6 : Human Borna Disease Virus Infection

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Human Borna Disease Virus Infection, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817909/9781555812355_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817909/9781555812355_Chap06-2.gif


A study to find borna disease (BD) virus (BDV)-specific serum antibodies in psychiatric patients with major depression but not in healthy controls suggested a possible causal relationship between BDV infection and depressive disorders. Serological assay including such as IFA, WBA and ELISA are discussed. BDV antigen was first detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of psychiatric patients by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using monoclonal antibodies against P and N. To measure BDV antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, researchers developed an antigen capture ELISA which uses monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antiserum to capture and detect the antigen, respectively. When researchers first described the new technology of PCR in 1986 it took 6 more years before this method was used for detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in human brain tissue specimens. Using RT-nested PCR and in situ hybridization, BDV-specific RNA (N) was detected in autopsy brain samples from four out of five patients with a diagnosis of hippocampus sclerosis and astrocytosis. In summary, since most of the RT-PCR products or virus isolates from brain tissue are identical in sequence to laboratory strains, one might be tempted to speculate that laboratory contaminations occurred in almost all cases of positive BDV results from human samples. The use of valid and unambiguous laboratory methods is essential for BDV diagnosis, in a general setting of lack of knowledge about etiology and pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders.

Citation: Planz O, Bechter K, Schwemmle M. 2002. Human Borna Disease Virus Infection, p 179-226. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Borna disease virus
Central Nervous System Diseases
Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Allmang, U. M. Hofer, , S. Herzog, , K. Bechter, , and P. Staeheli. 2001. Low avidity of human serum antibodies for Borna disease virus antigens questions their diagnostic value. Mol. Psychiatry 6:329333.
2. Amsterdam, J. D.,, A. Winokur,, W. Dyson,, S. Herzog,, F. Gonzalez,, R. Rott,, and H. Koprowski. 1985. Borna disease virus: a possible etiologic factor in human affective disorders? Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 42:10931096.
3. Anderson, R. M.,, and R. M. May. 1991. Infectious Diseases of Humans, Dynamics and Control. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
4. Auwanit, W.,, P. I. Ayuthaya,, T. Nakaya, S. Fujiwara, , T. Kurata, , K. Yamanishi, , and K. Ikuta. 1996. Unusually high seroprevalence of Borna disease virus in clade E human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Thailand. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 3:590593.
5. Baaré, W. F.,, C. J. van Oel,, H. E. Hulshoff,, H. G. Schnack,, S. Durston,, M. M. Sitskoorn,, and R. S. Kahn. 2001. Volumes of brain structures in twins discordant for schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 58:3340.
6. Bachmann, S.,, P. Caplazi,, M. Fischer,, F. Ehrensperger,, and R. W. Cone. 1999. Lack of association between Borna disease virus infection and neurological disorders among HIV-infected individuals. J. Neurovirol. 5:190195.
7. Baldassarre, S. F.,, C. Blancolilli,, F. M. Serpelloni,, and L. Bartoli. 1998. Early neuropsychological impairment in HIV-seropositive intravenous drug users: evidence from the Italian multicentre neuropsychological HIV study. Acta Psychiatr. Scand 97:132138.
8. Bechter, K. 1995. Research strategies in ‘slow’ infections in psychiatry. Hist. Psychiatry 6:503511.
9. Bechter, K., 1998. Borna Disease Virus. Mögliche Ursache neurologischer und psychiatrischer Störungen des Menschen, vol. 89. In H. Hippius, , W. Janzarik, , and C. Müller (ed.), Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Psychiatrie. Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany.
10. Bechter, K. 2001a. Mild encephalitis underlying psychiatric disorder—a reconsideration and hypothesis exemplified on Borna disease. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 9:5570.
11. Bechter, K. 2001b. New findings suggesting that mild Borna disease virus encephalitis underlies some affective or schizophrenic disorders and experimental treatments. Adv. Biol. Psychiatr. 20:5360.
12. Bechter, K. Basic symptoms in symptomatic schizophrenia. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res., in press.
13. Bechter, K.,, M. Bauer,, H. C. Estler,, S. Herzog,, R. Schüttler,, and R. Rott. 1994. MRI findings in Borna disease virus seropositive psychiatric patients and controls an extended study. Nervenarzt 65:169174.
14. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, P. Aulkemeyer,, F. Weber,, and H. Brinkmeier. 2001. Detecting the endocaine QYNAD within cerebrospinal fluids of patients with Borna virus-related psychosis. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2:59S.
15. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, W. Behr,, and R. Schüttler. 1995. Investigations of cerebrospinal fluid in Borna disease virus seropositive psychiatric patients. Eur. Psychiatry 10:250258.
16. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, H. C. Estler,, and R. Schüttler. 1998. Increased psychiatric comorbidity in Borna disease virus seropositive psychiatric patients. Acta Psychiatr. Belg. 98:190204.
17. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, B. Fleischer,, R. Schüttler,, and R. Rott. 1987. Magnetic resonance imaging in psychiatric patients with and without serum antibodies against Borna disease. Nervenarzt 58:617624.
18. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, V. Schreiner,, H. Brinkmeier,, P. Aulkemeyer,, F. Weber,, and R. Schüttler. 2000. Borna disease virus related therapy resistant depression improved after cerebrospinal fluid filtration. J. Psychiatr. Res. 34:393396.
19. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, V. Schreiner,, K. W. Wollinsky,, and R. Schüttler,. 1999. Cerebrospinal fluid filtration in a case of schizophrenia related to ‘subclinical’ Borna disease virus encephalitis, p. 1935. In N. Müller (ed.), Psychiatry Psychoneuroimmunology, and Viruses. Key Top Brain Research. Springer, Vienna, Austria.
20. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, and R. Schüttler. 1992a. Possible significance of Borna disease for humans. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 1:2329.
21. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, and R. Schüttler. 1992b. Borna disease virus. Possible causal agent in psychiatric and neurological disorders in two families. Psychiatry Res. 42:291294.
22. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, and R. Schüttler. 1992c. Case of neurological and behavioral abnormalities: due to Borna disease virus encephalitis? Psychiatry Res. 42:193196.
23. Bechter, K.,, S. Herzog,, and R. Schüttler. 1996. Borna disease virus: possible cause of human neuropsychiatric disorders. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 4:4552.
24. Bode, L.,, R. Durrwald,, F. A. Rantam,, R. Ferszt,, and H. Ludwig. 1996. First isolates of infectious human Borna disease virus from patients with mood disorders. Mol. Psychiatry 1:200212.
25. Bode, L.,, R. Ferszt,, and G. Czech. 1993. Borna disease virus infection and affective disorders in man. Arch. Virol. 7 (Suppl.):159167.
26. Bode, L.,, P. Reckwald,, W. E. Severus,, R. Stoyloff,, R. Ferszt,, D. E. Dietrich,, and H. Ludwig. 2001. Borna disease virus-specific circulating immune complexes, antigenemia, and free antibodies—the key marker triplet determining infection and prevailing in severe mood disorders. Mol. Psychiatry 6:481491.
27. Bode, L.,, S. Riegel,, W. Lange,, and H. Ludwig. 1992. Human infections with Borna disease virus: seroprevalence in patients with chronic diseases and healthy individuals. J. Med. Virol. 36:309315.
28. Bode, L.,, W. Zimmermann,, R. Ferszt,, F. Steinbach,, and H. Ludwig. 1995. Borna disease virus genome transcribed and expressed in psychiatric patients. Nat. Med. 1:232236.
29. Bonhoeffer, K. 1917. Die exogenen Reaktionstypen. Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkr. 58:5870.
30. Briese, T.,, J. C. de la Torre,, A. Lewis,, H. Ludwig,, and W. I. Lipkin. 1992. Borna disease virus, a negative-strand RNA virus, transcribes in the nucleus of infected cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:1148611489.
31. Briese, T.,, M. Hornig,, and W. I. Lipkin. 1999. Bornavirus immunopathogenesis in rodents: models for human neurological diseases. J. Neurovirol. 5:604612.
32. Briese, T.,, A. Schneemann,, A. Lewis,, A. J. Park,, S. Kim,, H. Ludwig,, and W. I. Lipkin. 1994. Genomic organization of Borna disease virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:43624366.
33. Brinkmejer, H.,, P. Aulkemeyer,, K. H. Wollinsky,, and R. Rudel. 2000. An endogenous pentapeptide acting as a sodium channel blocker in inflammatory autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. Nat. Med. 6:808811.
34. Brown, A. S.,, P. Cohen,, J. Harkavy-Friedman,, V. Babulas,, D. Malaspina,, J. M. Gorman,, and E. S. Susser. 2001. Prenatal rubella, premorbid abnormalities, and adult schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 49:473486.
35. Buchsbaum, M. S.,, and R. O. Rieder. 1979. Biologic heterogeneity and psychiatric research. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 36:11631169.
36. Carbone, K. M.,, T. R. Moench,, and W. I. Lipkin. 1991. Borna disease virus replicates in astrocytes, Schwann cells and ependymal cells in persistently infected rats: location of viral genomic and messenger RNAs by in situ hybridization. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol 50:205214.
37. Carson, A. J.,, R. Sandler,, F. N. Owino,, F. O. G. Matete,, and E. C. Johnstone. 1998. Psychological morbidity and HIV in Kenya. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 97:267271.
38. Chen, C. H.,, Y. L. Chiu,, F. C. Wei,, F. J. Koong,, H. C. Liu,, C. K. Shaw,, H. G. Hwu,, and K. J. Hsiao. 1999. High seroprevalence of Borna virus infection in schizophrenic patients, family members and mental health workers in Taiwan. Mol. Psychiatry 4:3338.
39. Chess, S.,, S. Korn,, and P. Fernandez. 1971. Psychiatric disorders of children with congenital rubella. Brunner/Mazel, New York, N. Y.
40. Cooper, J. E. 1995. On the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Br. J. Psychiatry 166:48.
41. Craighead, J. E. 2000. Pathology and Pathogenesis of Human Viral Disease. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.
42. Cubitt, B.,, and J. C. de la Torre. 1997. Amantadine does not have antiviral activity against Borna disease virus. Arch. Virol. 142:20352042.
43. Cubitt, B.,, C. Oldstone,, and J. C. de la Torre. 1994. Sequence and genome organization of Borna disease virus. J. Virol. 68:13821396.
44. Czygan, M.,, W. Hallensleben,, M. Hofer,, S. Pollak,, C. Sauder,, T. Bilzer,, I. Blumcke,, P. Riederer,, B. Bogerts,, P. Falkai,, M. J. Schwarz,, E. Masliah,, P. Staeheli,, F. T. Hufert,, and K. Lieb. 1999. Borna disease virus in human brains with a rare form of hippocampal degeneration but not in brains of patients with common neuropsychiatric disorders. J. Infect. Dis. 180:16951699.
45. Davies, J. R., Grunert, R. R., and C. E. Hoffmann. 1965. Influenza virus growth and antibody response in amantadine-treated mice. J. Immunol. 95:10901094.
46. de la Torre, J. C.,, L. Bode,, R. Durrwald,, B. Cubitt,, and H. Ludwig. 1996. Sequence characterization of human Borna disease virus. Virus Res. 44:3344.
47. Dietrich, D. E.,, L. Bode,, C. W. Spannhuth,, T. Lau,, T. J. Huber,, B. Brodhun,, H. Ludwig,, and H. M. Emrich. 2000a. Amantadine in depressive patients with Borna disease virus (BDV) infection an open trial. Bipol. Disord. 2:6570.
48. Dietrich, D. E.,, A. Kleinschmidt,, U. Hauser,, U. Schneider,, C. W. Spannhuth,, K. Kipp,, T. J. Huber,, B. M. Wieringa,, H. M. Emrich,, and S. Johannes. 2000b. Word recognition memory before and after successful treatment of depression. Pharmacopsychiatry 33:221228.
49. Eaves, L. 1988. Genetics, immunology, and virology. Schizophr. Bull. 14:365382.
50. Esmarch, F.,, and W. Jessen. 1857. Syphilis und Geistesstörung. Allg. Z. Psychiatr. 14:2036.
51. Evengard, B.,, T. Briese,, G. Lindh,, S. Lee,, and W. I. Lipkin. 1999. Absence of evidence of Borna disease virus infection in Swedish patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J. Neurovirol. 5:495499.
52. Fallon, B. A.,, and J. A. Nields. 1994. Lyme disease: a neuropsychiatric illness. Am. J. Psychiatry 151:15711583.
53. Ferszt, R.,, K. P. Kühl,, L. Bode,, E. W. Severus,, B. Winzer,, A. Berghofer,, G. Beelitz,, B. Brodhun,, B. Müller-Oerlinghausen,, and H. Ludwig. 1999a. Amantadine revisited: an open trial of amantadinesulfate treatment in chronically depressed patients with Borna disease virus infection. Pharmacopsychiatry 32:142147.
54. Ferszt, R.,, E. Severus,, L. Bode,, M. Brehm,, K. P. Kühl,, H. Berzewski,, and H. Ludwig. 1999b. Activated Borna disease virus in affective disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry 32:9398.
55. Formella, S.,, C. Jehle,, C. Sauder,, P. Staeheli,, and M. Schwemmle. 2000. Sequence variability of Borna disease virus: resistance to superinfection may contribute to high genome stability in persistently infected cells. J. Virol. 74:78787883.
56. Fu, Z. F.,, J. D. Amsterdam,, M. Kao,, V. Shankar,, H. Koprowski,, and B. Dietzschold. 1993. Detection of Borna disease virus-reactive antibodies from patients with affective disorders by western immunoblot technique. J. Affect. Disord. 27:6168.
57. Fukuda, K.,, K. Takahashi,, Y. Iwata,, N. Mori,, K. Gonda,, T. Ogawa,, K. Osonoe,, M. Sato,, S. Ogata,, T. Horimoto,, T. Sawada,, M. Tashiro,, K. Yamaguchi,, S. Niwa,, and S. Shigeta. 2001. Immunological and PCR analyses for Borna disease virus in psychiatric patients and blood donors in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:419429.
58. Furrer, E.,, T. Bilzer,, L. Stitz,, and O. Planz. 2001. Neutralizing antibodies in persistent Borna disease virus infection: prophylactic effect of gp94-specific monoclonal antibodies in preventing encephalitis. J. Virol. 75:943951.
59. Ganguli, R.,, B. S. Rabin,, and J. S. Brar. 1992. Antinuclear and gastric parietal cell autoantibodies in schizophrenic patients. Biol. Psychiatry 32:735738.
60. Gartner, S.,, and Y. Lin. 2002. Insights into the role of immune activation in HIV neuropathogenesis. J. Neurovirol. 8:6975.
61. Gerber, J.,, H. Tumani,, H. Kolenda,, and R. Nau. 1998. Lumbar and ventricular CSF protein, leukocytes, and lactate in suspected bacterial CNS infections. Neurology 51:17101714.
62. Giedd, J. N. 2001. Neuroimaging of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Is a picture really worth a thousand words? Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 58:443444.
63. Goldberg, T. E.,, and D. R. Weinberger. 1995. A case against subtyping in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 17:147152.
64. Gonzalez-Dunia, D.,, B. Cubitt,, F. A. Grasser,, and J. C. de la Torre. 1997. Characterization of Borna disease virus p56 protein, a surface glycoprotein involved in virus entry. J. Virol. 71:32083218.
65. Gonzalez-Dunia, D.,, M. Watanabe,, S. Syan,, M. Mallory,, E. Masliah,, and J. C. de la Torre. 2000. Synaptic pathology in Borna disease virus persistent infection. J. Virol. 74:34413448.
66. Gross, G.,, and G. Huber. 1993. Premorbid personality in schizophrenia: the contribution of European long-term studies. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 2:1420.
67. Gross, G.,, G. Huber,, and M. Linz. 1989. The problem of ‘symptomatic schizophrenia’ and ‘symptomatic cyclothymia’. Zentbl. Neurol. Psychiatr. 251:323332.
68. Gutierrez, J.,, and C. Maroto. 1996. Are IgG antibody avidity assays useful in the diagnosis of infectious diseases? A review. Microbios 87:113121.
69. Haga, S.,, M. Yoshimura,, Y. Motoi,, K. Arima,, T. Aizawa,, K. Ikuta,, M. Tashiro,, and K. Ikeda. 1997. Detection of Borna disease virus genome in normal human brain tissue. Brain Res. 770:307309.
70. Hallensleben, W.,, M. Zocher,, and P. Staehell. 1997. Borna disease virus is not sensitive to amantadine. Arch. Virol. 142:20432048.
71. Hartmann, L. 1998. Child and adolescent psychiatry research remains a challenge. Am. J. Psychiatry 155:453454.
72. Herzog, S.,, K. Frese,, J. A. Richt,, and R. Rott. 1994. Ein Beitrag zur Epizootiologie der Bornaschen Krankheit beim Pferd. Wien. Tierarztl. Monschr. 81:374379.
73. Herzog, S.,, I. Pfeuffer,, K. Haberzetti,, H. Feldmann,, K. Frese,, K. Bechter,, and J. A. Richt. 1997. Molecular characterization of Borna disease virus from naturally infected animals and possible links to human disorders. Arch. Virol. 131(Suppl.):183190.
74. Horimoto, T.,, H. Takahashi,, M. Sakaguchi,, K. Horikoshi,, S. Iritani,, H. Kazamatsuri,, K. Ikeda,, and M. Tashiro. 1997. A reverse-type sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies to Borna disease virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:16611666.
75. Huber, G. 1999. Psychiatrie. Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte, 6th ed. Schattauer, Stuttgart, Germany.
76. Huber, T. J.,, D. E. Dietrich,, and H. M. Emrich. 1999. Possible use of amantadine in depression. Pharmacopsychiatry 32:4755.
77. Iwahashi, K.,, M. Watanabe,, K. Nakamura,, H. Suwaki,, T. Nakaya,, Y. Nakamura,, H. Takahashi,, and K. Ikuta. 1997. Clinical investigation of the relationship between Borna disease virus (BDV) infection and schizophrenia in 67 patients in Japan. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 96:412415.
78. Iwata, Y.,, K. Takahashi,, X. Peng,, K. Fukuda,, K. Ohno,, T. Ogawa,, K. Gonda,, N. Mori,, S. Niwa,, and S. Shigeta. 1998. Detection and sequence analysis of Borna disease virus p24 RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mood disorders or schizophrenia and of blood donors. J. Virol. 72:1004410049.
79. Johnstone, E. C.,, J. Connelly,, C. D. Frith,, M. T. Lambert,, and D. G. C. Owens. 1996. The nature of ‘transient’ and ‘partial’ psychoses: findings from the Northwick Park ‘functional’ psychosis study. Psychol. Med. 26:361369.
80. Kaplan, H. I.,, and B. J. Sadock. 1998. Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry Behavioral Sciences/ Clinical Psychiatry, 8th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
81. Karlsson, H.,, S. Bachmann,, J. Schröder,, J. McArthur,, E. F. Torrey,, and R. H. Yolken. 2001. Retroviral RNA identified in the cerebrospinal fluids and brains of individuals with schizophrenia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:46344639.
82. Kaul, M.,, G. A. Garden,, and S. A. Lipton. 2001. Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. Nature 410:988994.
83. Kim, Y. K.,, S. H. Kim,, S. H. Choi,, Y. H. Ko,, L. Kim,, M. S. Lee,, K. Y. Suh,, D. I. Kwak,, K. J. Song,, Y. J. Lee,, R. Yanagihara,, and J. W. Song. 1999. Failure to demonstrate Borna disease virus genome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from psychiatric patients in Korea. J. Neurovirol. 5:196199.
84. Kishi, M.,, Y. Arimura,, K. Ikuta,, Y. Shoya,, P. K. Lai,, and M. Kakinuma. 1996. Sequence variability of Borna disease virus open reading frame II found in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Virol. 70:635640.
85. Kishi, M.,, T. Nakaya,, Y. Nakamura,, M. Kakinuma,, T. A. Takahashi,, S. Sekiguchi,, M. Uchikawa,, K. Tadokoro,, K. Ikeda,, and K. Ikuta. 1995a. Prevalence of Borna disease virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from blood donors. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 184:135138.
86. Kishi, M.,, T. Nakaya,, Y. Nakamura,, Q. Zhong,, K. Ikeda,, M. Senjo,, M. Kakinuma,, S. Kato,, and K. Ikuta. 1995b. Demonstration of human Borna disease virus RNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. FEBS Lett. 364:293297.
87. Kitani, T.,, H. Kuratsune,, I. Fuke,, Y. Nakamura,, T. Nakaya,, S. Asahi,, M. Tobiume,, K. Yamaguti,, T. Machii,, R. Inagi,, K. Yamanishi,, and K. Ikuta. 1996. Possible correlation between Borna disease virus infection and Japanese patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Microbiol. Immunol. 40:459462.
88. Klein, D. F. 1999. Harmful dysfunction, disorder, disease, illness and evolution. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 108:421429.
89. Knight, J.,, A. Knight and G. Ungvari. 1992. Can autoimmune mechanisms account for the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia? Br. J. Psychiatry 160:533540.
90. Kringlen, E. 1994. Is the concept of schizophrenia useful from an aetiological point of view? A selective review of findings and paradoxes. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 90(Suppl. 384):1725.
91. Kubo, K.,, T. Fujiyoshi,, M. M. Yokoyama,, K. Kamei,, J. A. Richt,, B. Kitze,, S. Herzog,, M. Takigawa,, and S. Sonoda. 1997. Lack of association of Borna disease virus and human Tcell leukemia virus type 1 infections with psychiatric disorders among Japanese patients. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:189194.
92. Lange, W.,, and G. Jaeschke. 1987. Influenza epidemic in horses in West Berlin 1983-1985. 2. Virological and serological findings. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 94:157160. (In German.)
93. Legros, S.,, J. Mendlewicz,, and J. Wybran. 1985. Immunoglobulins, autoantibodies and other serum protein fractions in psychiatric disorders. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Neurol. Sci. 235:911.
94. Lehtonen, O. P.,, and O. H. Maurman. 1986. Avidity of IgG antibodies against mumps, parainfluenza 2 and Newcastle disease viruses after mumps infection. J. Virol. Methods 14:17.
95. Licinio, J.,, and M. L. Wong. 1999. The role of inflammatory mediators in the biology of major depression: central nervous system cytokines modulate the biological substrate of depressive symptoms, regulate stress-responsive systems, and contribute to neurotoxicity and neuroprotection. Mol. Psychiatry 4:317327.
96. Lishman, W. A. 1998. Organic Psychiatry. The Psychological Consequences of Cerebral Disorder, 3rd ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford, United Kingdom.
97. Logigian, E. L.,, R. F. Kaplan,, and A. C. Steere. 1990. Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 323:14381444.
98. Ludwig, H.,, and L. Bode. 2000. Borna disease virus: new aspects on infection, disease, diagnosis and epidemiology. Rev. Sci. Tech. 19:259288.
99. Maj, M.,, R. Jannsen,, F. Starace,, M. Zaudig,, P. Satz,, B. Sughondhabirom,, M. A. Luabeya,, R. Riedel,, D. Ndetei,, and H. M. Calil. 1994. WHO neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 51:3949.
100. Menninger, K. A. 1928. The schizophrenic syndrome as a product of acute infectious disease. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 20:464481.
101. Menninger, K. A. 1994. Influenza and schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 151:183187.
102. Mims, C. A.,, N. J. Dimmock,, A. Nash,, and J. Stephen. 1995. Mims’ Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease, 4th ed. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
103. Moryl, E.,, W. Danysz,, and G. Quack. 1993. Potential antidepressive properties of amantadine, memantine and bifemelane. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 72:394397.
104. Müller, N.,, M. Riedel,, M. Ackenheil,, and M. J. Schwarz. 2000. Cellular and humoral immune system in schizophrenia: a conceptual re-evaluation. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 1:173179.
105. Nakaya, T.,, H. Takahashi,, Y. Nakamura,, S. Asahi,, M. Toblume,, H. Kuratsune,, T. Kitani,, K. Yamanishi,, and K. Ikuta. 1996. Demonstration of Borna disease virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from Japanese patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. FEBS Lett. 378:145149.
106. Nakaya, T.,, H. Takahashi,, Y. Nakamura,, H. Kuratsune,, T. Kitani,, T. Machii,, K. Yamanishi,, and K. Ikuta. 1999. Borna disease virus infection in two family clusters of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Microbiol. Immunol. 43:679689.
107. Nasrallah, H. A. 1994. The continuum of psychoses between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: the neuroanatomic evidence. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 2:206209.
108. Newport, D. J.,, and C. B. Nemeroff,. 1999. Depression in the medically ill, p. 57104. In M. Tohen (ed.), Comorbidity in Affective Disorders. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
109. Niedermeyer, E.,, M. Ribeiro,, and S. Hertz. 1999. Mixed-type encephalopathies: preliminary considerations. Clin. Electroencephalogr. 30:1215.
110. Nowotny, N.,, J. Kolodzlejek,, C. O. Jehle,, A. Suchy,, P. Staeheli,, and M. Schwemmle. 2000. Isolation and characterization of a new subtype of Borna disease virus. J. Virol 74:56555658.
111. Oleszak, E. L.,, J. Kuzmak,, B. Hogue,, R. Parr,, E. W. Collisson,, L. S. Rodkey,, and J. L. Leibowitz. 1995. Molecular mimicry between Fc receptor and S peplomer protein of mouse hepatitis virus, bovine corona virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Hybridoma 14:18.
112. Oleszak, E. L.,, W. L. Lin,, J. R. Chang,, S. Herzog,, and K. Bechter. 2001. Clonally expanded T cells are present in the CSF of patients with major depression. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2:60S.
113. O’Reilly, R. L. 1994. Viruses and schizophrenia. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 28:222228.
114. Osborn, A. G. 1994. Diagnostic Neuroradiology. Mosby, St. Louis, Mo.
115. Oschmann, P.,, W. Dorndorf,, C. Hornig,, C. Schafer,, H. J. Wellensiek,, and K. W. Pflughaupt. 1998. Stages and syndromes of neuroborreliosis. J. Neurol. 245:262272.
116. Parshall, A. M.,, and R. G. Priest. 1993. Nosology, taxonomy and the classification conundrum of the functional psychoses. Br. J. Psychiatry 162:227236.
117. Perkins, D. O.,, E. J. Davidson,, J. Leserman,, D. Liao,, and D. L. Evans. 1993. Personality disorder in patients infected with HIV: a controlled study with implications for clinical care. Am. J. Psychiatry 150:309315.
118. Perkins, D. O.,, J. Leserman,, R. A. Stern,, S. F. Baum,, D. Liao,, R. N. Golden,, and D. L. Evans. 1995. Somatic symptoms and HIV infection: relationship to depressive symptoms and indicators of HIV disease. Am. J. Psychiatry 152:17761781.
119. Pert, C. B.,, J. G. Knight,, P. Laing,, and M. A. K. Markwell. 1988. Scenarios for a viral etiology of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 2:243247.
120. Planz, O.,, C. Rentzsch,, A. Batra,, T. Winkler,, M. Buttner,, H. J. Rziha,, and L. Stitz. 1999. Pathogenesis of Borna disease virus: granulocyte fractions of psychiatric patients harbor infectious virus in the absence of antiviral antibodies. J. Virol. 73:62516256.
121. Pollmacher, T.,, M. Haack,, A. Schuld,, T. Kraus,, and D. Hinze-Selch. 2000. Effects of antipsychotic drugs on cytokine networks. J. Psychiatr. Res. 34:369382.
122. Rabkin, J. G.,, R. R. Goetz,, R. H. Remien,, J. B. W. Williams,, G. Todak,, and J. M. Gorman. 1997. Stability of mood despite HIV illness progression in a group of homosexual men. Am. J. Psychiatry 154:231238.
123. Rausch, D. M.,, and E. S. Stover. 2001. Neuroscience research in AIDS. Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 25:231257.
124. Reiber, H. 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid: physiology, analysis and interpretation of protein patterns for diagnosis of neurological diseases. Mult. Scler. 4:99107.
125. Richt, J. A.,, R. C. Alexander,, S. Herzog,, D. C. Hooper,, R. Kean,, S. Spitsin,, K. Bechter,, R. Schuttler,, H. Feldmann,, A. Heiske,, Z. F. Fu,, B. Dietzschold,, R. Rott,, and H. Koprowski. 1997. Failure to detect Borna disease virus infection in peripheral blood leukocytes from humans with psychiatric disorders. J. Neurovirol. 3:174178.
126. Richt, J. A.,, and R. Rott. 2001. Borna disease virus: a mystery as an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Vet. J. 161:2440.
127. Rother, S.,, K. D. Knoblauch,, and M. Kirschfink. 1995. Filtration of liquor cerebrospinalis (CSF-filtration): technical concept and filter performance under in vitro conditions. Neuropsychiatrie 9:8285.
128. Rott, R.,, S. Herzog,, K. Bechter,, and K. Frese. 1991. Borna disease, a possible hazard for man? Arch. Virol. 118:143149.
129. Rott, R.,, S. Herzog,, B. Fleischer,, A. Winokur,, J. Amsterdam,, W. Dyson,, and H. Koprowski. 1985. Detection of serum-antibodies to Borna disease virus in patients with psychiatric disorders. Science 228:755756.
130. Rybakowski, F.,, T. Sawada,, and K. Yamaguchi. 2001. Borna disease virus-reactive antibodies and recent-onset psychiatric disorders. Eur. Psychiatry 16:191192.
131. Sauder, C.,, and J. C. de la Torre. 1998. Sensitivity and reproducibility of RT-PCR to detect Borna disease virus (BDV) RNA in blood: implications for BDV epidemiology. J. Virol. Methods 71:229245.
132. Sauder, C.,, A. Müller,, B. Cubitt,, J. Mayer,, J. Steinmetz,, W. Trabert,, B. Ziegler,, K. Wanke,, N. Mueller-Lantzsch,, J. C. de la Torre,, and F. A. Grässer. 1996. Detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) antibodies and BDV. RNA in psychiatric patients: evidence for high sequence conservation of human blood-derived BDV RNA. J. Virol. 70:77137724.
133. Sauerbrei, A.,, U. Eichhorn,, G. Hottenrott,, and P. Wutzler. 2000. Virological diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. J. Clin. Virol. 17:3136.
134. Sax, K. W.,, and S. M. Strakowsky. 1999. The co-occurrence of bipolar disorder with medical illness, p. 213228. In M. Tohen (ed.), Comorbidity in Affective Disorders. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
135. Schneider, K. 1992. Clinical Psychopathology, 14th ed. Thieme, Stuttgart, Germany.
136. Schupbach, J.,, A. Baumgartner,, and Z. Tomasik. 1988. HTLV-1 in Switzerland: low prevalence of specific antibodies in HIV risk groups, high prevalence of cross-reactive antibodies in normal blood donors. Int. J. Cancer 42:857862.
137. Schwemmle, M. 1999. Progress and controversy in Bornavirus research: a meeting report. Arch. Virol. 80:97100.
138. Selten, J. P.,, K. van Vliet,, W. Pleyte,, S. Herzog,, H. W. Hoek,, and A. M. van Loon. 2000. Borna disease virus and schizophrenia in Surinamese immigrants to the Netherlands. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berlin) 189:5557.
139. Shankar, V.,, M. Kao,, A. N. Hamir,, H. Sheng,, H. Koprowski,, and B. Dietzschold. 1992. Kinetics of virus spread and changes in levels of several cytokine mRNAs in the brain after intranasal infection of rats with Borna disease virus. J. Virol. 66:992998.
140. Shiwach, R. 1994. Psychopathology in Huntington’s disease patients. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 90:241246.
141. Sierra-Honigmann, A. M.,, K. M. Carbone,, and R. H. Yolken. 1995. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) search for viral nucleic acid sequences in schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry 166:5560.
142. Sierra-Honigmann, A. M.,, S. A. Rubin,, M. G. Estafanous,, R. H. Yolken,, and K. M. Carbone. 1993. Borna disease virus in peripheral blood mononuclear and bone marrow cells of neonatally and chronically infected rats. J. Neuroimmunol. 45:3136.
143. Sirota, P.,, M. A. Firer,, K. Schild,, A. Tanay,, A. Elizur,, D. Meytes,, and H. Slor. 1993. Autoantibodies to DNA in multicase families with schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 33:450454.
144. Skegg, K.,, P. A. Corwin,, and D. C. G. Skegg. 1988. How often is multiple sclerosis mistaken for a psychiatric disorder? Psychol. Med. 18:733736.
145. South, M.,, and J. Sever. 1985. Teratogen update: the congenital rubella syndrome. Teratology 31:297307.
146. Spannhuth, C. W.,, D. E. Dietrich,, L. Bode,, T. Lau,, T. J. Huber,, H. Ludwig,, and H. M. Emrich. 2000. Mögliche prädiktive Faktoren zur Amantadinbehandlung bei BDV-infizierten depressiven Patienten. Nervenarzt 71(Suppl 1):S150.
147. Spitzer, R. L.,, M. B. First,, J. B. Williams,, K. Kendler,, H. A. Pincus,, and G. Tucker. 1992. Now is the time to retire the term ‘organic mental disorders.’ Am. J. Psychiatry 149:240244.
148. Sprankel, H.,, K. Richarz,, H. Ludwig,, and R. Rott. 1978. Behavior alterations in tree shrews (Tupala glis, Diard 1820) induced by Borna disease virus. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 165:118.
149. Staeheli, P.,, C. Sauder,, J. Hausmann,, F. Ehrensperger,, and M. Schwemmle. 2000. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus. J. Gen. Virol. 81:21232135.
150. Stenager, E.,, and K. Jensen. 1988. Multiple sclerosis: correlation of psychiatric admissions to onset of initial symptoms. Acta Neurol. Scand. 77:414417.
151. Stitz, L.,, O. Planz,, and T. Bilzer. 1998. Lack of antiviral effect of amantadine in Borna disease virus infection. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berlin) 186:195200.
152. Strakowsky, S. M.,, and K. W. Sax,. 2000. Secondary mania. A model of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder?, p. 13-29. In J. C. Soares, and S. Gershon (ed.), Bipolar Disorders. Basic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
153. Strömgren, E. 1994. The unitary psychosis (Einheitspsychose) concept: past and present. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 2:201205.
154. Strongin, W., 1992. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of diagnostic tests: definitions and clinical applications, p. 211222. In E. H. Lennette (ed.), Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
155. Susser, E.,, P. Colson,, L. Jandorf,, A. Berkman,, J. Lavelle,, S. Fennig,, C. Waniek,, and E. Bromet. 1997. HIV infection among young adults with psychotic disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry 154:864866.
156. Takahashi, H.,, T. Nakaya,, Y. Nakamura,, S. Asahi,, Y. Onishi,, K. Ikebuchi,, T. A. Takahashi,, T. Katoh,, S. Sekiguchi,, M. Takazawa,, H. Tanaka,, and K. Ikuta. 1997. Higher prevalence of Borna disease virus infection in blood donors living near thoroughbred horse farms. J. Med. Virol. 52:330335.
157. Theil, J. D.,, I. Tsunoda,, F. Rodriguez,, J. L. Whitton,, and R. S. Fujinami. 2001. Viruses can silently prime for and trigger central nervous system autoimmune disease. J. Neurovirol. 7:220227.
158. Tsuji, K.,, K. Toyomasu,, Y. Imamura,, H. Maeda,, and T. Toyoda. 2000. No association of borna disease virus with psychiatric disorders among patients in northern Kyushu, Japan. J. Med. Virol. 61:336340.
159. Vahlenkamp, T. W.,, H. K. Enbergs,, and H. Muller. 2000. Experimental and natural borna disease virus infections: presence of viral RNA in cells of the peripheral blood. Vet. Microbiol. 76:229244.
160. van Praag, H. M. 2000. Nosologomania: a disorder of psychiatry. World J. Biol. Psychiatry 1:151158.
161. Wagle, A. C.,, S. A. Wagle,, I. S. Marková,, and G. E. Berrios. 2000. Psychiatric morbidity in Huntington’s disease: the current view. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 8:516.
162. Waltrip, R. W., II,, R. W. Buchanan, , A. Summerfelt, , A. Breier, , W. T. Carpenter, Jr.,, L. N. Bryant,, S. A. Rubin,, and K. M. Carbone. 1995. Borna disease virus and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 56:3344.
163. Waxman, S. G. 2000. Do ‘demyelinating’ diseases involve more than myelin? Nat. Med. 6:73873.
164. Wexler, B. E. 1992. Beyond the Kraepelinean dichotomy. Biol. Psychiatry 31:539541.
165. Wittchen, H. U. 2000. Epidemiological research in mental disorders: lessons for the next decade of research—the NAPE Lecture 1999. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 101:210.
166. Wollinsky, K. H.,, P. J. Hülser,, H. Brinkmeier,, P. Aulkemeyer,, W. Bössenecker,, K. H. Huber- Hartmann,, P. Rohrbach,, H. Schreiber,, F. Weber,, M. Kron,, G. Büchele,, H. H. Mehrkens,, A. C. Ludolph,, and R. Rüdel. 2001. CSF filtration is an effective treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Neurology 57:774780.
167. Wollinsky, K. H.,, P. J. Hülser,, H. Brinkmeier,, H. H. Mehrkens,, H. H. Kornhuber,, and R. Rüdel. 1994. Filtration of cerebrospinal fluid in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barre syndrome). Ann. Med. Intern. 145:451458.
168. Yamaguchi, K.,, T. Sawada,, T. Naraki,, R. Igata,, Yi, , H. Shiraki, , Y. Horii, , T. Ishii, , K. Ikeda, , N. Asou, , H. Okabe, , M. Mochizuki, , K. Takahashi, , S. Yamada, , K. Kubo, , S. Yashiki, , R. W. Waltrip, , and K. M. Carbone. 1999. Detection of Borna disease virus-reactive antibodies from patients with psychiatric disorders and from horses by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 6:696700.
169. Yolken, R. H.,, and E. F. Torrey. 1995. Viruses, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:131145.
170. Yolken, R. H.,, and E. F. Torrey,. 2000. Hypothesis of a viral etiology in bipolar disorder, p. 305315. In J. C. Soares, and S. Gershon (ed.) , Bipolar Disorders. Basic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
171. Zarin, D. A.,, and F. Earls. 1993. Diagnostic decision making in psychiatry. Am. J. Psychiatry 150:197206.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Seroprevalence of BDV in humans

Citation: Planz O, Bechter K, Schwemmle M. 2002. Human Borna Disease Virus Infection, p 179-226. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Isolation of BDV

Citation: Planz O, Bechter K, Schwemmle M. 2002. Human Borna Disease Virus Infection, p 179-226. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in brain tissue by RT-PCR

Citation: Planz O, Bechter K, Schwemmle M. 2002. Human Borna Disease Virus Infection, p 179-226. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in blood by RT-PCR

Citation: Planz O, Bechter K, Schwemmle M. 2002. Human Borna Disease Virus Infection, p 179-226. In Carbone K (ed), Borna Disease Virus and Its Role in Neurobehavioral Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817909.ch6

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error