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Chapter 6 : Encephalitis Viruses Transmitted from Animals

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Abstract:

Many viruses that infect humans have animal reservoirs or have an important cycle in animal hosts. The major diagnostic consideration here is that contact with various types of animals can result in significant viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, careful evaluation of contacts with pets and domestic and wild animals, and exposure to vectors of viruses from animals must be part of the workup of every case of encephalitis. Important in the present context is the occasional presentation as sporadic, apparently isolated, cases of encephalitis in areas not usually associated with arboviral infections. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an important human pathogen and has also served as an experimental probe in immunobiology. LCMV infection of humans can present with a grippelike syndrome, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and encephalomyelitis. The diagnosis of LCM encephalitis is critically dependent on clinical thoroughness. Perhaps the most feared of all the encephalitides, rabies is almost always transmitted to people by the bite of a virus-bearing animal and is almost always fatal in humans. Isolation procedures are recommended for the management of patients with rabies, with the use of face masks, gloves, and gowns. Herpes B virus is closely related to herpes simplex virus (HSV) and causes a latent infection in healthy rhesus monkeys. The virus has been identified in monkey saliva. Thorough prevention, wound treatment, and clinical management guidelines have been developed for persons at risk to be injured in the course of monkey handling.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. Encephalitis Viruses Transmitted from Animals, p 81-94. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch6
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 6.1

Arenaviruses that can cause human neurological disease a

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. Encephalitis Viruses Transmitted from Animals, p 81-94. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch6
Generic image for table
TABLE 6.2

Representative neurological and sense organ abnormalities associated with infection by LCMV

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. Encephalitis Viruses Transmitted from Animals, p 81-94. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch6
Generic image for table
TABLE 6.3

Rabies postexposure prophylaxis guide a , b

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. Encephalitis Viruses Transmitted from Animals, p 81-94. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch6

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