagia, and incontinence.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 5 Systemic Viral Diseases and Encephalitis, p 61-80. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch5
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 5.1

Representative viral exanthems and encephalitis/encephalopathy

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 5 Systemic Viral Diseases and Encephalitis, p 61-80. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch5
Generic image for table
TABLE 5.2

Neurological disorders attributed to HHV-6

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 5 Systemic Viral Diseases and Encephalitis, p 61-80. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch5
Generic image for table
TABLE 5.3

Presence of parotitis in mumps encephalitis at time of CNS complications a

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 5 Systemic Viral Diseases and Encephalitis, p 61-80. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch5
Generic image for table
TABLE 5.4

Neurological complications and associations with EBV a

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 5 Systemic Viral Diseases and Encephalitis, p 61-80. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch5
Generic image for table
TABLE 5.5

Comparison of hepatitis viruses a

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 5 Systemic Viral Diseases and Encephalitis, p 61-80. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch5

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