4 : Epidemiology and Infection of Natural Animal Hosts

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This chapter presents the current knowledge available on classical and subclinical cases of natural Borna disease and cases of Borna-like disease in several animal species in different geographical regions. The clinical manifestations and pathological findings in naturally Borna disease virus (BDV)-infected horses and sheep are almost the same. The clinical and pathological manifestations in these animals are summarized and compared with those of other animals such as cattle, dogs, cats, and ostriches. Generally, the pathological findings after BDV infection in naturally infected horses and sheep are similar to those in experimentally infected animals such as rats. They are usually restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), spinal cord, and retina. Asymptomatic infection in horses seems to be more frequent than expected, based on the detection of antiviral antibodies in sera as well as viral nucleic acid in tissue samples. Although several groups have detected BDV nucleic acid in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by nested RT-PCR, it is still not clear whether, during the course of infection in naturally BDV-infected animals, there is a period of viremia. Serum antibodies to BDV have been detected in cattle by Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Citation: Ikuta, Hagiwara K, Taniyama H, Nowotny N. 2002. Epidemiology and Infection of Natural Animal Hosts, p 87-123. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch4

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Major Histocompatibility Complex
Borna Disease
Feline leukemia virus
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Figure 1.

Nonsuppurative encephalitis in the olfactory bulb from a horse (A) and the frontal lobe from a bovine naturally infected with BDV (B). The neurological lesions are characterized by perivascular cuffing and mononuclear cell infiltration. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was used. Magnifications, ×12 (A) and ×6 (B).

Citation: Ikuta, Hagiwara K, Taniyama H, Nowotny N. 2002. Epidemiology and Infection of Natural Animal Hosts, p 87-123. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch4
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Table 1.

Clinical and pathological manifestations of Borna disease in several natural animal species

Citation: Ikuta, Hagiwara K, Taniyama H, Nowotny N. 2002. Epidemiology and Infection of Natural Animal Hosts, p 87-123. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch4
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Table 2.

Anti-BDV antibodies in naturally infected animals in different geographic areas

Citation: Ikuta, Hagiwara K, Taniyama H, Nowotny N. 2002. Epidemiology and Infection of Natural Animal Hosts, p 87-123. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 3.

BDV RNA or proteins in naturally infected animals in different geographic areas

Citation: Ikuta, Hagiwara K, Taniyama H, Nowotny N. 2002. Epidemiology and Infection of Natural Animal Hosts, p 87-123. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch4

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