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Chapter 28 : Clinical Significance, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Picornavirus Infections

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Abstract:

The picornaviruses are a diverse group of human viral pathogens that together comprise the most common causes of infections of humans in the developed world. Within the picornavirus family are three well-known groups of human pathogens—the human rhinoviruses (HRVs), the enteroviruses (EVs) (including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses), and the hepatoviruses (including hepatitis A). This chapter focuses on the rhinoviruses and enteroviruses. The HRVs include more than 100 serotypes in two main groups based on their cellular receptors. The major risk factor for HRV infection appears to be contact with young children. The majority of symptomatic EV infections in the United States are characterized by minor EV illnesses associated with fever and constitutional symptoms, with or without rashes. These illnesses are of clinical significance because they may mimic other diseases including bacterial sepsis, other viral exanthematous diseases, and herpes simplex infections. A recent review of EV-associated respiratory illnesses found that 46% of cases presented with upper respiratory infections, 13% with respiratory distress/apnea, 13% with pneumonia, 12% with otitis media, and fewer cases with bronchiolitis, wheezing, croup, and pharyngotonsillitis. New developments in the rapid diagnosis and therapy of these infections promise to significantly reduce the disease burden and the associated costs to affected individuals and to society.

Citation: Rotbart H. 2002. Clinical Significance, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Picornavirus Infections, p 357-365. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch28

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Clinical illnesses caused by picornavirus infections

Citation: Rotbart H. 2002. Clinical Significance, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Picornavirus Infections, p 357-365. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch28

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