1887

Chapter 3 : Intestinal Immunity

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Intestinal Immunity, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817848/9781555812614_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817848/9781555812614_Chap03-2.gif

Abstract:

Intestinal immunity is a relatively new term in relation to events and processes that precede human biology. Antigens need to be sampled, processed, and presented in such a way that enables the destruction of pathogens and tolerance of nonpathogens. Therefore, the rules governing intestinal immunity differ from those observed in systemic immunity. Cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) include conventional cells of the innate and adaptive immune system such as B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DC), as well as more unusual antigen-presenting cells (APC) and lymphocytes unique to the GALT, such as intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). These cells have unique activation requirements, and they secrete, and are influenced by, a special array of cytokines and mediators. These unique cells and phenomena are discussed in this chapter. Tight junctions between epithelial cells function as potent exclusion barriers for large macromolecules or pathogens. Increasing evidence suggests that CD8 regulatory T cells are stimulated in the GALT after interaction with IEC or DC. In certain inflammatory states, however, the function of tight junctions is disturbed, thus enabling the transit of charged molecules, bacteria, and nutrients across the epithelium. LPL are a very heterogeneous group composed of T and B cells, as well as plasma and mast cells and macrophages.

Citation: Dotan I, Mayer L. 2003. Intestinal Immunity, p 43-59. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex
0.5522551
Adaptive Immune System
0.5401407
Innate Immune System
0.5220494
Immune Systems
0.47184995
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.44871283
0.5522551
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

The interaction of IEC with T cells—a suggested model. IEC express a variety of surface molecules relevant for antigen presentation and stimulation of T cells (see Table 2). Luminal antigens derived from food or bacteria may be internalized via the apical surface. In the presence of inflammation, paracellular transport of antigens and presentation by basolateral surface molecules may occur. The amount and type of antigen, as well as the combination of antigen-presenting molecules with costimulatory molecules, determine the population of T cells that will expand. CD8 IEL and LPL may be stimulated by classical MHC class I molecules. Stimulation by class I-like molecules, such as the complex gp180:CD1d and MICA/MICB, may also occur. The antigen presented in the IEC:CD8 T-cell interaction is of nonpeptide origin. When presented by CD1d, data suggest it is a bacterial-derived phospholipid. The nature of antigen presented to CD8 T cells by MICA/MICB expressing IEC remains hypothetical at this point. CD8 T cells activated by IEC have a suppressor activity and may function in regulating mucosal homeostasis. Peptide antigens can be presented to CD4 T cells by MHC class II molecules, which are constitutively expressed on IEC. Different CD4 T-cell populations may expand when the antigen is taken up via the apical or the basolateral surface. In normal mucosal homeostasis, regulatory CD4 T cells, activated via MHC class II without costimulation, may contribute to controlled inflammation. In inflammatory states, upregulation of MHC class II as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD86 may promote the expansion of TH1/TH2 cells and contribute to uncontrolled inflammation.

Citation: Dotan I, Mayer L. 2003. Intestinal Immunity, p 43-59. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817848.chap3
1. Allez, M.,, J. Brimnes,, I. Dotan,, and L. Mayer. 2002. Expansion of CD8+ T cells with regulatory function after interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 123:15161526.
2. Alpan, O., , G. Rudomen, , and P. Matzinger. 2001. The role of dendritic cells, B cells, and M cells in gut-oriented immune responses. J. Immunol. 166:48434852.
2. Asseman, C.,, S. Mauze,, M. W. Leach,, R. L. Coffman,, and F. Powrie. 1999. An essential role for interleukin 10 in the function of regulatory T cells that inhibit intestinal inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 190:9951004.
3. Bland, P. W.,, and L. G. Warren. 1986. Antigen presentation by epithelial cells of the rat small intestine. II. Selective induction of suppressor T cells. Immunology 58:914.
4. Boirivant, M.,, M. Marini,, G. Di Felice,, A. M. Pronio,, C. Montesani,, R. Tersigni,, and W. Strober. 1999. Lamina propria T cells in Crohn’s disease and other gastrointestinal inflammation show defective CD2 pathwayinduced apoptosis. Gastroenterology 116:557565.
5. Braud, V. M.,, D. S. Allan,, and A. J. Mc-Michael. 1999. Functions of nonclassical MHC and non-MHC-encoded class I molecules. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 11:100108.
6. Breitfeld, P. P.,, J. M. Harris,, and K. E. Mostov. 1989. Postendocytotic sorting of the ligand for the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. J. Cell Biol. 109:475486.
7. Camoglio, L.,, A. A. te Velde,, A. J. Tigges,, P. K. Das,, and S. J. van Deventer. 1998. Altered expression of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 4:285290.
8. Campbell, N. A.,, H. S. Kim,, R. S. Blumberg,, and L. Mayer. 1999. The nonclassical class I molecule CD1d associates with the novel CD8 ligand gp180 on intestinal epithelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 274:2625926265.
9. Chen, Y.,, J. Inobe,, R. Marks,, P. Gonnella,, V. K. Kuchroo,, and H. L. Weiner. 1995. Peripheral deletion of antigen-reactive T cells in oral tolerance. Nature 376:177180.
10. Chen, Y.,, J. Inobe,, and H. L. Weiner. 1997. Inductive events in oral tolerance in the TCR transgenic adoptive transfer model. Cell Immunol. 178:6268.
11. Chen, Y.,, V. K. Kuchroo,, J. Inobe,, D. A. Hafler,, and H. L. Weiner. 1994. Regulatory T cell clones induced by oral tolerance: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Science 265:12371240.
12. De Maria, R.,, M. Boirivant,, M. G. Cifone,, P. Roncaioli,, M. Hahne,, J. Tschopp,, F. Pallone,, A. Santoni,, and R. Testi. 1996. Functional expression of Fas and Fas ligand on human gut lamina propria T lymphocytes. A potential role for the acidic sphingomyelinase pathway in normal immunoregulation. J. Clin. Invest. 97: 16322.
13. Dwinell, M. B.,, N. Lugering,, L. Eckmann,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 2001. Regulated production of interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractants by human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 120:4959.
14. Framson, P. E.,, D. H. Cho,, L. Y. Lee,, and R. M. Hershberg. 1999. Polarized expression and function of the costimulatory molecule CD58 on human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 116:10541062.
15. Fuss, I. J.,, M. Neurath,, M. Boirivant,, J. S. Klein,, M. C. de La,, S. A. Strong,, C. Fiocchi,, and W. Strober. 1996. Disparate CD4+ lamina propria (LP) lymphokine secretion profiles in inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn’s disease LP cells manifest increased secretion of IFN-gamma, whereas ulcerative colitis LP cells manifest increased secretion of IL-5. J. Immunol. 157:12611270.
16. Garside, P.,, and A. M. Mowat. 2001. Oral tolerance. Semin. Immunol. 13:177185.
17. Gasche, C.,, S. Bakos,, C. Dejaco,, W. Tillinger,, S. Zakeri,, and W. Reinisch. 2000. IL-10 secretion and sensitivity in normal human intestine and inflammatory bowel disease. J. Clin. Immunol. 20:362370.
18. Gassler, N.,, C. Rohr,, A. Schneider,, J. Kartenbeck,, A. Bach,, N. Obermuller,, H. F. Otto,, and F. Autschbach. 2001. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with changes of enterocytic junctions. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 281:G216G228.
19. Goke, M.,, and D. K. Podolsky. 1996. Regulation of the mucosal epithelial barrier. Baillieres Clin. Gastroenterol. 10:393405.
20. Gonnella, P. A.,, Y. Chen,, J. Inobe,, Y. Komagata,, M. Quartulli,, and H. L. Weiner. 1998. In situ immune response in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) following oral antigen in TCR-transgenic mice. J. Immunol. 160:47084718.
21. Groh, V.,, S. Bahram,, S. Bauer,, A. Herman,, M. Beauchamp,, and T. Spies. 1996. Cell stress-regulated human major histocompatibility complex class I gene expressed in gastrointestinal epithelium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1244512450.
22. Groux, H.,, A. O’Garra,, M. Bigler,, M. Rouleau,, S. Antonenko,, J. E. de Vries,, and M. G. Roncarolo. 1997. A CD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. Nature 389:737742.
23. Groux, H.,, and F. Powrie. 1999. Regulatory T cells and inflammatory bowel disease. Immunol. Today 20:442445.
24. Gumperz, J. E.,, C. Roy,, A. Makowska,, D. Lum,, M. Sugita,, T. Podrebarac,, Y. Koezuka,, S. A. Porcelli,, S. Cardell,, M. B. Brenner,, and S. M. Behar. 2000. Murine CD1d-restricted T cell recognition of cellular lipids. Immunity 12:211221.
25. Hanninen, A.,, N. R. Martinez,, G. M. Davey,, W. R. Heath,, and L. C. Harrison. 2002. Transient blockade of CD40 ligand dissociates pathogenic from protective mucosal immunity. J. Clin. Invest. 109:261267.
26. Hashimoto, Y.,, and T. Komuro. 1988. Close relationships between the cells of the immune system and the epithelial cells in the rat small intestine. Cell Tissue Res. 254:4147.
27. Hayday, A.,, E. Theodoridis,, E. Ramsburg,, and J. Shires. 2001. Intraepithelial lymphocytes: exploring the Third Way in immunology. Nat. Immunol. 2:9971003.
28. Hermiston, M. L.,, and J. I. Gordon. 1995. In vivo analysis of cadherin function in the mouse intestinal epithelium: essential roles in adhesion, maintenance of differentiation, and regulation of programmed cell death. J. Cell Biol. 129:489506.
29. Hershberg, R. M.,, D. H. Cho,, A. Youakim,, M. B. Bradley,, J. S. Lee,, P. E. Framson,, and G. T. Nepom. 1998. Highly polarized HLA class II antigen processing and presentation by human intestinal epithelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. 102:792803.
30. Hershberg, R. M.,, P. E. Framson,, D. H. Cho,, L. Y. Lee,, S. Kovats,, J. Beitz,, J. S. Blum,, and G. T. Nepom. 1997. Intestinal epithelial cells use two distinct pathways for HLA class II antigen processing. J. Clin. Invest. 100: 204215.
31. Hirata, I.,, L. L. Austin,, W. H. Blackwell,, J. R. Weber,, and W. O. Dobbins III. 1986. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of HLA-DR antigen in control small intestine and colon and in inflammatory bowel disease. Dig. Dis. Sci. 31:13171330.
32. Huang, G. T.,, L. Eckmann,, T. C. Savidge,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 1996. Infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with invasive bacteria upregulates apical intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and neutrophil adhesion. J. Clin. Invest. 98:572583.
33. Ina, K.,, J. Itoh,, K. Fukushima,, K. Kusugami,, T. Yamaguchi,, K. Kyokane,, A. Imada,, D. G. Binion,, A. Musso,, G. A. West,, G. M. Dobrea,, T. S. McCormick,, E. G. Lapetina,, A. D. Levine,, C. A. Ottaway,, and C. Fiocchi. 1999. Resistance of Crohn’s disease T cells to multiple apoptotic signals is associated with a Bcl-2/Bax mucosal imbalance. J. Immunol. 163:10811090.
34. Israel, E. J.,, S. Taylor,, Z. Wu,, E. Mizoguchi,, R. S. Blumberg,, A. Bahn,, and N. E. Sinister. 1997. Expression of the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, on human intestinal epithelial cells. Immunology 92:6974.
35. Itoh, J.,, M. C. de La,, S. A. Strong,, A. D. Levine,, and C. Fiocchi. 2001. Decreased Bax expression by mucosal T cells favours resistance to apoptosis in Crohn’s disease. Gut 49:3541.
36. Iwasaki, A.,, and B. L. Kelsall. 1999. Freshly isolated Peyer’s patch, but not spleen, dendritic cells produce interleukin 10 and induce the differentiation of T helper type 2 cells. J. Exp. Med. 190:229239.
37. Izadpanah, A.,, M. B. Dwinell,, L. Eckmann,, N. M. Varki,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 2001. Regulated MIP-3alpha/CCL20 production by human intestinal epithelium: mechanism for modulating mucosal immunity. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 280:G710G719.
38. Kawabe, T.,, T. Naka,, K. Yoshida,, T. Tanaka,, H. Fujiwara,, S. Suematsu,, N. Yoshida,, T. Kishimoto,, and H. Kikutani. 1994. The immune responses in CD40-deficient mice: impaired immunoglobulin class switching and germinal center formation. Immunity 1:167178.
39. Kawano, T.,, J. Cui,, Y. Koezuka,, I. Toura,, Y. Kaneko,, K. Motoki,, H. Ueno,, R. Nakagawa,, H. Sato,, E. Kondo,, H. Koseki,, and M. Taniguchi. 1997. CD1d-restricted and TCR-mediated activation of valpha14 NKT cells by glycosylceramides. Science 278:16261629.
40. Kjerrulf, M.,, D. Grdic,, L. Ekman,, K. Schon,, M. Vajdy,, and N. Y. Lycke. 1997. Interferongamma receptor-deficient mice exhibit impaired gut mucosal immune responses but intact oral tolerance. Immunology 92:6068.
41. Kunkel, E. J.,, J. J. Campbell,, G. Haraldsen,, J. Pan,, J. Boisvert,, A. I. Roberts,, E. C. Ebert,, M. A. Vierra,, S. B. Goodman,, M. C. Genovese,, A. J. Wardlaw,, H. B. Greenberg,, C. M. Parker,, E. C. Butcher,, D. P. Andrew,, and W. W. Agace. 2000. Lymphocyte CC chemokine receptor 9 and epithelial thymusexpressed chemokine (TECK) expression distinguish the small intestinal immune compartment: epithelial expression of tissue-specific chemokines as an organizing principle in regional immunity. J. Exp. Med. 192:761768.
42. Kweon, M. N.,, K. Fujihashi,, Y. Wakatsuki,, T. Koga,, M. Yamamoto,, J. R. McGhee,, and H. Kiyono. 1999. Mucosally induced systemic T cell unresponsiveness to ovalbumin requires CD40 ligand-CD40 interactions. J. Immunol. 162:19041909.
43. Kweon, M. N.,, and H. Kiyono. 2002. CD40L in autoimmunity and mucosally induced tolerance. J. Clin. Invest. 109:171173.
44. Lee, H. O.,, S. D. Miller,, S. D. Hurst,, L. J. Tan,, C. J. Cooper,, and T. A. Barrett. 2000. Interferon gamma induction during oral tolerance reduces T-cell migration to sites of inflammation. Gastroenterology 119:129138.
45. Madara, J. L. 1998. Regulation of the movement of solutes across tight junctions. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60:143159.
46. Madrigal-Estebas, L.,, R. McManus,, B. Byrne,, S. Lynch,, D. G. Doherty,, D. Kelleher,, D. P. O’Donoghue,, C. Feighery,, and C. O’Farrelly. 1997. Human small intestinal epithelial cells secrete interleukin-7 and differentially express two different interleukin-7 mRNA transcripts: implications for extrathymic T-cell differentiation. Hum. Immunol. 58:8390.
47. Marth, T.,, W. Strober,, and B. L. Kelsall. 1996. High dose oral tolerance in ovalbumin TCR-transgenic mice: systemic neutralization of IL-12 augments TGF-beta secretion and T cell apoptosis. J. Immunol. 157:23482357.
48. Mayer, L.,, D. Eisenhardt,, P. Salomon,, W. Bauer,, R. Plous,, and L. Piccinini. 1991. Expression of class II molecules on intestinal epithelial cells in humans. Differences between normal and inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 100:312.
49. Mayer, L.,, and R. Shlien. 1987. Evidence for function of Ia molecules on gut epithelial cells in man. J. Exp. Med. 166:14711483.
50. Mowat, A. M.,, M. Steel,, A. J. Leishman,, and P. Garside. 1999. Normal induction of oral tolerance in the absence of a functional IL-12-dependent IFN-gamma signaling pathway. J. Immunol. 163:47284736.
51. Murch, S. H.,, C. P. Braegger,, J. A. Walker-Smith,, and T. T. MacDonald. 1993. Location of tumour necrosis factor alpha by immunohistochemistry in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 34:17051709.
52. Nakazawa, A.,, M. Watanabe,, T. Kanai,, T. Yajima,, M. Yamazaki,, H. Ogata,, H. Ishii,, M. Azuma,, and T. Hibi. 1999. Functional expression of costimulatory molecule CD86 on epithelial cells in the inflamed colonic mucosa. Gastroenterology 117:536545.
53. Neutra, M. R.,, N. J. Mantis,, and J. P. Kraehenbuhl. 2001. Collaboration of epithelial cells with organized mucosal lymphoid tissues. Nat. Immunol. 2:10041009.
54. Panja, A.,, E. Siden,, and L. Mayer. 1995. Synthesis and regulation of accessory/proinflammatory cytokines by intestinal epithelial cells. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 100:298305.
55. Ranheim, E. A.,, and T. J. Kipps. 1993. Activated T cells induce expression of B7/BB1 on normal or leukemic B cells through a CD40-dependent signal. J. Exp. Med. 177:925935.
56. Read, S.,, V. Malmstrom,, and F. Powrie. 2000 . Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory cells that control intestinal inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 192:295302.
57. Reinecker, H. C.,, R. P. MacDermott,, S. Mirau,, A. Dignass,, and D. K. Podolsky. 1996. Intestinal epithelial cells both express and respond to interleukin 15. Gastroenterology 111: 17061713.
58. Reinecker, H. C.,, and D. K. Podolsky. 1995. Human intestinal epithelial cells express functional cytokine receptors sharing the common gamma c chain of the interleukin 2 receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:83538357.
59. Reinecker, H. C.,, M. Steffen,, T. Witthoeft,, I. Pflueger,, S. Schreiber,, R. P. Mac-Dermott,, and A. Raedler. 1993. Enhanced secretion of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1 beta by isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells from patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 94:174181.
60. Rescigno, M.,, M. Urbano,, B. Valzasina,, M. Francolini,, G. Rotta,, R. Bonasio,, F. Granucci,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl,, and P. Ricciardi-Castagnoli. 2001. Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat. Immunol. 2: 361367.
61. Roncarolo, M. G.,, R. Bacchetta,, C. Bordignon,, S. Narula,, and M. K. Levings. 2001. Type 1 T regulatory cells. Immunol. Rev. 182:6879.
62. Sakaguchi, S.,, N. Sakaguchi,, M. Asano,, M. Itoh,, and M. Toda. 1995. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. J. Immunol. 155:11511164.
63. Samoilova, E. B.,, J. L. Horton,, H. Zhang,, S. J. Khoury,, H. L. Weiner,, and Y. Chen. 1998. CTLA-4 is required for the induction of high dose oral tolerance. Int. Immunol. 10:491498.
64. Schneeberger, E. E.,, and R. D. Lynch. 1992. Structure, function, and regulation of cellular tight junctions. Am. J. Physiol. 262:L647L661.
65. Schreiber, S.,, S. Nikolaus,, J. Hampe,, J. Hamling,, I. Koop,, B. Groessner,, H. Lochs,, and A. Raedler. 1999. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta in relapse of Crohn’s disease. Lancet 353:459461.
66. Shibahara, T.,, J. N. Wilcox,, T. Couse,, and J. L. Madara. 2001. Characterization of epithelial chemoattractants for human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Gastroenterology 120:6070.
67. Singh, B.,, S. Read,, C. Asseman,, V. Malmstrom,, C. Mottet,, L. A. Stephens,, R. Stepankova,, H. Tlaskalova,, and F. Powrie. 2001. Control of intestinal inflammation by regulatory T cells. Immunol. Rev. 182:190200.
68. Somnay-Wadgaonkar, K.,, A. Nusrat,, H. S. Kim,, W. P. Canchis,, S. P. Balk,, S. P. Colgan,, and R. S. Blumberg. 1999. Immunolocalization of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells and identification of a beta2-microglobulinassociated form. Int. Immunol. 11:383392.
69. Spada, F. M.,, Y. Koezuka,, and S. A. Porcelli. 1998. CD1d-restricted recognition of synthetic glycolipid antigens by human natural killer T cells. J. Exp. Med. 188:15291534.
70. Spahn, T. W.,, A. Fontana,, A. M. Faria,, A. J. Slavin,, H. P. Eugster,, X. Zhang,, P. A. Koni,, N. H. Ruddle,, R. A. Flavell,, P. D. Rennert,, and H. L. Weiner. 2001. Induction of oral tolerance to cellular immune responses in the absence of Peyer’s patches. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:12781287.
71. Strober, W.,, B. Kelsall,, I. Fuss,, T. Marth,, B. Ludviksson,, R. Ehrhardt,, and M. Neurath. 1997. Reciprocal IFN-gamma and TGF-beta responses regulate the occurrence of mucosal inflammation. Immunol.Today 18:6164.
72. Suri-Payer, E.,, A. Z. Amar,, A. M. Thornton,, and E. M. Shevach. 1998. CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibit both the induction and effector function of autoreactive T cells and represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory cells. J. Immunol. 160:12121218.
73. Takahashi, T.,, Y. Kuniyasu,, M. Toda,, N. Sakaguchi,, M. Itoh,, M. Iwata,, J. Shimizu,, and S. Sakaguchi. 1998. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+CD4+ naturally anergic and suppressive T cells: induction of autoimmune disease by breaking their anergic/suppressive state. Int. Immunol. 10:19691980.
74. Targan, S. R.,, R. L. Deem,, M. Liu,, S. Wang,, and A. Nel. 1995. Definition of a lamina propria T cell responsive state. Enhanced cytokine responsiveness of T cells stimulated through the CD2 pathway. J. Immunol. 154:664675.
75. van Niel, G.,, G. Raposo,, C. Candalh,, M. Boussac,, R. Hershberg,, N. Cerf-Bensussan,, and M. Heyman. 2001. Intestinal epithelial cells secrete exosome-like vesicles. Gastroenterology 121:337349.
76. Viney, J. L.,, A. M. Mowat,, J. M. O’Malley,, E. Williamson,, and N. A. Fanger. 1998. Expanding dendritic cells in vivo enhances the induction of oral tolerance. J. Immunol. 160:58155825.
77. Weiner, H. L. 1997. Oral tolerance: immune mechanisms and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Immunol. Today 18:335343.
78. Weiner, H. L. 2001. Oral tolerance: immune mechanisms and the generation of Th3-type TGF-beta-secreting regulatory cells. Microbes Infect. 3:947954.
79. Witmer-Pack, M. D.,, W. J. Swiggard,, A. Mirza,, K. Inaba,, and R. M. Steinman. 1995. Tissue distribution of the DEC-205 protein that is detected by the monoclonal antibody NLDC-145. II. Expression in situ in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Cell Immunol. 163:157162.
80. Yio, X. Y.,, and L. Mayer. 1997. Characterization of a 180-kDa intestinal epithelial cell membrane glycoprotein, gp180. A candidate molecule mediating t cell-epithelial cell interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 272:1278612792.
81. Zabel, B. A.,, W. W. Agace,, J. J. Campbell,, H. M. Heath,, D. Parent,, A. I. Roberts,, E. C. Ebert,, N. Kassam,, S. Qin,, M. Zovko,, G. J. LaRosa,, L. L. Yang,, D. Soler,, E. C. Butcher,, P. D. Ponath,, C. M. Parker,, and D. P. Andrew. 1999. Human G protein-coupled receptor GPR-9-6/CC chemokine receptor 9 is selectively expressed on intestinal homing T lymphocytes, mucosal lymphocytes, and thymocytes and is required for thymus-expressed chemokine-mediated chemotaxis. J. Exp. Med. 190:12411256.
82. Zhang, W.,, and Y. C. Kong. 1998. Noninvolvement of IL-4 and IL-10 in tolerance induction to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Cell Immunol. 187:95102.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Innate and adaptive immunity in the gut

Citation: Dotan I, Mayer L. 2003. Intestinal Immunity, p 43-59. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

IEC express surface molecules that are relevant to antigen processing and presentation to T cells

Citation: Dotan I, Mayer L. 2003. Intestinal Immunity, p 43-59. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch3

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error