1887

Chapter 4 : Cytokines and Epithelial Function

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Cytokines and Epithelial Function, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817848/9781555812614_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817848/9781555812614_Chap04-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter talks about recent literature with regard to epithelial cytokine responses, with particular emphasis on functional consequences. It discusses the direct consequences of cytokines on aspects of epithelial function. An interesting exception with regard to cytokine influences on ion transport is that of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13. While these cytokines share common receptor subunits and in most cases display overlapping functions (e.g., attenuation of barrier function), only IL-4 appears to influence electrogenic chloride secretion. This finding was one of the first divergent functions ascribed to these apparently redundant cytokines, although recent studies suggest no differences between IL-4 and IL-13 with regard to proximal receptor activation. Recent work suggests that blockade of interaction with the cytoskelton using the polyamine cadaverine severely abrogates epithelial signaling to polymorpho-nuclear leukocyte (PMN). In the intestine, cytokine influences on epithelial function may best be exemplified through the study of enteric infections, specifically related to acute responses following initial microorganism-epithelial interaction.

Citation: Colgan S, Furuta G, Taylor C. 2003. Cytokines and Epithelial Function, p 61-78. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex
0.5355208
Immune Systems
0.44194016
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.44091493
Type III Secretion System
0.4172795
0.5355208
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Epithelial-derived TNF-α synergizes with IFN-γ in an autocrine manner. In response to a number of stimuli, including bacterial invasion and hypoxia, epithelial cells become a source of TNF-α. The polarized release (basolateral) of TNF-α synergizes with immune-derived cytokines, especially IFN-γ, resulting in influences on a number of epithelial functions, including decreased barrier function, diminished electrogenic chloride secretion, induction of MHC molecules, and liberation of proinflammatory chemokines.

Citation: Colgan S, Furuta G, Taylor C. 2003. Cytokines and Epithelial Function, p 61-78. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Phases of cytokine actions on acute epithelial infection. Epithelial cells are central to the coordinated response to microorganism infection (phase 1). Rapid induction and release of PMN chemokines (phase 2) elicit the accumulation of PMN within and across the epithelial surface. PMN at the lumenal surface initiates a Cl− secretory response and fluid transport which functionally flushes the surface of the epithelium. In phase 3 of the response, epithelial-derived cytokines (e.g., TNF-α) synergize with cytokines liberated in the intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments (e.g., IFN-γ) to attenuate fluid transport. In phase 4, intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocyte-derived cytokines (e.g., IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13) induce epithelial lipoxin receptors, the ligation of which results in attenuation of PMN accumulation. In phase 5, lipoxin-induced epithelial BPI provides a protective antimicrobial action for the resolution of acute inflammation.

Citation: Colgan S, Furuta G, Taylor C. 2003. Cytokines and Epithelial Function, p 61-78. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817848.chap4
1. Asfaha, S.,, W. K. MacNaughton,, C. B. Appleyard,, K. Chadee,, and J. L. Wallace. 2001. Persistent epithelial dysfunction and bacterial translocation after resolution of intestinal inflammation. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 281:G635G644.
2. Balk, S. P.,, S. Burke,, J. E. Polischuk,, M. E. Frantz,, L. Yang,, S. Porcelli,, S. P. Colgan,, and R. S. Blumberg. 1994. β2-microglobulin-independent MHC class Ib molecule expressed by human intestinal epithelium. Science 265:259262.
3. Balsam, L. B.,, T. W. Liang,, and C. A. Parkos. 1998. Functional mapping of CD11b/CD18 epitopes important in neutrophil-epithelial interactions: a central role of the I domain. J. Immunol. 160:50585065.
4. Barrett, K. E. 1993. Positive and negative regulation of chloride secretion in T84 cells. Am. J. Physiol. 265:C859C868.
5. Beagley, K. W.,, and A. J. Husband. 1998. Intraepithelial lymphocytes: origins, distribution, and function. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 18:237254.
6. Beck, P. L.,, and D. K. Podolsky. 1999. Growth factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 5:4460.
7. Bensancon, F.,, G. Przewlocki,, I. Baro,, A.-S. Hongre,, D. Escande,, and A. Edelman. 1994. Interferon-γ downregulates CFTR gene expression in epithelial cells. Am. J. Physiol. 267:C13981404.
8. Berin, M. C.,, P.-C. Yang,, L. Ciok,, S. Waserman,, and M. H. Perdue. 1999. Role of IL-4 in macromolecular transport across human intestinal epithelium. Am. J. Physiol. (Cell Physiol.) 276:C1046C1052.
9. Blume, E. D.,, C. T. Taylor,, P. F. Lennon,, G. L. Stahl,, and S. P. Colgan. 1998. Activated endothelial cells elicit paracrine induction of epithelial chloride secretion: 6-keto-PGF1a is an epithelial secretagogue. J. Clin. Invest. 102:11611172.
10. Bocker, U.,, A. Damiao,, L. Holt,, D. S. Han,, C. Jobin,, A. Panja,, L. Mayer,, and R. B. Sartor. 1998. Differential expression of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist isoforms in human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 115:14261438.
11. Brown, E. J.,, and W. A. Frazier. 2001. Integrin-associated protein (CD47) and its ligands. Trends Cell Biol. 11:130135.
12. Brubaker, J. O.,, and L. J. Montaner. 2001. Role of interleukin-13 in innate and adaptive immunity. Cell Mol. Biol. 47:637651.
13. Cambell, I. G.,, P. S. Freemont,, W. Foulkes,, and J. Trowsdale. 1992. An ovarian tumor marker with homology to vaccinia virus contains an IgV-like region and multiple transmembrane domains. Cancer Res. 52:54165420.
14. Canny, G.,, O. Levy,, G. T. Furuta,, S. Narravula-Alipati,, R. B. Sisson,, C. N. Serhan,, and S. P. Colgan. 2002. Lipid mediator-induced expression of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in human mucosal epithelia. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 99:39023907.
15. Casini-Raggi, V.,, L. Kam,, Y. J. Chong,, C. Fiocchi,, T. T. Pizarro,, and F. Cominelli. 1995. Mucosal imbalance of IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist in inflammatory bowel disease. A novel mechanism of chronic intestinal inflammation. J. Immunol. 154:24342440.
16. Ceponis, P. J.,, F. Botelho,, C. D. Richards,, and D. M. McKay. 2000. Interleukins 4 and 13 increase intestinal epithelial permeability by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Lack of evidence for STAT 6 involvement. J. Biol. Chem. 275:2913229137.
17. Cerf-Bensussan, N.,, A. Quaroni,, J. T. Kurnick,, and A. K. Bahn. 1984. Intraepithelial lymphocytes modulate Ia expression by intestinal epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 132:22442252.
18. Ciacci, C.,, Y. R. Mahida,, A. Dignass,, M. Koizumi,, and D. K. Podolsky. 1993. Functional IL-2 receptors on intestinal epithelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. 92:527532.
19. Claria, J.,, M. H. Lee,, and C. N. Serhan. 1996. Aspirin-triggered lipoxins (15-epi-LX) are generated by the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549)-neutrophil interactions and are potent inhibitors of cell proliferation. Mol. Med. 2:583596.
20. Colgan, S. P.,, A. L. Dzus,, and C. A. Parkos. 1996. Epithelial exposure to hypoxia modulates neutrophil transepithelial migration. J. Exp. Med. 184:10031015.
21. Colgan, S. P.,, R. M. Hershberg,, G. T. Furuta,, and R. S. Blumberg. 1999. Ligation of intestinal epithelial CD1d induces bioactive IL-10: critical role of the cytoplasmic tail in autocrine signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1393813943.
22. Colgan, S. P.,, V. M. Morales,, J. L. Madara,, S. P. Balk,, and R. S. Blumberg. 1996. IFN-γ modulates CD1d expression on intestinal epithelia. Am. J. Physiol. 271:C276C283.
23. Colgan, S. P.,, C. A. Parkos,, C. Delp,, M. A. Arnaout,, and J. L. Madara. 1993. Neutrophil migration across cultured intestinal epithelial monolayers is modulated by epithelial exposure to interferon-gamma in a highly polarized fashion. J. Cell Biol. 120:785795.
24. Colgan, S. P.,, C. A. Parkos,, J. B. Matthews,, L. D’Andrea,, C. S. Awtrey,, A. Lichtman,, C. Delp,, and J. L. Madara. 1994. Interferon-γ induces a surface phenotype switch in intestinal epithelia: downregulation of ion transport and upregulation of immune accessory ligands. Am. J. Physiol. 267:C402C410.
25. Colgan, S. P.,, M. B. Resnick,, C. A. Parkos,, C. Delp-Archer,, A. E. Bacarra,, P. F. Weller,, and J. L. Madara. 1994. Interleukin-4 directly modulates function of a model human intestinal epithelium. J. Immunol. 153:21222129.
26. Colgan, S. P.,, C. N. Serhan,, C. A. Parkos,, C. Delp-Archer,, and J. L. Madara. 1993. Lipoxin A4 modulates transmigration of human neutrophils across intestinal epithelial monolayers. J. Clin. Invest. 92:7582.
27. Collins, T.,, A. J. Korman,, C. T. Wake,, J. M. Boss,, D. J. Kappes,, W. Fiers,, K. A. Ault,, M. A. Gimbrone,, J. L. Strominger,, and J. S. Pober. 1988. Immune interferon activates multiple class II major histocompatibility complex genes and the associated invariant chain gene in human endothelial cells and dermal fibroblasts. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 81:49174921.
28. Darveau, R. P.,, C. M. Belton,, R. A. Reife,, and R. J. Lamont. 1998. Local chemokine paralysis, a novel pathogenic mechanism for Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect. Immun. 66:16601665.
29. Demoulin, J. B.,, and J. C. Renauld. 1998. Signalling by cytokines interacting with the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain. Cytokines Cell Mol. Ther. 4:243256.
30. Dubois, R. N.,, S. B. Abramson,, L. Crofford,, R. A. Gupta,, L. S. Simon,, L. B. Van De Putte,, and P. E. Lipsky. 1998. Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease [see comments]. FASEB J. 12:10631073.
31. Eckmann, L.,, W. F. Stenson,, T. C. Savidge,, D. C. Lowe,, K. E. Barrett,, J. Fierer,, J. R. Smith,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 1997. Role of intestinal epithelial cells in host secretory response to infection by invasive bacteria: bacterial entry induces epithelial prostaglandin H synthase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 and F production. J. Clin. Invest. 100:296309.
32. Elewaut, D.,, and M. Kronenberg. 2000. Molecular biology of NK T cell specificity and development. Semin. Immunol. 12:561568.
33. Fernandez, I. M.,, M. Silva,, R. Schuch,, W. A. Walker,, A. M. Siber,, A. T. Maurelli,, and B. A. McCormick. 2001. Cadaverine prevents the escape of Shigella flexneri from the phagolysosome: a connection between bacterial dissemination and neutrophil transepithelial signaling. J. Infect. Dis. 184:743753.
34. Ferretti, M.,, V. Casini-Raggi,, T. T. Pizarro,, S. P. Eisenberg,, C. C. Nast,, and F. Cominelli. 1994. Neutralization of endogenous IL-1 receptor antagonist exacerbates and prolongs inflammation in rabbit immune colitis. J. Clin. Invest. 94:449453.
35. Framson, P. E.,, D. H. Cho,, L. Y. Lee,, and R. M. Hershberg. 1999. Polarized expression and function of the costimulatory molecule CD58 on human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 116:10541062.
36. Furuse, M.,, T. Hirase,, M. Itoh,, A. Nagafuchi,, S. Yonemura,, S. Tsukita,, and S. Tsukita. 1993. Occludin: a novel integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions. J. Cell Biol. 123:17771788.
37. Gauchat, J. F.,, E. Schlagenhauf,, N. P. Feng,, R. Moser,, M. Yamage,, P. Jeannin,, S. Alouani,, G. Elson,, L. D. Notarangelo,, T. Wells,, H. P. Eugster,, and J. Y. Bonnefoy. 1997. A novel 4-kb interleukin-13 receptor alpha mRNA expressed in human B, T, and endothelial cells encoding an alternate type-II interleukin-4/interleukin-13 receptor. Eur. J. Immunol. 27:971978.
38. Gewirtz, A. T.,, B. A. McCormick,, A. S. Neisch,, N. A. Petasis,, K. Gronert,, C. N. Serhan,, and J. L. Madara. 1998. Pathogen-induced chemokine secretion from model intestinal epithelium is inhibited by lipoxin A4 analogs. J. Clin. Invest. 101:18601869.
39. Gronert, K.,, A. Gewirtz,, J. L. Madara,, and C. N. Serhan. 1998. Identification of a human enterocyte lipoxin A4 receptor that is regulated by interleukin (IL)-13 and interferon gamma and inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced IL-8 release. J. Exp. Med. 187:12851294.
40. Gumbiner, B. M. 1993. Breaking through the tight junction barrier. J. Cell Biol. 123:16311633.
41. Haapamaki, M. M.,, J. O. Haggblom,, J. M. Gronroos,, E. Pekkala,, K. Alanen,, and T. J. Nevalainen. 1999. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis. Hepatogastroenterology 46:22732277.
42. Hardin, J.,, K. Kroeker,, B. Chung,, and D. G. Gall. 2000. Effect of proinflammatory interleukins on jejunal nutrient transport. Gut 47:184191.
43. Hershberg, R. M.,, D. H. Cho,, A. Youakim,, M. B. Bradley,, J. S. Lee,, P. E. Framson,, and G. T. Nepom. 1998. Highly polarized HLA class II antigen processing and presentation by human intestinal epithelial cells. J. Clin. Invest. 102:792803.
44. Hershberg, R. M.,, P. E. Framson,, D. H. Cho,, L. Y. Lee,, S. Kovats,, J. Beitz,, J. S. Blum,, and G. T. Nepom. 1997. Intestinal epithelial cells use two distinct pathways for HLA class II antigen processing. J. Clin. Invest. 100:204215.
45. Hershberg, R. M.,, and L. F. Mayer. 2000. Antigen processing and presentation by intestinal epithelial cells—polarity and complexity. Immunol. Today 21:123128.
46. Hogan, S. P.,, A. Mishra,, E. B. Brandt,, P. S. Foster,, and M. E. Rothenberg. 2000. A critical role for eotaxin in experimental oral antigen-induced eosinophilic gastrointestinal allergy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:66816686.
47. Hogan, S. P.,, A. Mishra,, E. B. Brandt,, M. P. Royalty,, S. M. Pope,, N. Zimmermann,, P. S. Foster,, and M. E. Rothenberg. 2001. A pathological function for eotaxin and eosinophils in eosinophilic gastrointestinal inflammation. Nat. Immunol. 2:353360.
48. Hollander, D. 1999. Intestinal permeability, leaky gut, and intestinal disorders. Curr. Gastroenterol. Rep. 1:410416.
49. Holmgren, J.,, J. Fryklund,, and H. Larsson. 1989. Gamma-interferon-mediated down regulation of electrolyte secretion by intestinal epithelial cells: a local immune mechanism? Scand. J. Immunol. 30:499503.
50. Huang, G. T.,, L. Eckmann,, T. C. Savidge,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 1996. Infection of human intestinal epithelial cells with invasive bacteria upregulates apical intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and neutrophil adhesion. J. Clin. Invest. 98:572583.
51. Ito, S.,, P. Ansari,, M. Sakatsume,, H. Dickensheets,, N. Vazquez,, R. P. Donnelly,, A. C. Larner,, and D. S. Finbloom. 1999. Interleukin-10 inhibits expression of both interferon alpha-and interferon gamma-induced genes by suppressing tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1. Blood 93:14561463.
52. Jaye, D. L.,, and C. A. Parkos. 2000. Neutrophil migration across intestinal epithelium. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 915:151161.
53. Jobin, C.,, and R. B. Sartor. 2000. The I kappa B/NF-kappa B system: a key determinant of mucosal inflammation and protection. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 278:C451C462.
54. Jung, H. C.,, L. Eckmann,, S.-K. Yang,, A. Panja,, J. Fierer,, E. Morzycka-Wroblewska,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 1995. A distinct array of proinflammatory cytokines is expressed in human colon epithelial cells in response to bacterial invasion. J. Clin. Invest. 95:5565.
55. Kagnoff, M., 1978. Immunology and disease of the gastrointestinal tract, p. 114144. In S. A. Fordtran (ed.), Gastrointestinal Disease. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
56. Kagnoff, M. F.,, and L. Eckmann. 1997. Epithelial cells as sensors for microbial infection. J. Clin. Invest. 100:610.
57. Keely, S. J.,, J. M. Uribe,, and K. E. Barrett. 1998. Carbachol stimulates transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase in T84 cells. Implications for carbachol-stimulated chloride secretion. J. Biol. Chem. 273:2711127117.
58. Lampinen, M.,, M. Carlson,, P. Sangfelt,, Y. Taha,, M. Thorn,, L. Loof,, Y. Raab,, and P. Venge. 2001. IL-5 and TNF-alpha participate in recruitment of eosinophils to intestinal mucosa in ulcerative colitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 46:20042009.
59. Levin, M.,, P. A. Quint,, B. Goldstein,, P. Barton,, J. S. Bradley,, S. D. Shemie,, T. Yeh,, S. S. Kim,, D. P. Cafaro,, P. J. Scannon,, B. P. Giroir, and the rBPI21 Meningococcal Sepsis Study Group. 2000. Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) as adjunctive treatment for children with severe meningococcal sepsis: a randomised trial. Lancet 356:961967.
60. Levy, B. D.,, C. B. Clish,, B. Schmidt,, K. Gronert,, and C. N. Serhan. 2001. Lipid mediator class switching during acute inflammation: signals in resolution. Nat. Immunol. 2:612619.
61. Levy, O. 2000. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides of blood: templates for novel antimicrobial agents. Blood 96:26642672.
62. Levy, O.,, and P. Elsbach. 2001. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in host defense and its efficacy in the treatment of sepsis. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 3:407412.
63. Lu, J.,, D. J. Philpott,, P. R. Saunders,, M. H. Perdue,, P. C. Yang,, and D. M. McKay. 1998. Epithelial ion transport and barrier abnormalities evoked by superantigen-activated immune cells are inhibited by interleukin-10 but not interleukin-4. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 287:128136.
64. Madara, J. L. 1990. Pathobiology of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Am. J. Path. 137:12731278.
65. Madara, J. L. 2000. Modulation of tight junctional permeability. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 41:251253.
66. Madara, J. L.,, T. W. Patapoff,, B. Gillece-Castro,, S. P. Colgan,, C. A. Parkos,, C. Delp,, and R. J. Mrsny. 1993. 5'-adenosine monophosphate is the neutrophil-derived paracrine factor that elicits chloride secretion from T84 intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. J. Clin. Invest. 91:23202325.
67. Madara, J. L.,, and J. Stafford. 1989. Interferon-gamma directly affects barrier function of cultured intestinal epithelial monolayers. J. Clin. Invest. 83:724727.
68. Madianos, P. N.,, P. N. Papapanou,, and J. Sandros. 1997. Porphyrimonas gingivalis infection of oral epithelium inhibits neutrophil transepithelial migration. Infect. Immun. 65:39833990.
69. Madsen, K. L.,, S. A. Lewis,, M. N. Taverini,, J. Hibbard,, and R. N. Fedorak. 1997. Interleukin 10 prevents cytokine induced disruption of T84 monolayer barrier integrity and limits chloride secretion. Gastroenterology 113:151159.
70. Mankertz, J.,, S. Tavalali,, H. Schmitz,, A. Mankertz,, E. O. Riecken,, M. Fromm,, and J. D. Schulzke. 2000. Expression from the human occludin promoter is affected by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma. J. Cell Sci. 113:20852090.
71. Matthews, A. N.,, D. S. Friend,, N. Zimmermann,, M. N. Sarafi,, A. D. Luster,, E. Pearlman,, S. E. Wert,, and M. E. Rothenberg. 1998. Eotaxin is required for the baseline level of tissue eosinophils. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:62736278.
72. Mayer, L.,, D. Eisenhardt,, P. Salomon,, W. Bauer,, R. Plous,, and L. Piccinini. 1991. Expression of class II molecules on intestinal epithelial cells in humans: differences between normal and inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 100:312.
73. Mayer, L.,, and R. Shlien. 1987. Evidence for function of Ia molecules on gut epithelial cells in man. J. Exp. Med. 166:14711483.
74. McGee, D. W., 1999. Inflammation and mucosal cytokine production, p. 559573. In J. Mestecky, , P. L. Ogra, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
75. Meddings, J. B. 1997. Review article: Intestinal permeability in Crohn’s disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.53-56. 3:4753; discussion,.
76. Miloux, B.,, P. Laurent,, O. Bonnin,, J. Lupker,, D. Caput,, N. Vita,, and P. Ferrara. 1997. Cloning of the human IL-13R alpha1 chain and reconstitution with the IL4R alpha of a functional IL-4/IL-13 receptor complex. FEBS Lett. 401:163166.
77. Mishra, A.,, S. P. Hogan,, E. B. Brandt,, N. Wagner,, M. W. Crossman,, P. S. Foster,, and M. E. Rothenberg. 2002. Enterocyte expression of the eotaxin and IL-5 transgenes induces compartmentalized dysregulation of eosinophil trafficking. J. Biol. Chem. 277:44064412.
78. Molmenti, E. P.,, T. Ziambaras,, and D. H. Perlmutter. 1993. Evidence for an acute phase response in human intestinal epithelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 268:1411614124.
79. Monajemi, H.,, J. Meenan,, R. Lamping,, D. O. Obradov,, S. A. Radema,, P. W. Trown,, G. N. Tytgat,, and S. J. Van Deventer. 1996. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with increased mucosal levels of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. Gastroenterology 110:733739.
80. Neish, A. S.,, A. T. Gewirtz,, H. Zeng,, A. N. Young,, M. E. Hobert,, V. Karmali,, A. S. Rao,, and J. L. Madara. 2000. Prokaryotic regulation of epithelial responses by inhibition of IkappaB-alpha ubiquitination. Science 289:15601563.
81. Panja, A.,, S. Goldberg,, L. Eckmann,, P. Krishen,, and L. Mayer. 1998. The regulation and functional consequence of proinflammatory cytokine binding on human intestinal epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 161:36753684.
82. Parkos, C. A. 1997. Molecular events in neutrophil transepithelial migration. BioEssays 19:865873.
83. Parkos, C. A.,, S. P. Colgan,, D. Delp,, M. A. Arnaout,, and J. L. Madara. 1992. Neutrophil migration across a cultured epithelial monolayer elicits a biphasic resistance response representing sequential effects on transcellular and paracellular pathways. J. Cell Biol. 117:757764.
84. Parkos, C. A.,, S. P. Colgan,, M. S. Diamond,, A. Nusrat,, T. Liang,, T. A. Springer,, and J. L. Madara. 1996. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/18-mediated interactions with neutrophils. Molec. Med. 2:489505.
85. Parkos, C. A.,, S. P. Colgan,, A. Liang,, A. Nusrat,, A. E. Bacarra,, D. K. Carnes,, and J. L. Madara. 1996. CD 47 mediates post-adhesive events required for neutrophil migration across polarized intestinal epithelia. J. Cell Biol. 132:437450.
86. Parkos, C. A.,, C. Delp,, M. A. Arnaout,, and J. L. Madara. 1991. Neutrophil migration across a cultured intestinal epithelium: dependence on a CD11b/CD18-mediated event and enhanced efficiency in the physiologic direction. J. Clin. Invest. 88:16051612.
87. Phalipon, A.,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1999. Microbial-host interactions at mucosal sites. Host response to pathogenic bacteria at mucosal sites. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 236:163189.
88. Podolsky, D. K. 1997. Healing the epithelium: solving the problems from two sides. J. Gastroenterol. 32:122126.
89. Powell, D. W., 1987. Intestinal water and electrolyte transport, p. 12671291. In L. R. Johnson (ed.), Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Raven Press, New York, N.Y.
90. Powell, D. W. 1991. Immunophysiology of intestinal electrolyte transport. p. 591641. In Handbook of Physiology. American Physiological Society, New York, N.Y.
91. Quiding, M.,, I. Nordstrom,, A. Kilander,, G. Andersson,, L. A. Hanson,, J. Holmgren,, and C. Czerkinsky. 1991. Intestinal immune responses in humans: oral cholera vaccination induces strong intestinal antibody responses and interferon-gamma production and evokes local immunological memory. J. Clin. Invest. 88:143148.
92. Reinecker, H. C.,, and D. K. Podolsky. 1995. Human intestinal epithelial cells express functional cytokine receptors sharing the common γc chain of the interleukin 2 receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:83538357.
93. Resnick, M. B.,, S. P. Colgan,, C. A. Parkos,, C. Delp-Archer,, D. McGuirk,, P. F. Weller,, and J. L. Madara. 1995. GM-CSF primed eosinophils migrate across a model intestinal epithelium in response to a platelet-activating factor gradient. Gastroenterology 108:409416.
94. Rocha, F.,, M. W. Musch,, L. Lishanskiy,, C. Bookstein,, K. Sugi,, Y. Xie,, and E. B. Chang. 2001 . IFN-gamma downregulates expression of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers NHE2 and NHE3 in rat intestine and human Caco-2/bbe cells. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 280:C1224C1232.
95. Rothenberg, M. E.,, A. Mishra,, E. B. Brandt,, and S. P. Hogan. 2001. Gastrointestinal eosinophils. Immunol. Rev. 179:139155.
96. Sansonetti, P. J. 2000. Microbes and microbial toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal interactions III. Shigellosis: from symptoms to molecular pathogenesis. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 280:G319G323.
97. Sartor, R. B., 1995. Microbial factors in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and experimental intestinal inflammation, p. 96124. In J. B. Kirsner, and R. J. Shorter (ed.), Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
98. Schmitz, H.,, M. Fromm,, C. J. Bentzel,, P. Scholz,, K. Detjen,, J. Mankertz,, H. Bode,, H. J. Epple,, E. O. Riecken,, and J. D. Schulzke. 1999. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) regulates the epithelial barrier in the human intestinal cell line HT-29/B6. J. Cell Sci. 112:137146.
99. Serhan, C. N. 1994. Lipoxin biosynthesis and its impact in inflammatory and vascular events. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1212:125.
100. Serhan, C. N.,, J. Z. Haeggstrom,, and C. C. Leslie. 1996. Lipid mediator networks in cell signaling: update and impact of cytokines. FASEB J. 10:11471158.
101. Serhan, C. N.,, J. F. Maddox,, N. Petasis,, I. Akritopoulou-Zanze,, A. Papayianni,, H. R. Brady,, S. P. Colgan,, and J. L. Madara. 1995. Design of lipoxin A4 stable analogs that block human neutrophil transmigration and adhesion. Biochemistry (USA) 34:1460914615.
102. Serhan, C. N.,, T. Takano,, and J. F. Maddox. 1999. Aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 and stable analogs on lipoxin A4 are potent inhibitors of acute inflammation. Receptors and pathways. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 447:133149.
103. Sitaraman, S. V.,, D. Merlin,, L. Wang,, M. Wong,, A. T. Gewirtz,, M. Si-Tahar,, and J. L. Madara. 2001. Neutrophil-epithelial crosstalk at the intestinal lumenal surface mediated by reciprocal secretion of adenosine and IL-6. J. Clin. Invest. 107:861869.
104. Sollid, L. M.,, G. Gaudernack,, G. Markussen,, D. Kvale,, P. Brandtzaeg,, and E. Thorsby. 1987. Induction of various HLA class II molecules in a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line. Scand. J. Immunol. 25:175180.
105. Springer, T. A. 1990. Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature 346:425430.
106. Stadnyk, A. W.,, C. D. Dollard,, and A. C. Issekutz. 2000. Neutrophil migration stimulates rat intestinal epithelial cell cytokine expression during helminth infection. J. Leukoc. Biol. 68:821827.
107. Stadnyk, A. W.,, G. R. Sisson,, and C. C. Waterhouse. 1995. IL-1 alpha is constitutively expressed in the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Exp. Cell Res. 220:298303.
108. Stadnyk, A. W.,, and C. M. Waterhouse. 1997. Epithelial cytokines in intestinal inflammation and mucosal immunity. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 13:510517.
109. Stevceva, L.,, P. Pavli,, A. Husband,, K. I. Matthaei,, I. G. Young,, and W. F. Doe. 2000. Eosinophilia is attenuated in experimental colitis induced in IL-5 deficient mice. Genes Immun. 1:213218.
110. Stoffel, M. P.,, E. Csernok,, C. Herzberg,, T. Johnson,, S. F. Carroll,, and W. L. Gross. 1996. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI): a new seromarker for inflammatory bowel disease and associated disorders. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 104:5459.
111. Sugi, K.,, M. W. Musch,, M. Field,, and E. B. Chang. 2001. Inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase by interferon gamma down-regulates intestinal epithelial transport and barrier function. Gastroenterology 120:13931403.
112. Takeuchi, A. 1967. Electron microscope studies of experimental Salmonella infection. Am. J. Pathol. 50:109119.
113. Taylor, C. T.,, and S. P. Colgan. 1999. Therapeutic targets for hypoxia-elicited pathways. Pharm. Res. 16:14981505.
114. Taylor, C. T.,, A. L. Dzus,, and S. P. Colgan. 1998. Autocrine regulation of intestinal epithelial permeability induced by hypoxia: role for basolateral release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Gastroenterology 114:657668.
115. Taylor, C. T.,, N. Fueki,, A. Agah,, R. M. Hershberg,, and S. P. Colgan. 1999. Critical role of cAMP response element binding protein expression in hypoxia-elicited induction of epithelial TNF-α. J. Biol. Chem. 274:1944719450.
116. Taylor, C. T.,, G. T. Furuta,, K. Synnestvedt,, and S. P. Colgan. 2000. Phosphorylation-dependent targeting of cAMP response element binding protein to the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway in hypoxia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1209112096.
117. Trinchier, G.,, and B. Perussia. 1985. Immune interferon: a pleiotropic lymphokine with multiple effects. Immunol. Today 6:131137.
118. Van der Vieren, M.,, H. Le Trong,, C. L. Wood,, P. F. Moore, , T. St. John, , D. E. Staunton, , and W. M. Gallatin. 1995. A novel leukointegrin, alpha d beta 2, binds preferentially to ICAM-3. Immunity 3:683690.
119. Waxman, K. 1996. Shock: ischemia, reperfusion and inflammation. New Horizons 4:153160.
120. Winsor, G. L.,, C. C. Waterhouse,, R. L. MacLellan,, and A. W. Stadnyk. 2000. Interleukin-4 and IFN-gamma differentially stimulate macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin production by intestinal epithelial cells. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 20:299308.
121. Yamada, K.,, M. Shimaoka,, K. Nagayama,, T. Hiroi,, H. Kiyono,, and T. Honda. 1997. Bacterial invasion induces interleukin-7 receptor expression in colonic epithelial cell line, T84. Eur. J. Immunol. 27:34563460.
122. Yardley, J. H.,, and M. Donowitz,. 1977. Colo-rectal biopsies in inflammatory bowel disease, p. 5794. In J. H. Yardley, and B. C. Morson (ed.), The Gastrointestinal Tract. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md.
123. Youakim, A.,, and M. Ahdieh. 1999. Interferon-γ decreases barrier function in T84 cells by reducing ZO-1 levels and disrupting apical actin. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 276:G1279G1288.
124. Yu, L. C.,, P. C. Yang,, M. C. Berin,, V. Di Leo,, D. H. Conrad,, D. M. McKay,, A. R. Satoskar,, and M. H. Perdue. 2001. Enhanced transepithelial antigen transport in intestine of allergic mice is mediated by IgE/CD23 and regulated by interleukin-4. Gastroenterology 121:370381.
125. Ziambaras, T.,, D. C. Rubin,, and D. H. Perlmutter. 1996. Regulation of sucrose-isomaltase gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells by inflammatory cytokines. J. Biol. Chem. 271:12371242.
126. Zünd, G.,, J. L. Madara,, A. L. Dzus,, C. S. Awtrey,, and S. P. Colgan. 1996. Interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 differentially regulate epithelial chloride secretion. J. Biol. Chem. 271:74607464.
127. Zurawski, S. M.,, F. J. Vega,, B. Huyghe,, and G. Zurawski. 1993. Receptors for interleukin-13 and interleukin-4 are complex and share a novel component that functions in signal transduction. EMBO J. 12:26632670.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error