2 : Borna Disease Virus Molecular Virology

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Borna disease virus (BDV) infectivity and RNA have been detected in bodily secretions and excretions, suggesting that BDV can be transmitted through salival, nasal, and conjunctival secretions and, particularly, urine and feces. BDV infection produces a range of phenotypic disease expression. BDV has a non-segmented, negative-stranded (NNS) RNA genome. Several additional viral polypeptides can be translated from spliced forms of BDV mRNAs which increases the proteomic complexity of BDV. Antibodies to both the virus G and M (gp18) proteins have neutralizing activity, suggesting that both are implicated in BDV adsorption and/or entry. Two of the BDV primary transcripts are posttranscriptionally processed by the cellular RNA splicing machinery. An intriguing aspect of the biology of BDV is the mechanism by which BDV spreads within the central nervous system (CNS). BDV appears to propagate transsynaptically, but full virus particles have never been observed at the site of synaptic junctions. These observations led to the attractive hypothesis that bare ribonucleoprotein (RNP) could be the infectious unit being transported transsynaptically within the CNS. However, recent findings have indicated that rabies virus (RV) G is absolutely required for the propagation of RV in neuronal culture cells, as well as within the mouse CNS. A section of the chapter focuses on a few selected processes to illustrate the complexity underlying the execution of the BDV gene expression program. Expression of downstream open reading frame (dORF) can be achieved by a leaky ribosome-scanning mechanism, resumption of scanning after termination of an upstream ORF, or cap-independent internal initiation.

Citation: Kishi M, Tomonaga K, Lai P, de la Torre J. 2002. Borna Disease Virus Molecular Virology, p 23-43. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch2

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Gene Expression and Regulation
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
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Figure 1

Genomic organization and transcriptional map of BDV. BDV ORFs are represented by boxes at the top. Nucleotide positions (antigenomic polarity) corresponding to the AUG and stop codons for each ORF are indicated. Different shades correspond to usage of different reading frames within the antigenomic polarity of the BDV genomic RNA. The locations of transcription initiation (GS) and transcription termination sites (GE) are indicated by S and E, respectively. Positions of splicing donor (SD) and splicing acceptor (SA) sites for BDV introns I, II, and III are indicated. The location of the ESS element is indicated. The sizes of subgenomic viral mRNAs detected in BDV-infected cells are indicated. Sizes on the left and right sides of the slash correspond to transcripts that initiate at the same GS but terminate at a different GE, respectively.

Citation: Kishi M, Tomonaga K, Lai P, de la Torre J. 2002. Borna Disease Virus Molecular Virology, p 23-43. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch2
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