1887

Chapter 12 : Picornavirus Genome: an Overview

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Picornavirus Genome: an Overview, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap12-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of the organization of the picornavirus genome. It highlights that it is reasonable to consider the structure and functions of the picornaviral genome as an integrated system designed to ensure efficient self-reproduction. To achieve this goal, the genetic system should store information about how to synthesize the new generation of viral RNA and protein molecules endowed with the ability to assemble into virions capable of infecting new host cells. The capacity of poliovirus RNA to code for protein has been documented by its translation in a cell-free system. Demonstration of infectivity of the poliovirus cDNA heralded the advent of a new era in picornavirus genome research. Translation initiation of picornaviral RNAs is accomplished through a cap-independent mechanism involving an RNA segment hundreds of nucleotides long called the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located within the 5' UTR. RNA folding is intrinsically dynamic and is influenced by many variables such as local ionic conditions and, in particular, RNA-binding proteins. Picornavirus infection is accompanied by changes in the permeability of both intracellular and plasma membranes. Appropriate specific alterations occur early and late in the reproduction cycle. An important function of the viral genome is to prevent or neutralize the host defensive measures. The genes encoding ancestors of picornavirus proteins were likely existent long before the appearance of the first picornavirus.

Citation: Agol V. 2002. Picornavirus Genome: an Overview, p 127-148. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch12

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I
0.40894446
0.40894446
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

A schematic representation of the picornavirus RNA. The genomes of certain picornaviruses may have additional distinctive features, such as the presence of a poly(C) tract within the 5′ UTR (e.g., aphthoviruses and some cardioviruses), a gene encoding leader polypeptide (aphthoviruses and cardioviruses), an alternative short reading frame encoding polypeptide L* (some strains of TMEV), and three copies of the VPg-coding gene (aphthoviruses).

Citation: Agol V. 2002. Picornavirus Genome: an Overview, p 127-148. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817916.chap12
1. Agol, V. I. 1991. The 5'-untranslated region of picornaviral genomes. Adv. Virus Res. 40: 103 180.
2. Agol, V. I.,, G. A. Belov,, K. Bienz,, D. Egger,, M. S. Kolesnikova,, N. T. Raikhlin,, L. I. Romanova,, E. A. Smirnova,, and E. A. Tolskaya. 1998. Two types of death of poliovirus-infected cells: caspase involvement in the apoptosis but not cytopathic effect. Virology 252: 342 353.
3. Agol, V. I.,, G. A. Belov,, K. Bienz,, D. Egger,, M. S. Kolesnikova,, L. I. Romanova,, L. V. Sladkova,, and E. A. Tolskaya. 2000. Competing death programs in poliovirus-infected cells: commitment switch in the middle of the infectious cycle. J. Virol. 74: 5534 5541.
3a.. Agol, V. I.,, Y. F. Drygin,, L. I. Romanova,, and A. A. Bogdanov. 1970. Circular structures in preparations of the replicative form of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA. FEBS Lett. 8: 13 16.
4. Agol, V. I.,, A. V. Paul,, and E. Wimmer. 1999. Paradoxes of the replication of picornaviral genomes. Virus Res. 62: 129 147.
5. Agol, V. I.,, E. V. Pilipenko,, and O. R. Slobodskaya. 1996. Modification of translation control elements as a new approach to design of attenuated picornavirus strains. J. Biotech. 44: 119 128.
6. Aldabe, R.,, R. Barco,, and L. Carrasco. 1996. Membrane permeabilization by poliovirus proteins 2B and 2BC. J. Virol. 71: 6214 6217.
7. Aldabe, R.,, and L. Carrasco. 1995. Induction of membrane proliferation by poliovirus proteins 2C and 2BC. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 206: 64 76.
8. Alexander, H. E.,, G. Koch,, L. M. Mountain,, K. Sprunt,, and O. Van Damme. 1958. Infectivity of ribonucleic acid of poliovirus on HeLa cell monolayers. Virology 5: 172 173.
9. Almond, J. W. 1987. The attenuation of poliovirus virulence. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41: 153 180.
10. Ambros, V.,, and D. Baltimore. 1978. Protein is linked to the 5' end of poliovirus RNA by a phosphodiester linkage to tyrosine. J. Biol. Chem. 253: 5263 5266.
11. Ambros, V.,, R. F. Pettersson,, and D. Baltimore. 1978. An enzymatic activity in uninfected cells that cleaves the linkage between poliovirion RNA and the 5' terminal protein. Cell 15: 1439 1446.
12. Anderson, D. A.,, and B. C. Ross. 1990. Morphogenesis of hepatitis A virus: isolation and characterization of sub-viral particles. J. Virol. 64: 5284 5289.
13. Andino, R.,, G. E. Rieckhof,, P. L. Achacoso,, and D. Baltimore. 1993. Poliovirus RNA synthesis utilizes an RNP complex formed around the 5'-end of viral RNA. EMBO J. 12: 3587 3598.
14. Andino, R.,, G. E. Rieckhof,, and D. Baltimore. 1990. A functional ribonucleoprotein complex forms around the 5' end of poliovirus RNA. Cell 63: 369 380.
15. Ansardi, D. C.,, D. C. Porter,, M. J. Anderson,, and C. D. Morrow. 1996. Poliovirus assembly and encapsidation of genomic RNA. Adv. Virus Res. 46: 1 68.
16. Arnold, E.,, M. Luo,, G. Vriend,, M. G. Rossmann,, A. C. Palmenberg,, G. D. Parks,, M. J. H. Nicklin,, and E. Wim-mer. 1987. Implications of the picornavirus capsid structure for polyprotein processing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 21 25.
17. Badorff, C.,, G. H. Lee,, B. J. Lamphear,, M. E. Martone,, K. P. Campbell,, R. E. Rhoads,, and K. U. Knowlton. 1999. Enteroviral protease 2A cleaves dystrophin: evidence of cytoskeletal disruption in an acquired cardiomyopathy. Nat. Med. 5: 320 326.
18. Baltimore, D.,, and M. Girard. 1966. An intermediate in the synthesis of poliovirus RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 56: 741 748.
19. Banerjee, R.,, A. Echeverri,, and A. Dasgupta. 1997. Poliovirus-encoded 2C polypeptide specifically binds to the 3' terminal sequences of viral negative-strand RNA. J. Virol. 71: 9570 9578.
20. Barclay, W.,, Q. Li,, G. Hutchinson,, D. Moon,, A. Richardson,, N. Percy,, J. W. Almond,, and D. Evans. 1998. Encapsidation studies of poliovirus subgenomic replicons. J. Gen Virol. 79: 1725 1734.
21. Barco, A.,, and L. Carrasco. 1995. A human virus protein, poliovirus protein 2BC, induces membrane proliferation and blocks the exocytic pathway in the yeast Sac-charomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 14: 3349 3364.
22. Barco, A.,, E. Feduchi,, and L. Carrasco. 2000. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis. Virology 266: 352 360.
23. Barco, A.,, E. Feduchi,, and L. Carrasco. 2000. A stable HeLa cell line that inducibly expresses poliovirus 2A(pro): effects on cellular and viral gene expression. 7. Virol. 74: 2383 2392.
24. Barton, D. J.,, B. J. Morasco,, and J. B. Flanegan. 1999. Translating ribosomes inhibit poliovirus negative-strand RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 73: 10104 10112.
24a.. Barton, D. J.,, B. J. O'Donnell,, and J. B. Flanegan. 2001. 5' Cloverleaf in poliovirus RNA is a cis-acting replication element required for negative-strand synthesis. EMBO J. 20: 1439 1448.
25. Basavappa, R.,, R. Syed,, O. Flore,, J. P. Icenogle,, D. J. Filman,, and J. M. Hogle. 1994. Role and mechanism of the maturation cleavage of VPO in poliovirus assembly: structure of the empty capsid assembly intermediate at 2.9 A resolution. Protein Sci. 3: 1651 1669.
26. Beck, E.,, S. Forss,, K. Strebel,, R. Cattaneo,, and G. Feil. 1983. Structure of the FMDV translation initiation site and of the structural proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 7873 7885.
27. Belnap, D. M.,, D. J. Filman,, B. L. This,, N. Cheng,, F. P. Booy,, J. F. Conway,, S. Curry,, C. N. Hiremath,, S. K. Tsang,, A. C. Steven,, and J. M. Hogle. 2000. Molecular tectonic model of virus structural transitions: the putative cell entry states of poliovirus. J. Virol. 74: 1342 1354.
28. Belov, G. A.,, A. G. Evstafieva,, Y. P. Rubtsov,, O. Mikitas,, A. B. Vartapetian,, and V. I. Agol. 2000. Early alteration of nucleocytoplasmic traffic induced by some RNA viruses. Virology 275: 244 248.
29. Belsham, G. J.,, and N. Sonenberg. 1966. RNA-protein interactions in regulation of picornavirus RNA translation. Microbiol. Rev. 60: 499 511.
30. Belsham, G. J.,, and N. Sonenberg. 2000. Picornavirus RNA translation: roles for cellular proteins. Trends Micro' biol. 8: 330 335.
31. Benton, P. A.,, D. J. Barrett,, R. L. Matts,, and R. E. Lloyd. 1996. The outcome of poliovirus infections in K562 cells is cytolytic rather than persistent after hemin-induced differentiation. J. Virol. 70: 5525 5532.
32. Bernstein, H. D.,, N. Sonenberg,, and D. Baltimore. 1985. Poliovirus mutant that does not selectively inhibit host cell protein synthesis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 5: 2913 2923.
33. Bienz, K.,, D. Egger,, and L. Pasamontes. 1987. Association of polioviral proteins of the P2 genomic region with the viral replication complex and virus-induced membrane synthesis as visualized by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. Virology 160: 220 226.
34-. Bishop, N. E.,, and D. A. Anderson. 1993. RNA-dependent cleavage of VP0 capsid protein in provirions of hepatitis A virus. Virology 197: 616 623.
35. Black, T. L.,, G. N. Barber,, and M. G. Katze. 1993. Degradation of the interferon-induced 68,000-M(r) protein kinase by poliovirus requires RNA. J. Virol. 67: 791 800.
36. Blank, C. A.,, D. A. Anderson,, M. Beard,, and S. M. Lemon. 2000. Infection of polarized cultures of human intestinal epithelial cells with hepatitis A virus: vectorial release of progeny virions through apical cellular membranes. J. Virol. 74: 6476 6484.
37. Blyn, L. B.,, K. M. Swiderek,, O. Richards,, D. C. Stahl,, B. L. Semler,, and E. Ehrenfeld. 1996. Poly(rC) binding protein 2 binds to stem-loop IV of the poliovirus RNA 5' noncoding region: identification by automated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 11115 11120.
38. Blyn, L. B.,, J. S. Towner,, B. L. Semler,, and E. Ehrenfeld. 1997. Requirement of poly(rC) binding protein 2 for translation of poliovirus RNA. J. Virol. 71: 6243 6246.
39. Bolten, R.,, D. Egger,, R. Gosert,, G. Schaub,, L. Land-mann,, and K. Bienz. 1998. Intracellular localization of poliovirus plus- and minus-strand RNA visualized by strand-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization. J. Virol. 72: 8578 8585.
40. Bonneau, A. M.,, A. Darveau,, and N. Sonenberg. 1985. Effect of viral infection on host protein synthesis and mRNA association with the cytoplasmic cytoskeletal structure. J. Cell Biol. 100: 1209 1218.
41. Borman, A. M.,, F. G. Deliat,, and K. M. Kean. 1994. Sequences within the poliovirus internal ribosome entry segment control viral RNA synthesis. EMBO J. 13: 3149 3157.
42. Borman, A. M.,, P. Le Mercier,, M. Girard,, and K. M. Kean. 1997. Comparison of picornaviral IRES-driven internal initiation of translation in cultured cells of different origins. Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 925 932.
43. Bovee, M. L.,, W. E. Marissen,, M. Zamora,, and R. E. Lloyd. 1998. The predominant elF4G-specific cleavage activity in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells is distinct from 2A protease. Virology 245: 229 240.
44. Brack, K.,, W. Frings,, A. Dotzauer,, and A. Vallbracht. 1998. A cytopathogenic, apoptosis-inducing variant of hepatitis A virus. J. Virol. 72: 3370 3376.
45. Brown, E. A.,, S. P. Day,, R. W. Jansen,, and S. M. Lemon. 1991. The 5' nontranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA: secondary structure and elements required for translation in vitro. J. Virol. 65: 5828 5838.
46. Brown, E.,, R. F. Sellers,, and D. L. Stewart. 1958. Infec-tivity of ribonucleic acid from mice and tissue culture infected with the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. Nature 182: 535 536.
47. Carrasco, L. 1995. Modification of membrane permeability by animal viruses. Adv. Virus Res. 45: 61 112.
48. Chaplin, P. J.,, E. B. Camon,, B. Villarreal-Ramos,, M. Flint,, M. D. Ryan,, and R. A. Collins. 1999. Production of interleukin-12 as a self-processing 2A polypeptide. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 19: 235 241.
49. Chen, H.-H.,, W.-P. Kong,, L. Zhang,, P. L. Ward,, and R. Roos. 1995. A picornaviral protein synthesized out of frame with the polyprotein plays a key role in a virus-induced immune-mediate demyelinating disease. Nat. Med. 1: 927 931.
50. Cho, M. W.,, N. L. Teterina,, D. Egger,, K. Bienz,, and E. Ehrenfeld. 1994. Membrane rearrangement and vesicle induction by recombinant poliovirus 2C and 2BC in human cells. Virology 202: 129 145.
51. Clark, M. E.,, T. Hammerle,, E. Wimmer,, and A. Das-gupta. 1991. Poliovirus proteinase 3C converts an active form of transcription factor IIIC to an inactive form: a mechanism for inhibition of host cell polymerase III transcription by poliovirus. EMBO J. 10: 2941 2947.
52. Clark, M. E.,, P. M. Lieberman,, A. J. Berk,, and A. Das-gupta. 1993. Direct cleavage of human TATA-binding protein by poliovirus protease 3C in vivo and in vitro. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2: 1232 1237.
53. Clarke, B. E.,, A. L. Brown,, K. M. Currey,, S. E. Newton,, D. J. Rowlands,, and A. R. Carroll. 1987. Potential secondary and tertiary structure in the genomic RNA of foot and mouth disease virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 15: 7067 7079.
54. Clarke, B. E.,, D. V. Sangar,, J. N. Burroughs,, S. E. Newton,, A. R. Caroll,, and D. J. Rowlands. 1985. Two initiation sites for foot-and-mouth disease virus polyprotein in vivo. J. Gen. Virol. 66: 2615 2626.
55. Coller, B. A.,, N. M. Chapman,, M. A. Beck,, M. A. Pallansch,, C. J. Gauntt,, and S. M. Tracy. 1990. Echovirus 22 is an atypical enterovirus. J. Virol. 64: 2692 2701.
56. Colter, J. S.,, H. H. Bird,, and R. A. Brown. 1957. In-fectivity of ribonucleic acid from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells infected with Mengo encephalitis. Nature 179: 859 860.
57. Colter, J. S.,, H. H. Bird,, A. W. Mover,, and R. A. Brown. 1957. Infectivity of ribonucleic acid isolated from virus infected tissues. Virology 4: 522 532.
58. Cromeans, T.,, M. D. Sobsey,, and H. A. Fields. 1987. Development of a plaque assay for a cytopathic, rapidly replicating isolate of hepatitis A virus. J. Med. Virol. 22: 45 56.
59. Cuconati, A.,, W. Xiang,, F. Lahser,, T. Pfister,, and E. Wimmer. 1998. A protein linkage map of the P2 nonstructural proteins of poliovirus. J. Virol. 72: 1297 1307.
60. Cui, T.,, and A. G. Porter. 1995. Localization of binding site for encephalomyocarditis virus RNA polymerase in the 3'-noncoding region of the viral RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 23: 377 382.
61. Cui, T.,, S. Sankar,, and A. G. Porter. 1993. Binding of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA polymerase to the 3'-noncoding region of the viral RNA is specific and requires the 3'-poIy(A) tail. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 26093 26098.
62. Davies, M.,, and R. J. Kaufmann. 1992. The sequence context of the initiation codon in the encephalomyocar-ditis virus leader modulated efficiency of internal translation initiation. J. Virol. 66: 1924 1932.>
63. De Chastonay, J.,, and G. Siegl. 1987. Replicative events in hepatitis A virus-infected MRC-5 cells. Virology 157: 268 275.
63a.. Deitz, S. B.,, D. A. Dodd,, S. Cooper,, P. Parham,, and K. Kirkegaard. 2000. MHC I-dependent antigen presentation is inhibited by poliovirus protein 3A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 13790 13795.
64. Devaney, M. A.,, V. N. Vakharia,, R. E. Lloyd,, E. Eh-renfeld,, and M. J. Grubman. 1988. Leader protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus is required for cleavage of the p220 component of the cap-binding protein complex. J. Virol. 62: 4407 4409.
65. Dildine, S. L.,, and B. L. Semler. 1989. The deletion of 41 proximal nucleotides reverts a poliovirus mutant containing a temperature-sensitive lesion in the 5' noncoding region of genomic RNA. J. Virol. 63: 847 862.
65a.. Dodd, D. A.,, T. H. Gidding, Jr.,, and K. Kirkegaard. 2001. Poliovirus 3A protein limits interkeukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and beta interferon secretion during viral infection. J. Virol. 75: 8158 8165.
66. Doedens, J. R.,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1995. Inhibition of cellular protein secretion by poliovirus proteins 2B and 3A. EMBO J. 14: 894 907.
67.. Doedens, J. R.,, Giddings, T. H., Jr.,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1997. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi traffic by poliovirus protein 3A: genetic and ultrastructural analysis. J. Virol. 71: 9054 9064.
68. Donnelly, M. L.,, D. Gani,, M. Flint,, S. Monaghan,, and M. D. Ryan. 1997. The cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2A proteins. J. Gen. Virol. 78: 13 21.
69. Duke, G. M.,, J. E. Osorio,, and A. C. Palmenberg. 1990. Attenuation of Mengo virus through genetic engineering of the 5' noncoding poly(C) tract. Nature 343: 474 476.
70. Duke, G. M.,, M. A. Hoffman,, and A. C. Palmenberg. 1992. Sequence and structural elements that contribute to efficient encephalomyocarditis virus RNA translation. J. Virol. 66: 1602 1609.
71. Ehrenfeld, E. 1984. Picornavirus inhibition of host cell protein synthesis. Comp. Virol. 19: 177 221.
72. Escarmis, C.,, J. Dopazo,, M. Davila,, E. L. Palma,, and E. Domingo. 1995. Large deletions in the 5'-untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype C. Virus Res. 35: 155 167.
73. Evans, D. J.,, and J. W. Almond. 1998. Cell receptors for picornaviruses as determinants of cell tropism and pathogenesis. Trends Microbiol. 6: 198 202.
74. Falk, M. M.,, F. Sobrino,, and E. Beck. 1992. VPg gene amplification correlates with infective particle formation in foot-and-mouth disease virus. J. Virol. 66: 2251 2260.
75. Fernandez-Munoz, R.,, and J. E. Darnell. 1976. Structural difference between the 5' termini of viral and cellular mRNA in poliovirus-infected cells: possible basis for the inhibition of host protein synthesis. J. Virol. 18: 719 726.
76. Flanegan, J. B.,, and D. Baltimore. 1977. Poliovirus-specific primer-dependent RNA polymerase able to copy poly(A). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 3677 3680.
77. Flanegan, J. B.,, R. F. Pettersson,, V. Ambros,, N. J. Hewlett,, and D. Baltimore. 1977. Covalent linkage of a protein to a defined nucleotide sequence at the 5'-terminus of virion and replicative intermediate RNAs of poliovirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 961 965.
78. Forss, S.,, and H. Schaller. 1982. A tandem repeat gene in a picornavirus. Nucleic Acids Res. 10: 6441 6450.
79. Gamarnik, A. V.,, and R. Andino. 1997. Two functional complexes formed by KH domain containing proteins with the 5' noncoding region of poliovirus RNA. RNA 3: 882 892.
80. Gamarnik, A. V.,, and R. Andino. 1998. Switch from translation to RNA replication in a positive-stranded RNA virus. Genes Dev. 12: 2293 2304.
81. Gamarnik, A. V.,, and R. Andino. 2000. Interactions of viral protein 3CD and poly(rC) binding protein with the 5' untranslated region of the poliovirus genome. J. Virol. 74: 2219 2226.
82. Gavrilin, G. V.,, E. A. Cherkasova,, G. Y. Lipskaya,, O. M. Kew,, and V. I. Agol. 2000. Evolution of circulating wild poliovirus and of vaccine-derived poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient: a unifying model. J. Virol. 74: 7381 7390.
83. Ghadge, G. D.,, L. Ma,, S. Sato,, J. Kim,, and R. P. Roos. 1998. A protein critical for a Theiler's virus-induced immune system-mediated demyelinating disease has a cell type-specific antiapoptotic effect and a key role in virus persistence. J. Virol. 72: 8605 8612.
84. Ghazi, E.,, P. J. Hughes,, T. Hyypia,, and G. Stanway. 1998. Molecular analysis of human parechovirus type 2 (formerly echovirus 23). J. Gen. Virol. 79: 2641 2650.
85. Gingras, A. C.,, Y. Svitkin,, G. J. Belsham,, A. Pause,, and N. Sonenberg. 1996. Activation of the translational suppressor 4E-BP1 following infection with encephalomyocarditis virus and poliovirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 5578 5583.
86. Gladding, R. L.,, A. L. Haas,, D. L. Gronros,, and T. G. Lawson. 1997. Evaluation of the susceptibility of the 3C proteases of hepatitis A virus and poliovirus to degradation by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 238: 119 125.
87. Gmyl, A. P.,, E. V. Pilipenko,, S. V. Maslova,, G. A. Be-lov,, and V. 1. Agol. 1993. Functional and genetic plasticities of the poliovirus genome: quasi-infectious RNAs modified in the 5'-untranslated region yield a variety of pseudorevertants. J. Virol. 67: 6309 6316.
88. Goldstaub, D.,, A. Gradi,, Z. Bercovitch,, Z. Grossman,, Y. Nophar,, S. Luria,, N. Sonenberg,, and C. Kahana. 2000. Poliovirus 2A protease induces apoptotic cell death. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20: 1271 1277.
89. Goodfellow, I.,, Y. Chaudhry,, A. Richardson,, J. Meredith,, J. W. Almond,, W. Barclay,, and D. J. Evans. 2000. Identification of a cis-acting replication element within the poliovirus coding region. J. Virol. 74: 4590 4600.
90. Gorbalenya, A. E., 1995. Origin of RNA viral genomes: approaching the problem by comparative sequence analysis, p. 49 66. In A. J. Gibbs,, C. H. Calisher,, and F. Garcia-Arenal (ed)., Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
91. Gorbalenya, A. E.,, and E. V. Koonin. 1993. Helicases: amino acid sequence comparisons and structure-function relationships. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 3: 419 429.
92. Gorbalenya, A. E.,, K. M. Chumakov,, and V. I. Agol. 1978. RNA-binding properties of nonstructural polypeptide G of encephalomyocarditis virus. Virology 88: 183 185.
93. Gorbalenya, A. E.,, and E. J. Snyder. 1996. Viral cysteine proteinases. Persp. Drug. Discov. Design 6: 65 86.
94. Gorbalenya, A. E.,, Y. V. Svitkin,, Y. A. Kazachkov,, and V. I. Agol. 1979. Encephalomyocarditis virus-specific polypeptide p22 is involved in the processing of the viral precursor polypeptides. FEBS Lett. 108: 1 5.
95. Gosert, R.,, K. H. Chang,, R. Rijnbrand,, M. Yi,, D. V. Sangar,, and S. M. Lemon. 2000. Transient expression of cellular polypyrimidine-tract binding protein stimulates cap-independent translation directed by both picorna-viral and flaviviral internal ribosome entry sites in vivo. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20: 1583 1595.
96. Gosert, R.,, D. Egger,, and K. Bienz. 2000. A cytopathic and a cell culture adapted hepatitis A virus strain differ in cell killing but not in intracellular membrane rearrangements. Virology 266: 157 169.
97. Gradi, A.,, Y. V. Svitkin,, H. Imataka,, and N. Sonenberg. 1998. Proteolysis of human eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4GII, but not eIF4GI coincides with the shutoff of host protein synthesis after poliovirus infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 11089 11094.
98. Graff, J.,, J. Cha,, B. Lawrence,, and E. Ehrenfeld. 1998. Interaction of poly(rC) binding protein 2 with the 5' noncoding region of hepatitis A virus RNA and its effects on translation. J. Virol. 72: 9668 9675.
99. Gromeier, M.,, E. Wimmer,, and A. E. Gorbalenya,. 1999. Genetics, pathogenesis and evolution of picorna-viruses, p. 287 343. In E. Domingo,, R. G. Webster,, and J. J. Holland (ed.), Origin and Evolution of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif..
100. Guarne, A.,, J. Tormo,, R. Kirchweger,, D. Pfister-mueller,, I. Fita,, and T. Skern. 1998. Structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus leader protease: a papain-like fold adapted for self-processing and eIF4G recognition. EMBO J. 17: 7469 7479.
101. Guinea, R.,, and L. Carrasco. 1990. Phospholipid biosynthesis and poliovirus genome replication, two coupled phenomena. EMBO J. 9: 2011 2016.
101a.. Gustin, K. E.,, and P. Sarnow. 2001. Effects of poliovirus infection on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and nuclear pore complex composition. EMBO J. 20: 240 249.
102. Haghighat, A.,, Y. V. Svitkin,, I. Novoa,, E. Kuechler,, T. Skern,, and N. Sonenberg. 1996. The eF4G-eIF4E complex is the target for direct cleavage by the rhino-virus 2A proteinase. J. Virol. 70: 8444 8450.
103. Haller, A. A.,, S. R. Stewart,, and B. L. Semler. 1996. Attenuation stem-loop lesions in the 5' noncoding region of poliovirus RNA: neuronal-specifk translation defects. J. Virol. 70: 1467 1474.
104. Hambidge, S. J.,, and P. Sarnow. 1992. Translational enhancement of the poliovirus 5' noncoding region mediated by virus-encoded polypeptide 2A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 10272 10276.
105. Hansen, J. L.,, A. M. Long,, and S. C. Schultz. 1997. Structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus. Structure 5: 1109 1122.
106. Harber, J. J.,, J. Bradley,, C. W. Anderson,, and E. Wimmer. 1991. Catalysis of poliovirus VP0 maturation cleavage is not mediated by serine 10 of VP2. J. Virol. 65: 326 334.
107. Harmon, S. A.,, S. U. Emerson,, Y. K. Huang,, D. F. Summers,, and E. Ehrenfeld. 1995. Hepatitis A viruses with deletions in the 2A gene are infectious in cultured cells and marmosets. J. Virol. 69: 5576 5581.
108. Harris, K. S.,, W. Xiang,, L. Alexander,, W. S. Lane,, A. V. Paul,, and E. Wimmer. 1994. Interaction of the poliovirus polypeptide 3CD pro with the 5' and 3' termini of the poliovirus genome: identification of viral and cellular cofactors needed for efficient binding. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 27004 27014.
109. Hellen, C. U.,, C. K. Lee,, and E. Wimmer. 1992. Determinants of substrate recognition by poliovirus 2 A proteinase. J. Virol. 66: 3330 3338.
110. Hellen, C. U.,, T. V. Pestova,, M. Literest,, and E. Wimmer. 1994. The cellular polypeptide p57 (pyrimidine tract-binding protein) binds to multiple sites in the poliovirus 5' nontranslated region. J. Virol. 68: 941 950.
111. Hellen, C. U.,, and E. Wimmer. 1992. Maturation of poliovirus proteins. Virology 187: 391 397.
112. Hellen, C. U.,, G. W. Witherell,, M. Schmid,, S. H. Shin,, T. V. Pestova,, A. Gil,, and E. Wimmer. 1993. A cytoplasmic 57-kDa protein that is required for translation of picornavirus RNA by internal ribosomal entry is identical to the nuclear pyrimidine tract-binding protein. Proc . Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 7642 7646.
113. Henke, A.,, H. Launhardt,, K. Klement,, A. Stelzner,, R. Zell,, and T. Munder. 2000. Apoptosis in coxsackievirus B3-caused diseases: interaction between the capsid protein VP2 and the proapoptotic protein siva. J. Virol. 74: 4284 4290.
113a.. Herold, J.,, and R. Andino. 2001. Poliovirus RNA replication requires genome circularization through a protein-protein bridge. Mol. Cell 7: 581 591.
114. Hewlett, M. J.,, J. K. Rose,, and D. Baltimore. 1976. 5'-terminal structure of poliovirus polyribosomal RNA is pUp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 327 330.
115. Holland, J. J.,, and C. E. Cords. 1964. Maturation of poliovirus RNA with capsid protein coded by heterologous enteroviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 60: 1015 1022.
116. Holland, J. J.,, and E. D. Kiehn. 1968. Specific cleavage of viral proteins as steps in the synthesis and maturation of enteroviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 60: 1015 1022.
117. Holland, J. J.,, L. C. McLaren,, B. H. Hoyer,, and J. T. Syverton. 1960. Enteroviral ribonucleic acid. J. Exp. Med. 112: 841 864.
118. Humphries, S.,, F. Knauert,, and E. Ehrenfeld. 1979. Capsid protein precursor is one of two initiated products of translation of poliovirus RNA in vitro. J. Virol. 30: 481 488.
119. Hunt, S. L.,, J. J. Hsuan,, N. Totty,, and R. J. Jackson. 1999. unr, a cellular cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein with five cold-shock domains, is required for internal initiation of translation of human rhinovirus RNA. Genes Dev. 13: 437 448.
120. Huppert, J.,, and F. K. Sanders. 1957. An infective "ribonucleic acid" component from tumour cells infected with encephalomyocarditis virus. Nature 182: 515 517.
121. lizuka, N.,, M. Kohara,, K. Hagino-Yamagishi,, S. Abe,, T. Komatsu,, K. Tago,, M. Arita,, and A. Nomoto. 1989. Construction of less neurovirulent polioviruses by introducing deletions into the 5' noncoding sequence of the genome. J. Virol. 63: 5354 5363.
122. Irurzun, A.,, L. Perez,, and L. Carrasco. 1993. Enhancement of phospholipase activity during poliovirus infection. J. Gen. Virol. 74: 1063 1071.
123. Ishii, T.,, K. Shiroki,, A. Iwai,, and A. Nomoto. 1999. Identification of a new element for RNA replication within the internal ribosome entry site of poliovirus RNA. J. Gen. Virol. 80: 917 920.
124. Ishii, X.,, K. Shiroki,, D. H. Hong,, T. Aoki,, Y. Ohta,, S. Abe,, S. Hashizume,, and A. Nomoto. 1998. A new internal ribosomal entry site 5' boundary is required for poliovirus translation initiation in a mouse system. J. Virol. 72: 2398 2405.
125. Jacobson, M. E, and D. Baltimore. 1968. Polypeptide cleavages in the formation of poliovirus proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61: 77 84.
126. Jang, S. K.,, M. V. Davies,, R. J. Kaufman,, and E. Wimmer. 1989. Initiation of protein synthesis by internal entry of ribosomes into the 5' nontranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA in vivo. J. Virol. 63: 1651 1660.
127. Jang, S. K.,, H. Krausslich,, M. J. H. Nicklin,, G. M. Duke,, A. S. Palmenberg,, and E. Wimmer. 1988. A segment of the 5' nontranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA directs internal entry of ribosomes during in vitro translation. J. Virol. 62: 2636 2643.
128. Jang, S. K.,, T. V. Pestova,, C. U. Hellen,, G. W. Witherell,, and E. Wimmer. 1990. Cap-independent translation of picornavirus RNAs: structure and function of the internal ribosomal entry site. Enzyme 44: 292 309.
129. Jelachich, M. L.,, C. Bramlage,, and H. L. Lipton. 1999. Differentiation of Ml myeloid precursor cells into macrophages results in binding and infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and apoptosis. J. Virol. 73: 3227 3235.
130. Jelachich, M. L.,, and H. L. Lipton. 1996. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus kills restrictive but not permissive cells by apoptosis. J. Virol. 70: 6856 6861.
131. Jia, Q.,, S. Ohka,, K. Iwasaki,, K. Tohyama,, and A. Nomoto. 1999. Isolation and molecular characterization of a poliovirus type 1 mutant that replicates in the spinal cords of mice. J. Virol. 73: 6041 6047.
132. Jia, X.,, M. Van Eden,, M. G. Busch,, E. Ehrenfeld,, and D. F. Summers. 1998. trans-Encapsidation of a poliovirus replicon by different picornavirus capsid proteins. J. Virol. 72: 7972 7977.
133. Joachims, M.,, K. S. Harris,, and D. Etchison. 1995. Poliovirus 3C mediated cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 4. Virology 211: 451 461.
134. Joachims, M.,, P. S. Van Breugel,, and R. E. Lloyd. 1999. Cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein by enterovirus proteases concurrent with inhibition of translation in vitro. J. Virol. 73: 718 727.
135. Johansen, L. K.,, and C. D. Morrow. 2000. The RNA encompassing the internal ribosome entry site in the poliovirus 5' nontranslated region enhances the encapsi-dation of genomic RNA. Virology 273: 391 399.
136. Johnson, K. L.,, and P. Sarnow,. 1995. Viral RNA synthesis, p. 95 112. In H. A. Rotbart (ed.), Human Enterovirus Infections. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
137. Jonassen, C. M.,, T. O. Jonassen,, and B. Grinde. 1998. A common RNA motif in the 3' end of the genomes of astroviruses, avian infectious bronchitis virus and an equine rhinovirus . J. Gen. Virol. 79: 715 718.
138. Jore, J.,, B. De Geus,, R. J. Jackson,, P. H. Pouwels,, and B. E. Enger-Valk. 1988. Poliovirus protein 3CD is the active protease for processing of the precursor protein P1 in vitro. J. Gen. Virol. 69: 1627 1636.
139. Jun, H. S.,, Y. Kang,, H. S. Yoon,, K. H. Kim,, A. L. Notkins,, and J. W. Yoon. 1998. Determination of encephalomyocarditis viral diabetogenicity by a putative binding site of the viral capsid protein. Diabetes 47: 576 582.
140. Kaminski, A.,, M. T. Howell,, and R. J. Jackson. 1990. Initiation of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA translation: the authentic initiation site is not selected by a scanning mechanism. EMBO J. 9: 3753 3759.
141. Kerekatte, V.,, B. D. Keiper,, C. Badorff,, A. Cai,, K. U. Knowlton,, and R. E. Rhoads. 1999. Cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein by coxsackievirus 2A protease in vitro and in vivo: another mechanism for host protein synthesis shutoff? J. Virol. 73: 709 717.
142. Kiehn, E. D.,, and J. J. Holland. 1970. Synthesis and cleavage of enterovirus polypeptides in mammalian cells. J. Virol. 5: 358 367.
143. Kitamura, N.,, B. L. Semler,, P. G. Rothberg,, C. R. Larsen,, C. J. Adler,, A. J. Dorner,, E. A. Emini,, R. Hanecak,, J. J. Lee,, S. van der Werf,, C. W. Anderson,, and E. Wimmer. 1981. Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA. Nature 291: 547 553.
144. Koch, R.,, and G. Koch. 1985. The Molecular Biohgy of Poliovirus. Springer-Verlag, Vienna, Austria.
145. Kolupaeva, V. G.,, T. V. Pestova,, C. U. Hellen,, and I. N. Shatsky. 1998. Translation eukaryotic initiation factor 4G recognizes a specific structural element within the internal ribosome entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 18599 18604.
146. Kong, W. P.,, G. D. Ghadge,, and R. P. Roos. 1994. Involvement of cardiovirus leader in host cell-restricted virus expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 1796 1800.
147. Kong, W. P.,, and R. P. Roos. 1991. Alternative translation initiation site in the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J. Virol. 65: 3395 3399.
148. Koonin, E. V. 1991. The phylogeny of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of positive-strand RNA viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 72: 2197 2206.
149. Kozak, M. 1989. The scanning model for translation: an update. J. Cell Biol. 108: 229 241.
150. Kuge, S.,, and A. Nomoto. 1987. Construction of viable deletion and insertion mutants of the Sabin strain of type 1 poliovirus: function of the 5' noncoding sequence in viral replication. J. Virol. 61: 1478 1487.
151. Kuge, S.,, I. Saito,, and A. Nomoto. 1986. Primary structure of poliovirus defective-interfering particle genomes and possible generation mechanisms of the particles. J. Mol. Biol. 192: 473 487.
152. Kusov, Y. Y.,, and V. Gauss-Müller. 1997. In vitro RNA binding of the hepatitis A virus proteinase 3C (HAV 3C pro) to secondary structure elements within the 5' terminus of the HAV genome. RNA 3: 291 302.
153. Lama, J.,, and L. Carrasco. 1996. Screening for membrane-permeabilizing mutants of the poliovirus protein 3AB. J. Gen. Virol. 77: 2109 2119.
154-. Lama, J.,, M. A. Sanz,, and L. Carrasco. 1998. Genetic analysis of poliovirus protein 3A: characterization of a non-cytopathic mutant virus defective in killing Vero cells. J. Gen. ViroL 79: 911 1921.
155. Lawson, T. G.,, L. L. Smith,, A. C. Palmenberg,, and R. E. Thach. 1989. Inducible expression of encephalomyocarditis virus 3C protease activity in stably transformed mouse cell lines. J. Virol. 63: 5013 5022.
156. Lawson, T. G.,, D. L. Gronros,, P. E. Evans,, M. C. Bastien,, K. M. Michalewich,, J. K. Clark,, J. H. Edmonds,, K. H. Graber,, J. A. Werner,, B. A. Lurvey,, and J. M. Cate. 1999. Identification and characterization of a protein destruction signal in the encephalomyocarditis virus 3C protease. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 9904 9908.
157. Le, S. Y.,, and J. V. Maizel, Jr. 1998. Evolution of a common structural core in the internal ribosome entry sites of picornaviruses. Virus Genes 16: 25 38.
158. Le, S. Y.,, A. Siddiqui,, and J. V. Maizel, Jr. 1996. A common structural core in the internal ribosome entry sites of picornavirus, hepatitis C virus, and pestivirus. Virus Genes 12: 135 147.
159. Lee, Y. F.,, A. Nomoto,, B. N. Detjen,, and E. Wimmer. 1977. A protein covalently linked to poliovirus genome RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 59 63.
160. Lee, Y. E.,, A. Nomoto,, and E. Wimmer. 1976. The genome of poliovirus is an exceptional eukaryotic mRNA. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 19: 89 96.
161. Lemon, S. M.,, and L. N. Binn. 1985. Incomplete neutralization of hepatitis A virus in vitro due to lipid-associated virions. J. Gen. Virol. 66: 2501 2505.
162. Levintow, L. 1974. The reproduction of picornaviruses. Comp. Virol. 2: 109 169.
163. Li, J. P.,, and D. Baltimore. 1990. An intragenic revertant of a poliovirus 2C mutant has an uncoating defect. J. Virol. 64: 1102 1107.
164. Liebig, H. D.,, E. Ziegler,, R. Yan,, K. Hartmuth,, H. Klump,, H. Kowalski,, D. Blaas,, W. Sommergruber,, L. Frasel,, B. Lamphear,, R. Rhoads,, E. Kuechler,, and T. Skern. 1993. Purification of two picornaviral 2A pro-teinases: interaction with eIF-4 gamma and influence on in vitro translation. Biochemistry 32: 7581 7588.
165. Lloyd, R. E.,, and M. Bovee. 1993. Persistent infection of human erythroblastoid cells by poliovirus. Virology 194: 200 209.
166. Lobert, P.-E.,, N. Escrious,, J. Ruelle,, and T. Michiels. 1999. A coding RNA sequence acts as a replication signal in cardioviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 11560 11565.
167. Lopez-Guerrero, J. A.,, M. Alonso,, F. Martin-Belmonte,, and L. Carrasco. 2000. Poliovirus induces apoptosis in the human U937 promonocytic cell line. Virology 272: 250 256.
168. Macadam, A. J.,, G. Ferguson,, T. Fleming,, D. M. Stone,, J. W. Almond,, and P. D. Minor. 1994. Role for poliovirus protease 2A in cap independent translation. EMBO J. 13: 924 927.
169. Maizel, J. V. 1963. Evidence for multiple components in the structural protein of type 1 poliovirus. Biochem. Bio-phys. Res. Commun. 13: 483 489.
170. Maizel, J. V.,, and D. F. Summers. 1968. Evidence for differences in size and composition of the poliovirus-specific polypeptides in infected HeLa cells. Virology 36: 48 54.
171. Martin, L. R.,, G. M. Duke,, J. E. Osorio,, D. J. Hall,, and A. C. Palmenberg. 1996. Mutational analysis of the mengovirus poly(C) tract and surrounding heteropoly-meric sequences. J. Virol. 70: 2027 2031.
172. Martin, L. R.,, and A. S. Palmenberg. 1996. Tandem mengovirus 5' pseudoknots are linked to viral RNA synthesis, not poly(C)-mediated virulence. J. Virol. 70: 8182 8186.
173. McBride, A. E.,, A. Schlegel,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1996. Human protein Sam 68 relocalization and interaction with poliovirus RNA polymerase in infected cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 2296 2301.
174. McBride, A. E.,, S. J. Taylor,, D. Shalloway,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1998. KH domain integrity is required for wild-type localization of Sam68. Exp. Cell. Res. 241: 84 95.
175. McKnight, K. L.,, and S. M. Lemon. 1998. The rhino-virus type 14 genome contains an internally located RNA structure that is required for viral replication. RNA 4: 1569 1584.
176. Meerovitch, K.,, Y. V. Svitkin,, H. S. Lee,, F. Lejbkowicz,, D. J. Kenan,, E. K. Chan,, V. 1. Agol, J. D. Keene, and N. Sonenberg. 1993. La autoantigen enhances and corrects aberrant translation of poliovirus RNA in reticulocyte lysate. J. Virol. 67: 3798 3807.
177. Melchers, W. J.,, J. M. Bakkers,, H. J. Bruins Slot,, J. M. Galama,, V. I. Agol,, and E. V. Pilipenko. 2000. Crosstalk between orientation-dependent recognition determinants of a complex control RNA element, the enterovirus oriR. RNA 6: 976 987.
178. Melchers, W. J. G.,, H. Heenderop,, H. J. Bruins Slot,, C. Pleij,, E. V. Pilipenko,, V. I. Agol,, and J. Galama. 1997. Kissing of the two predominant hairpin loops in the coxsackie B virus 3'UTR in the origin of replication required for ( —) strand RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 71: 686 696.
179. Mellits, K. H.,, J. M. Meredith,, J. B. Rohll,, D. J. Evans,, and J. W. Almond. 1998. Binding of a cellular factor to the 3' untranslated region of the RNA genomes of en-tero- and rhinoviruses plays a role in virus replication. J. Gen. Virol. 79: 1715 1723.
180. Merrick, W. C.,, and J. W. B. Hershey,. 1996. The pathway and mechanism of eukaryotic protein synthesis, p. 31 69. In J. W. B. Hershey,, M. B. Mathews,, and N. Sonenberg (ed.), Translational Control. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y..
181. Meyer, K.,, A. Petersen,, M. Niepmann,, and E. Beck. 1995. Interaction of eucaryotic initiation factor eF-4B with a picornavirus internal translation initiation site. J. Virol. 69: 2819 2824.
182. Michiels, T.,, V. Dejong,, R. Rodrigus,, and C. Shaw-Jacson. 1997. Protein 2A is not required for Theiler's virus replication. J. Virol. 71: 9549 9556.
183. Miller, R. L.,, and P. G. Plagemann. 1972. Purification of mengovirus and identification of an A-rich segment in its ribonucleic acid. J. Gen. Virol. 17: 349 353.
184. Mirmomeni, M. H.,, P. J. Hughes,, and G. Stanway. 1997. An RNA structure in the 3' untranslated region of enteroviruses is necessary for efficient replication. J. Virol. 71: 2363 2370.
185. Mosenkis, J.,, S. Daniels-McQueen,, S. Janoves,, R. Duncan,, J. W. B. Hershey,, J. A. Grifo,, W. C. Merrick,, and R. Thach. 1985. Shutoff of host translation by encephalomyocarditis virus infection does not involve cleavage of the eucaryotic initiation factor 4F polypeptide that accompanies poliovirus infection. J. Virol. 54: 643 645.
186. Nateri, A. S.,, P. J. Hughes,, and G. Stanway. 2000. In vivo and in vitro identification of structural and sequence elements of the human parechovirus 5' untranslated region required for internal initiation. J. Virol. 74: 6269 6277.
187. Newton, S. E.,, A. R. Carroll,, R. O. Campbell,, B. E. Clarke,, and D. J. Rowlands. 1985. The sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA to the 5' side of the poly(C) tract. Gene 40: 331 336.
187a.. Neznanov, N.,, A. Kondratova,, K. M. Chumakov,, B. Angres,, B. Zhumbayeva,, V. I. Agol,, and A. V. Gudkov. 2001. Poliovirus protein 3A inhibits tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis by eliminating the TNF receptor from the cell surface. J. Virol. 75: 10409 10420.
188. Niepmann, M.,, A. Petersen,, K. Meyer,, and E. Beck. 1997. Functional involvement of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein in translation initiation complexes with the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus. J. Virol. 71: 8330 8339.
189. Nomoto, A.,, B. Detjen,, R. Pozzatti,, and E. Wimmer. 1977. The location of the polio genome protein in viral RNAs and its implication for RNA synthesis. Nature 268: 208 213.
190. Nomoto, A.,, N. Kitamura,, F. Golini,, and E. Wimmer. 1977. The 5'-terminal structures of poliovirion RNA and poliovirus mRNA differ only in the genome-linked protein VPg. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 5345 5349.
191. Nomoto, A.,, Y. F. Lee,, and E. Wimmer. 1976. The 5' end of poliovirus mRNA is not capped with m 7 G(5')ppp(5')Np. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 375 380.
192. Novak, J. E.,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1991. Improved method for detecting poliovirus negative strands used to demonstrate specificity of positive-strand encapsidation and the ratio of positive to negative strands in infected cells. J. Virol. 65: 3384 3387.
193. Novak, J. E.,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1994. Coupling between genome translation and replication in an RNA virus. Genes Dev. 8: 1726 1237.
194. Novoa, I.,, and L. Carrasco. 1999. Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by exogenously added hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro in HeLa cells: effects on gene expression. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19: 2445 2454.
195. Nugent, C. I.,, K. L. Jonson,, P. Sarnov,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1999. Functional coupling between replication and packaging of poliovirus replicon RNA. J. Virol. 73: 427 435.
196. Nugent, C. I.,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1995. RNA binding properties of poliovirus subviral particles. J. Virol. 69: 13 22.
197. Obuchi, M.,, J. Yamamoto,, T. Odagiri,, M. N. Uddin,, H. Iizuka,, and Y. Ohara. 2000. L* protein of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is required for virus growth in a murine macrophage-like cell line. J. Virol. 74: 4898 4901.
198. Ohlmann, T.,, and R. J. Jackson. 1999. The properties of chimeric picornavirus IRESes show that discrimination between internal translation initiation sites is influenced by the identity of the IRES and not just the context of the AUG codon. RNA 5: 764 778.
199. O'Neill, R. E.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1989. Inhibition of translation in cells infected with a poliovirus 2Apro mutant correlates with phosphorylation of the alpha sub-unit of eucaryotic initiation factor 2. J. Virol. 63: 5069 5075.
200. O'Reilly, E. K.,, and C. C. Kao. 1998. Analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase structure and function as guided by known polymerase structures and computer predictions of secondary structure. Virology 252: 287 303.
201. Osorio, J. E.,, L. R. Martin,, and A. C. Palmenberg. 1996. The immunogenic and pathogenic potential of short poly(C) tract Mengo viruses. Virology 223: 344 350.
202. Palmenberg, A. C. 1990. Proteolytic processing of picornaviral polyprotein. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 44: 603 623.
203. Palmenberg, A. C.,, M. A. Pallansch,, and R. R. Rueckert. 1979. Protease required for processing picornaviral coat protein resides in the viral replicase gene. J. Virol. 32: 770 778.
204. Palmenberg, A. C.,, and J.-Y. Sgro. 1997. Topological organization of picornaviral genomes: statistical prediction of RNA structural signals. Semin. Virol. 8: 231 241.
205. Parsley, T. B.,, J. S. Towner,, L. B. Blyn,, E. Ehrenfeld,, and B. L. Semler. 1997. Poly (rC) binding protein 2 forms a ternary complex with the 5'-terminal sequences of poliovirus RNA and the viral 3CD proteinase. RNA 3: 1124 1134.
205a.. Paul, A. V.,, E. Rieder,, D. W. Kim,, J. H. van Boom,, and E. Wimmer. 2000. Identification of an RNA hairpin in poliovirus RNA that serves as the primary template in the in vitro uridylylation of VPg. J. Virol. 74: 10359 10570.
206. Paul, A. V.,, J. H. van Boom,, D. Filippov,, and E. Wimmer. 1998. Protein-primed RNA synthesis by purified poliovirus RNA polymerase. Nature 393: 280 284.
207. Pelletier, J.,, M. N. Flynn,, G. Kaplan,, V. Racaniello,, and N. Sonenberg. 1989. Mutational analysis of upstream AUG codons of poliovirus RNA. J. Virol. 62: 4486 4492.
208. Pelletier, J.,, G. Kaplan,, V. Racaniello,, and N. Sonenberg. 1988. Cap-independent translation of poliovirus mRNA is conferred by sequence elements within the 5' noncoding region. Mol. Cell. Biol. 8: 1103 1112.
209. Pelletier, J.,, and N. Sonenberg. 1988. Internal initiation of translation of eucaryotic mRNA directed by a sequence derived from poliovirus RNA. Nature 334: 320 325.
210. Pelletier, J.,, and N. Sonenberg. 1989. Internal binding of eucaryotic ribosomes on poliovirus RNA: translation in HeLa cell extracts. J. Virol. 63: 441 444.
211. Penman, S.,, K. Scherrer,, Y. Becker,, and J. E. Darnell. 1963. Polyribosomes in normal and poliovirus-infected HeLa cells and their relationship to messenger-RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 49: 654 662.
212. Perez Bercoff, R. (ed.). 1979. The Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y..
213. Perez Bercoff, P.,, and M. Gander. 1978. In vitro translation of mengovirus RNA deprived of the terminally-linked (capping?) protein. FEBS Lett. 96: 306 312.
214. Pestova, T. V.,, C. U. Hellen,, and E. Wimmer. 1994. A conserved AUG triplet in the 5' nontranslated region of poliovirus can function as an initiation codon in vitro and in vivo. Virology 204: 729 737.
215. Pettersson, R. F.,, V. Ambros,, and D. Baltimore. 1978. Identification of a protein linked to nascent poliovirus RNA and to the polyuridylic acid of negative-strand RNA. J. Virol. 27: 357 365.
216. Pfister, T.,, D. Egger,, and K. Bienz. 1995. Poliovirus sub-viral particles associated with progeny RNA in the replication complex. J. Gen. Virol. 76: 63 71.
217. Piccone, M. E.,, E. Rieder,, P. W. Mason,, and M. J. Grubman. 1995. The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase gene is not required for viral replication. J. Virol. 69: 5376 5382.
218. Pilipenko, E. V.,, V. M. Blinov,, and V. I. Agol. 1990. Gross rearrangements within the 5'-untranslated region of the picornaviral genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 18: 3371 3375.
219. Pilipenko, E. V.,, V. M. Blinov,, B. K. Chernov,, T. M. Dmitrieva,, and V. I. Agol. 1989. Conservation of the secondary structure elements of the 5'-untranslated region of cardio- and aphthovirus RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 5701 5711.
220. Pilipenko, E. V.,, V. M. Blinov,, L. I. Romanova,, A. N. Sinyakov,, S. V. Maslova,, and V. 1. Agol. 1989. Conserved structural domains in the 5'-untranslated region of picornaviral genomes: an analysis of the segment controlling translation and neurovirulence. Virology 168: 201 209.
221. Pilipenko, E. V.,, A. P. Gmyl,, S. V. Maslova,, G. A. Belov,, A. N. Sinyakov,, M. Huang,, T. D. K. Brown,, and V. 1. Agol. 1994. Starting window, distinct element in the cap-independent internal initiation of translation on picornaviral RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 241: 398 414.
222. Pilipenko, E. V.,, A. P. Gmyl,, S. V. Maslova,, E. V. Khitrina,, and V. I. Agol. 1995. Attenuation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus by modifications of the oligopyrimidine/AUG tandem, a host-dependent translational cis-element. J. Virol. 69: 864 870.
223. Pilipenko, E. V.,, A. P. Gmyl,, S. V. Maslova,, Y. V. Svitkin,, A. N. Sinyakov,, and V. I. Agol. 1992. A prokaryotic-like cis-element in the cap-independent internal initiation of translation on picornavirus RNA. Cell 68: 119 131.
224. Pilipenko, E. V.,, S. V. Maslova,, A. N. Sinyakov,, and V. I. Agol. 1992. Toward identification of cis-acting elements involved in the replication of enterovirus and rhinovirus RNAs: a proposal for the existence of tRNA-like terminal structures. Nucleic Acids Res. 20: 1739 1745.
225. Pilipenko, E. V.,, T. V. Pestova,, V. G. Kolupaeva,, E. V. Khitrina,, A. N. Poperechnaya,, V. I. Agol,, and C. U. Hellen. 2000. A cell cycle-dependent protein serves as a template-specific translation initiation factor. Genes Dev. 14: 2028 2045.
226. Pilipenko, E. V.,, K. V. Poperechny,, S. V. Maslova,, W. J. G. Melchers,, H. J. Bruins Slot,, and V. I. Agol. 1996. Cis-element, oriR, involved in the initiation of ( —) strand poliovirus RNA: a quasi-globular multi-domain RNA structure maintained by tertiary ("kissing") interaction. EMBO J. 19: 5428 5436.
226a.. Pilipenko, E. V.,, E. G. Viktorova,, S. T. Guest,, V. I. Agol,, and R. P. Roos. 2001. Cell-specific proteins regulate viral RNA translation and virus-induced disease. EMBO J. 20: 6899 6908.
227. Pilipenko, E. V.,, E. G. Viktorova,, E. V. Khitrina,, S. V. Maslova,, N. Jarousse,, M. Brahic,, and V. I. Agol. 1999. Distinct attenuation phenotypes caused by mutations in the translational starting window of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J. Virol. 73: 3190 3196.
228. Porter, D. C.,, D. C. Ansardi,, J. Wang,, S. McPherson,, Z. Moldoveanu,, and C. D. Morrow. 1998. Demonstration of the specificity of poliovirus encapsidation using a novel replicon which encodes enzymatically active firefly luciferase. Virology 243: 1 11.
229. Probst, C.,, M. Jecht,, and V. Gauss-Muller. 1998. Processing of proteinase precursors and their effect on hepatitis A virus particle formation. J. Virol. 72: 8013 8020.
230. Probst, C.,, M. Jecht,, and V. Gauss-Muller. 1999. Intrinsic signals for the assembly of hepatitis A virus particles. Role of structural proteins VP4 and 2A. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 4527 4531.
231. Racaniello, V. R. (ed.). 1990. Picornaviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 161: 1 188.
232. Racaniello, V. R. 1996. The poliovirus receptor: a hook, or an unzipper? Structure 4: 769 773.
233. Racaniello, V. R.,, and D. Baltimore. 1981. Molecular cloning of poliovirus cDNA and determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the viral genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 4887 4891.
234. Racaniello, V. R.,, and D. Baltimore. 1981. Cloned poliovirus complementary DNA is infectious in mammalian cells. Science 214: 916 919.
235. Racaniello, V. R.,, and A. Dasgupta. 1987. Activation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in HeLa cells after poliovirus infection does not result in increased phosphorylation of eucaryotic initiation factor-2. J. Virol. 61: 1781 1787.
236. Rekosh, D. 1972. Gene order of the poliovirus capsid proteins. J. Virol. 9: 479 487.
236a.. Rieder, E.,, A. V. Paul,, D. W. Kim,, J. H. van Boom,, and E. Wimmer. 2000. Genetic and biochemical studies of poliovirus cis-acting replication element cre in relation to VPg uridylylation. J. Virol. 74: 10371 10380.
237. Rivera, V. M.,, J. D. Welsh,, and J. Maizel. 1988. Comparative sequence analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. Virology 165: 42 50.
238. Roberts, L. O.,, R. A. Seamons,, and G. J. Belsham. 1998. Recognition of picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites within cells; influence of cellular and viral proteins. RNA 4: 520 529.
239. Rodriguez, P. L.,, and L. Carrasco. 1995. Poliovirus protein 2C contains two regions involved in RNA binding activity. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 10105 10112.
240. Rohll, J. B.,, D. H. Moon,, D. J. Evans,, and J. W. Almond. 1995. The 3' untranslated region of picornavirus RNA: features required for efficient genome replication. J. Virol. 69: 7835 7844.
240a.. Romanova, L. I.,, and V. I. Agol. 1979. Interconversion of linear and circular forms of double-stranded RNA of encephalomyocarditis virus. Virology 93: 574 577.
241. Rossmann, M. G.,, J. Bella,, P. R. Kolatkar,, Y. He,, E. Wimmer,, R. J. Kuhn,, and T. S. Baker. 2000. Cell recognition and entry by rhino- and enteroviruses. Virology 269: 239 247.
242. Rothberg, P. G.,, T. J. R. Harris,, A. Nomoto,, and E. Wimmer. 1978. O 4-(5'uridylyl) tyrosine is the bond between the genome-linked protein and the RNA of poliovirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 4868 4872.
243. Rowe, A.,, G. L. Ferguson,, P. D. Minor,, and A. J. Macadam. 2000. Coding changes in the poliovirus protease 2A compensate for 5'NCR domain V disruptions in a cell-specific manner. Virology 269: 284 293.
244. Rubinstein, S. J.,, T. Hammerle,, E. Wimmer,, and A. Dasgupta. 1992. Infection of HeLa cells with poliovirus results in modification of a complex that binds to the rRNA promoter. J. Virol. 66: 3062 3068.
245. Rueckert, R. R., 1996. Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 477 522. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, and P. M. Howley (ed.), Fundamental Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, Pa..
246. Ryan, M. D.,, and J. Drew. 1994. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A oligopeptide mediated cleavage of an artificial polyprotein. EMBO J. 13: 928 933.
247. Ryan, M. D.,, and M. Flint. 1997. Virus-encoded proteinases of the picornavirus super-group. J. Gen. Virol. 78: 699 723.
248. Ryan, M. D.,, A. M. King,, and G. P. Thomas. 1991. Cleavage of foot-and-mouth disease virus polyprotein is mediated by residues located within a 19 amino acid sequence. J. Gen. Virol. 72: 2727 2732.
249. Sandoval, I. V.,, and L. Carrasco. 1997. Poliovirus infection and expression of the poliovirus protein 2B provoke the disassembly of the Golgi complex, the organelle target for the antipoliovirus drug Ro-090179. J. Virol. 71: 4679 4693.
250. Scheper, G. C.,, H. O. Voorma,, and A. A. Thomas. 1994 - Binding of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 and transacting factors to the 5' untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA. Biochimie 76: 801 809.
251. Scheper, G. C.,, H. O. Voorma,, and A. Thomas. 1994. Base pairing with 18S ribosomal RNA in internal initiation of translation. FEBS Lett. 353: 271 275.
252. Schlegel, A.,, T. H. Giddings, Jr.,, M. S. Ladinsky,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1996. Cellular origin and ultrastructure of membranes induced during poliovirus infection. J. Virol. 70: 6576 6588.
253. Schwerdt, C. E.,, and F. L. Schaffer. 1955. Some physical and chemical properties of purified poliomyelitis virus preparations. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 61: 740 750.
254. Sender, B. L.,, and E. Ehrenfeld (ed.). 1989. Molecular Aspects of Poliovirus Infection and Detection. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
255. Shaffer, D. R.,, E. A. Brown,, and S. M. Lemon. 1994. Large deletion mutations involving the first pyrimidinerich tract of the 5' nontranslated RNA of human hepatitis A virus define two adjacent domains associated with distinct replication phenotypes. J. Virol. 68: 5568 5578.
256. Shaffer, D. R.,, and S. M. Lemon. 1995. Temperature-sensitive hepatitis A virus mutants with deletions downstream of the first pyrimidine-rich tract of the 5' non-translated RNA are impaired in RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 69: 6498 6506.
257. Shaw-Jackson, C.,, and T. Michiels. 1999. Absence of internal ribosome entry site-mediated tissue specificity in the translation of a bicistronic transgene. J. Virol. 73: 2729 2738.
258. Shen, Y.,, M. Igo,, P. Yalamanchili,, A. J. Berk,, and A. Dasgupta. 1996. DNA binding domain and subunit interactions of transcription factor IIIC revealed by dissection with poliovirus 3C protease. Mol. Cell Biol. 16: 4163 4171.
259. Shiroki, K.,, T. Isoyama,, S. Kuge,, T. Ishii,, S. Ohmi,, S. Hata,, K. Suzuki,, Y. Takasaki,, and A. Nomoto. 1999. Intracellular redistribution of truncated La protein produced by poliovirus 3C pro-mediated cleavage. J. Virol. 73: 2193 2200.
260. Shiroki, K.,, I. Toshihiko,, T. Aoki,, M. Kobashi,, S. Ohka,, and A. Nomoto. 1995. A new cis-acting element for RNA replication within the 5' noncoding region of poliovirus type 1 RNA. J. Virol. 69: 6825 6832.
261. Simoes, E. A.,, and P. Sarnow. 1991. An RNA hairpin at the extreme 5' end of the poliovirus RNA genome modulates viral translation in human cells. J. Virol. 65: 913 921.