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Chapter 25 : Poliovirus-Mediated Shutoff of Host Translation: an Indirect Effect

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Poliovirus-Mediated Shutoff of Host Translation: an Indirect Effect, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The inhibition of host cell translation by poliovirus, also called host cell shutoff, occurs early in the infectious cycle, typically only 1.5 to 2.5 h postinfection in HeLa cells. This chapter explores information regarding cleavage of new initiation factors and then discusses information relevant to whether these factors, particularly eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), are cleaved in vivo by viral or cellular proteases or both. Researchers have discovered evidence for several eIF4Gase activities that cleave eIF4GI at different sites to produce distinct types of eIF4G cleavage products. In the chapter, researchers define eIF4Gase activities based on the size of cleavage products generated (which results from use of alternate cleavage sites) and the mode of induction of the activity. Researchers have identified three types of eIF4Gase activities (termed eIF4Gase-α, elF4Gase-β, eIF4Gase-γ) that can be generated without poliovirus (PV) infection; two of these appear similar to activities also present in infected cells. The sites, which generate the three major N-terminal cleavage products seen on our immunoblots, are 149 amino acids (aa) upstream of the 2A cleavage site and 106 aa upstream of the putative eIF4Gase-β cleavage site. Researchers have screened many S10 extracts with this procedure and found that this specific cleavage activity, which is often weak, appeared in approximately 40% of the extracts tested.

Citation: Zamora M, Marissen W, Lloyd R. 2002. Poliovirus-Mediated Shutoff of Host Translation: an Indirect Effect, p 313-320. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch25

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Foot-and-mouth disease virus
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Schematic diagram of eIF4GI. Locations of known binding sites for other polypeptides are indicated by shaded or hatched areas and identified above the region. The new N-terminal extension is indicated in black. Locations of methionine residues that serve as N termini of eIF4GI isoforms are indicated by bent arrows. Arrows denote mapping of protease cleavage sites.

Citation: Zamora M, Marissen W, Lloyd R. 2002. Poliovirus-Mediated Shutoff of Host Translation: an Indirect Effect, p 313-320. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

In vitro assay for eIF4Gase-. Uninfected ribosomal salt wash preparations (RSW) containing eIF4GI were incubated alone (lane a) or with S10 extracts from HeLa cells treated with 25 cisplatin for the indicated number of hours before sample preparation (lanes c to e). Lane b contains S10 extract from PV-infected cells to show migration of 2A/ eIF4Gase- cleavage products. Intact and cleaved eIF4G was detected by immunoblot analysis using polyclonal antiserum specific for epitopes located in the N-terminal domain of eIF4GI.

Citation: Zamora M, Marissen W, Lloyd R. 2002. Poliovirus-Mediated Shutoff of Host Translation: an Indirect Effect, p 313-320. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Generation of eIF4Gase- cleavage products. An uninfected HeLa S10 extract was incubated for 2 or 5 h at 34°C or unincubated (C). A separate S10 extract was incubated with CVB3 2A and included in the gel as a marker. Intact and carved eIF4G was detected by immunoblot analysis.

Citation: Zamora M, Marissen W, Lloyd R. 2002. Poliovirus-Mediated Shutoff of Host Translation: an Indirect Effect, p 313-320. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Separation of eIF4Gase- and eIF4Gase- activities present in infected cell extracts. RSW material from PV-infected cells was highly purified by sequential chromatography on Sephacryl S300, Fast Q Sepharose, and then applied to an mGTP agarose column. Material eluting in the flow (F) or fractions containing low EDTA (5 mM) or high EDTA (25 mM) was dialyzed and incubated with RSW from uninfected cells. Fractions 5 and 6 contain eIF4Gase- activity, which generates slow-migrating cleavage products. Fractions 8 and 9 contain eIF4Gase- activity, which generates faster-migrating cleavage products (arrows). Lanes U and Pv contain RSW incubated alone or PV-RSW, respectively.

Citation: Zamora M, Marissen W, Lloyd R. 2002. Poliovirus-Mediated Shutoff of Host Translation: an Indirect Effect, p 313-320. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

eIF4G-specific protease activity sensitive to zVAD is present in PV-infected cells. Shown is an immunoblot using eIF4GI-specific antisera of S10 extracts from four parallel PV infections initiated at a multiplicity of infection of 25 PFU/cell. Cells were collected for processing at indicated time points (h pi) from a control PV infection or PV infections supplemented with 2 mM of guanidine-HCl (G), 75 mM of zVAD-fmk, or both reagents.

Citation: Zamora M, Marissen W, Lloyd R. 2002. Poliovirus-Mediated Shutoff of Host Translation: an Indirect Effect, p 313-320. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch25
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