Chapter 29 : Determinants of Poliovirus Pathogenesis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Determinants of Poliovirus Pathogenesis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap29-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap29-2.gif


This chapter provides a brief synopsis of the natural history of paralytic poliomyelitis, and gives an overview of the status of research concerning the molecular determinants of the pathogenesis of paralytic poliomyelitis. Determinants of the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis are either of viral origin, e.g., non-coding viral sequences, structural or nonstructural viral gene products, or of host origin, e.g., distribution of the cellular receptor and host cell factors required for viral replication. To provide a rational account of the relative contributions of a multitude of factors toward a complex phenomenon, the chapter is subdivided into sections dealing with the main parameters of poliovirus neurological disease. Tropism, neurovirulence, and conditions of the host are discussed separately. The chapter discusses experimental evidence for the genetic basis of neurovirulence in the 5’ non-translated region (5’ NTR) and the coding regions for the structural and nonstructural proteins of poliovirus. Extraneural determinants of neuropathogenicity, such as invasion of or spread within the CNS, combine with intraneural factors, such as IRES-mediated cell type specificity or the efficiency of genome replication. Excellent studies in nonhuman primates in the prevaccine era and recent progress through the advent of genetic engineering and transgenic animal models for human disease have afforded us detailed insight into the pathogenic mechanism of paralytic poliomyelitis.

Citation: Gromeier M, Nomoto A. 2002. Determinants of Poliovirus Pathogenesis, p 367-379. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch29

Key Concept Ranking

Viral Life Cycle
Poliovirus 2
Peyer's Patches
Human Pathogenic Viruses
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Attenuating mutations within the serotype 1 (PV1/LS-c, 2ab) and 3 (PV3/Leon 12ab) poliovirus strains of Sabin ( ). The general organization of the poliovirus genome is shown below. The positions of the IRES and individual stem-loop domains are indicated by roman numerals atop. Sequence divergence in noncoding regions is indicated by asterisks, mutations in coding regions are shown as vertical bars. PV2 (Sabin) is a naturally occurring attenuated strain whose neurovirulent ancestor is not known. PV1(S) is characterized by a large number of mutations within the coding region P1 for the capsid proteins. Both PV1(S) and PV3(S) feature attenuating mutations within stem-loop V of the IRES.

Citation: Gromeier M, Nomoto A. 2002. Determinants of Poliovirus Pathogenesis, p 367-379. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

The pathogenic mechanism of provocation poliomyelitis. (A) Anatomical representation of the sciatic nerve dissection procedure. Proximal sciatic nerve dissection severs the connection between the gastrocnemius muscle and the spinal cord by interrupting the supplying peripheral nerve. This blocks the retrograde axonal transport route along the peroneal and sciatic nerves into the CNS. (B) The “localization effect” describes the salient clinical feature of provocation poliomyelitis: localization of initial symptoms of paralysis to the injected limb. CD155 tg mice that are infected with poliovirus by the intravenous route develop paraparesis (simultaneous weakness in both lower extremities) at the onset of clinically overt disease (group I). Trivial skeletal muscle trauma in the form of multiple intramuscular (1M) injections diverts initial neurological symptoms to the lower left extremity, where multiple injections had been administered (group II). Dissection of the sciatic nerve abolishes the localization effect, with >70% of infected animals developing initial paraparesis.

Citation: Gromeier M, Nomoto A. 2002. Determinants of Poliovirus Pathogenesis, p 367-379. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Agol, V. I.,, S. G. Drozdov,, T. A. Ivannikova,, M. S. Kolesnikova,, M. B. Korolev,, and E. A. Tolskaya. 1989. Restricted growth of attenuated poliovirus strains in cultured cells of a human neuroblastoma. J. Virol. 63:40344038.
2. Anderson, G.,, and A. Skaar. 1951. Poliomyelitis occurring after antigen injections. Pediatrics 7:741759.
3. Armstrong, C. 1939. The experimental transmission of poliomyelitis to the eastern cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus hispidus. Public Health Rep. 54:17191721.
4. Bergelson, J. M.,, J. A. Cunningham,, G. Droguett,, E. A. Kurt-Jones,, A. Krithivas,, J. S. Hong,, M. S. Horwitz,, R. L. Crowell,, and R. W. Finberg. 1997. Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B viruses and adenoviruses 2 and 5. Science 275:13201323.
5. Bernhardt, G.,, J. A. Bibb,, J. Bradley,, and E. Wimmer. 1994. Molecular characterization of the cellular receptor for poliovirus. Virology 199:105113.
6. Bibb, J. A.,, G. Witherell,, G. Bernhardt,, and E. Wimmer. 1994. Interaction of poliovirus with its cell surface binding site. Virology 201:107115.
7. Blinzinger, K.,, J. Simon,, D. Magrath,, and L. Boulger. 1969. Poliovirus crystals within the endoplasmic reticulum of endothelial and mononuclear cells in the monkey spinal cord. Science 163:13361337.
8. Bodian, D. 1953. Experimental studies on passive immunization against poliomyelitis. III. Passive-active immunization and pathogenesis after virus feeding in chimpanzees. Am. J. Hyg. 58:8192.
9. Bodian, D. 1954. Viraemia in experimental poliomyelitis. II. Viraemia and the mechanism of the "provoking" effect of injections or trauma. Am. J. Hyg. 60:358370.
10. Bodian, D. 1955. Emerging concept of poliomyelitis infection. Science 122:105108.
11. Bodian, D. 1955. Viremia, invasiveness and the influence of injections. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 61:877882.
12. Bodian, D.,, and H. A. Howe. 1941. Experimental studies of intraneural spread of poliomyelitis virus. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 68:248267.
13. Borman, A. M.,, F. G. Deliat,, and K. M. Kean. 1994. Sequences within the poliovirus internal ribosome entry segment control viral RNA synthesis. EMBO J. 13:31493157.
14. Bouchard, M. J.,, D.-H. Lam,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1995. Determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity in the type 1 poliovirus Sabin vaccine. J. Virol. 69:49724978.
15. Bradford Hill, A.,, and J. Knowelden. 1950. Inoculation and poliomyelitis. Br. Med. J. 11:16.
16. Chapman, N. M.,, A. I. Ramsingh,, and S. Tracy. 1997. Genetics of coxsackievirus virulence. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 223:227258.
17. Christodoulou, C.,, F. Colbere-Garapin,, A. Macadam,, L. F. Taffs,, S. Marsden,, P. Minor,, and F. Horaud. 1990. Mapping of mutations associated with neurovirulence in monkeys infected with Sabin 1 poliovirus revertants selected at high temperature. J. Virol. 64:49224929.
18. Chumakov, M.,, M. Voroshilova,, L. Shindarov,, I. Lavrova,, L. Gracheva,, G. Koroleva,, S. Vasilenko,, I. Brodvarova,, M. Nikolova,, S. Gyurova,, M. Gacheva,, G. Mitov,, N. Ninov,, E. Tsylka,, I. Robinson,, M. Frolova,, V. Bashkirtsev,, L. Martiyanova,, and V. Rodin. 1979. Enterovirus 71 isolated from cases of epidemic poliomyelitislike disease in Bulgaria. Arch. Virol. 60:329340.
19. DesGroseillers, L.,, M. Barette,, and R. Jolicoeur. 1984. Physical mapping of the paralysis-inducing determinant of a wild mouse ectropic neurotropic virus. J. Virol. 52:356363.
20. Eberle, E.,, P. Dubreuil,, M. G. Mattel,, E. Devilard,, and M. Lopez. 1995. The human PRR21 gene, related to the human poliovirus receptor gene (PVR), is the true homolog of the murine MPH gene. Gene 4:267272.
21. Eilbott, D. J.,, N. Peress,, H. Burger,, D. LaNeve,, J. Orenstein,, H. E. Gendelman,, R. Seidman,, and B. Weiser. 1989. Human immunodeficiency virus expression and replication in macrophages in the spinal cords of AIDS patients with myelopathy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 33373341.
22. Evans, D. M. A.,, G. Dunn,, P. D. Minor,, G. C. Schild,, A. J. Cann,, and J. Almond. 1985. Increased neurovirulence associated with a single nucleotide change in a non-coding region of the Sabin type 3 poliovaccine genome. Nature 314:548550.
23. Fazakerley, J. K.,, S. E. Parker,, F. Bloom,, and M. J. Buchmeier. 1992. The V5A13.1 envelope glycoprotein deletion mutant of mouse hepatitis virus type 4 is neuroattenuated by its reduced rate of spread in the central nervous system. Virology 187:178188.
24. Filman, D. J.,, R. Syed,, M. Chow,, A. J. Macadam,, P. D. Minor,, and J. M. Hogle. 1989. Structural factors that control conformational transitions and serotype specificity in type 3 poliovirus. EMBO J. 8:15671679.
25. Freistadt, M. S.,, H. B. Fleit,, and E. Wimmer. 1993. Poliovirus receptor on human blood cells: a possible extra-neural site of poliovirus replication. Virology 195:798803.
26. Geraghty, R. J.,, C. Krummenacher,, G. H. Cohen,, R. J. Eisenberg,, and P. G. Spear. 1998. Entry of alphaherpesviruses mediated by poliovirus receptor-related protein 1 and poliovirus receptor. Science 280:16181620.
27. Grist, N. R.,, and E. J. Bell. 1970. Enteroviral etiology of the paralytic poliomyelitis syndrome. Arch. Environ. Health 21:382387.
28. Gromeier, M.,, L. Alexander,, and E. Wimmer. 1996. Internal ribosomal entry site substitution eliminates neurovirulence in intergeneric poliovirus recombinants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:23702375.
29. Gromeier, M.,, B. Bossert,, M. Arita,, A. Nomoto,, and E. Wimmer. 1999. Dual stem loops within the poliovirus internal ribosomal entry site control neurovirulence. J. Virol. 73:958964.
30. Gromeier, M.,, H. H. Lu,, G. Bernhardt,, J. J. Harber,, J. A. Bibb,, and E. Wimmer. 1995. The human poliovirus receptor. Receptor-virus interaction and parameters of disease specificity. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 753:1936.
31. Gromeier, M.,, H. H. Lu,, and E. Wimmer. 1995. Mouse-neurovirulent poliovirus strains cause damage in the central nervous system distinct from poliomyelitis. Microb. Pathog. 18:253267.
32. Gromeier, M.,, D. Solecki,, D. Patel,, and E. Wimmer. Expression of the human poliovirus receptor/CD 155 gene during development of the central nervous system: implications for the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Virology 273:248257.
33. Gromeier, M.,, and E. Wimmer. 1998. Mechanism of injury-provoked poliomyelitis. J. Virol. 72:50565060.
34. Gromeier, M.,, and E. Wimmer. 1999. The relation of prophylactic inoculations to the onset of poliomyelitis. Rev. Med. Virol. 9:219226.
35. Gromeier, M.,, E. Wimmer,, and A. E. Gorbalenya,. 1999. Genetics, pathogenesis and evolution of picornaviruses, p. 287345. In E. Domingo,, R. Webster,, and J. Holland (ed.), Origin and Evolution of Viruses. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
36. Guyer, B.,, A. Bison,, J. Gold,, M. Brigaud,, and M. Aymard. 1980. Infections and paralytic poliomyelitis in tropical Africa. Bull. WHO 58:285291.
37. Haller, A. A.,, and B. L. Semler. 1995. Stem-loop structure synergy in binding cellular proteins to the 5' non-coding region of poliovirus RNA. Virology 206:923934.
38. Haller, A. A.,, S. R. Stewart,, and B. L. Semler. 1996. Attenuation stem-loop lesions in the 5' noncoding region of poliovirus RNA: neuronal cell-specific translation defects. J. Virol. 70:14671474.
39. Higgins, P. G.,, and T. E. Chapman. 1977. Coxsackievirus A24 and acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Sri Lanka. Lancet 1:361.
40. Honda, T.,, H. Saitoh,, M. Masuko,, T. Katagiri-Abe,, K. Tominaga,, I. Kozakai,, K. Kobayashi,, T. Kumanishi,, Y. G. Watanabe,, S. Odani,, and R. Kuwano. 2000. The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor protein as a cell adhesion molecule in the developing mouse brain. Mol. Brain Res. 77:1928.
41. Horstmann, D. M. 1950. Acute poliomyelitis: relation of physical activity at the time of onset to the course of disease. JAMA 142:236241.
42. Horstmann, D. M.,, and J. R. Paul. 1947. The incubation period in human poliomyelitis and its implications. JAMA 135:1114.
43. Jacobi, M. P., 1886. Infantile spinal paralysis, p. 11131164. In W. Pepper (ed.), A System of Medicine by American Authors, vol. 5.
44. Jang, S. K.,, H. G. Kraeusslich,, M. J. H. Nicklin,, G. M. Duke,, A. C. Palmenberg,, and E. Wimmer. 1988. A segment of the 5' non-translated region of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA directs internal entry of ribosomes during in vitro translation. J. Virol. 62:26362643.
45. Karnauchow, T. M.,, D. L. Tolson,, B. A. Harrison,, E. Altman,, D. M. Lublin,, and K. Dimock. 1996. The HeLa cell receptor for enterovirus 70 is decay-accelerating factor (CD55). J. Virol. 70:51435152.
46. Kawamura, N.,, M. Kohara,, S. Abe,, T. Komatsu,, K. Tago,, M. Arita,, and A. Nomoto. 1989. Determinants in the 5' noncoding region of poliovirus Sabin 1 RNA that influence the attenuation phenotype. J. Virol. 63:13021309.
47. Kawano, H.,, V. Rostapshov,, L. Rosen,, and C. J. Lai. 1993. Genetic determinants of dengue type 4 virus neurovirulence for mice. J. Virol. 67:65676575.
48. Koike, S.,, I. Ise,, Y. Sato,, H. Yonekawa,, O. Gotoh,, and A. Nomoto. 1992. A second gene for the African green monkey poliovirus receptor that has no putative NM-glycosylation site in the functional N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. J. Virol. 66:70597066.
49. Koike, S.,, S. Taya,, T. Kurata,, S. Abe,, I. Ise,, H. Yonekawa,, and A. Nomoto. 1991. Transgenic mice susceptible to poliovirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:951955.
50. La Monica, N.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1989. Differences in replication of attenuated and neurovirulent poliovirus in human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y. J. Virol. 63: 23572360.
51. Lopez, M.,, F. Eberle,, M. G. Mattei,, J. Gaert,, G. Birg,, F. Bardin,, C. Maroc,, and P. Dubreuil. 1995. Complementary DNA characterization and chromosomal localization of a human gene related to the poliovirus receptor-encoding gene. Gene 3:261265.
52. Lustig, S.,, A. Jackson,, C. S. Hahn,, D. E. Griffin,, E. G. Strauss,, and J. H. Strauss. 1988. Molecular basis of Sindbis virus neurovirulence in mice. J. Virol. 62:23292336.
53. Macadam, A. J.,, G. Ferguson,, C. Arnold,, and P. D. Minor. 1991. An assembly defect as a result of an attenuating mutation in the capsid proteins of the poliovirus type 3 vaccine strain. J. Virol. 65:52255231.
54. Macadam, A. J.,, G. Ferguson,, J. Burlison,, D. Stone,, R. Skuce,, J. W. Almond,, and P. D. Minor. 1992. Correlation of RNA secondary structure and attenuation of Sabin vaccine strains of poliovirus in tissue culture. Virology 189:415422.
55. Macadam, A. J.,, S. R. Pollard,, G. Ferguson,, G. Dunn,, R. Skuce,, J. W. Almond,, and P. D. Minor. 1991. The 5' non-coding region of the type 2 poliovirus vaccine strain contains determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity. Virology 181:451458.
56. McCloskey, B. P. 1950. The relation of prophylactic inoculations to the onset of poliomyelitis. Lancet 1:659663.
57. McGoldrick, A.,, A. J. Macadam,, G. Dunn,, W. Rowe,, J. Burlison,, P. D. Minor,, J. Meredith,, D. J. Evans,, and J. W. Almond. 1995. Role of mutations G-480 and C-6203 in the attenuation phenotype of Sabin type 1 poliovirus. J. Virol. 69:76017605.
58. Melnick, J. L., 1990. Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses, p. 549605. In B. N. Fields, and D. M. Knipe (ed.), Fields Virology. Raven Press, New York, N.Y.
59. Mendelsohn, C. L.,, E. Wimmer,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1989. Cellular receptor for poliovirus: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Cell 56:855865.
60. Minor, P. D. 1992. The molecular biology of poliovaccines. J. Gen. Virol. 73:30653077.
61. Minor, P. D.,, G. Dunn,, D. M. Evans,, D. I. Magrath,, A. John,, J. Howlett,, A. Phillips,, G. Westrop,, K. Wareham,, J. W. Almond, et al. 1989. The temperature sensitivity of the Sabin type 3 vaccine strain of poliovirus: molecular and structural effects of a mutation in the capsid protein VP3. J. Gen. Virol. 70:11171123.
62. Morrison, M. E.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1992. Molecular cloning and expression of a murine homolog of the human poliovirus receptor gene. J. Virol. 66:28072813.
63. Moss, E. G.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1991. Host range determinants located on the interior of the poliovirus capsid. EMBO J. 5:10671074.
64. Murray, M. G.,, J. Bradley,, X. F. Yang,, E. Wimmer,, E. G. Moss,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1988. Poliovirus host range is determined by a short amino acid sequence in neutralization antigenic site I. Science 241:213215.
65. Nathanson, N.,, and A. D. Langmuir. 1963. The Cutter incident. Poliomyelitis following formaldehyde-inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States during the spring of 1955. I. Background. Am. J. Hyg. 78:1628.
66. Nathanson, N.,, and A. D. Langmuir. 1963. The Cutter incident. Poliomyelitis following formaldehyde-inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States during the spring of 1955. II. Relationship of poliomyelitis to Cutter vaccine. Am. J. Hyg. 78:2960.
67. Nathanson, N.,, and A. D. Langmuir. 1963. The Cutter incident. Poliomyelitis following formaldehyde-inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States during the spring of 1955. III. Comparison of the clinical character of vaccinated and contact cases occurring after use of high rate lots of Cutter vaccine. Am. J. Hyg. 78:6181.
68. Nieke, J.,, and M. Schachner. 1985. Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecules L1 and N-CAM and their common carbohydrate epitope 1.2/HNK-1 during development and after transection of the mouse sciatic nerve. Differentiation 30:141151.
69. Nomoto, A.,, T. Omata,, H. Toyoda,, S. Kuge,, H. Horie,, Y. Kataoka,, Y. Genba,, Y. Nakano,, and N. Imura. 1982. Complete nucleotide sequence of the attenuated poliovirus Sabin 1 strain genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:57935797.
70. Ohka, S.,, W. X. Yang,, E. Terada,, K. Iwasaki,, and A. Nomoto. 1998. Retrograde transport of intact poliovirus through the axon via the fast transport system. Virology 250:6775.
71. Omata, T.,, M. Kohara,, S. Kuge,, T. Komatsu,, W. Abe,, B. L. Sender,, A. Kameda,, H. Itoh,, M. Arita,, E. Wimmer,, and A. Nomoto. 1986. Genetic analysis of the attenuation phenotype of poliovirus type 1. J. Virol. 58: 348358.
72. Paul, A.,, J. A. Mugavero,, J. Yin,, S. Hobson,, S. Schulz,, J. H. Van Boom,, and E. Wimmer. 2000. Studies on the attenuation phenotype of polio vaccines: poliovirus RNA polymerase derived from Sabin type 1 sequence is temperature sensitive in the uridylylation of VPg. Virology 272:7284.
73. Paul, A. V.,, J. H. Van Boom,, D. Filipov,, and E. Wimmer. 1998. Protein-primed RNA synthesis by purified poliovirus RNA polymerase. Nature 393:280284.
74. Pelletier, J.,, and N. Sonenberg. 1988. Internal initiation of translation of eukaryotic mRNA directed by a sequence derived from poliovirus RNA. Nature 334:320325.
75. Peluso, R.,, A. Hasase,, L. Stowring,, M. Edwards,, and P. Ventura. 1985. A Trojan horse mechanism for the spread of visna in monocytes. Virology 147:231236.
76. Pilipenko, E. V.,, E. G. Viktorova,, E. V. Khitrina,, S. V. Maslova,, N. Jarousse,, M. Brahic,, and V. I. Agol. 1999. Distinct attenuation phenotypes caused by mutations in the translational starting window of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J. Virol. 73:31903196.
77. Ren, R.,, F. Costantini,, E. J. Gorgacz,, J. J. Lee,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1990. Transgenic mice expressing a human poliovirus receptor: a new model for poliomyelitis. Cell 63:353362.
78. Ren, R.,, E. G. Moss,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1991. Identification of two determinants that attenuated vaccine-related type 2 polioviruses. J. Virol. 65:13771382.
79. Ren, R.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1992. Poliovirus spreads from muscle to the central nervous system by neural pathways. J. Infect. Dis. 166:747752.
80. Roivainen, M.,, L. Piirainen,, T. Hovi,, I. Virtanen,, T. Riikonen,, J. Heino,, and T. Hyypia. 1994. Entry of coxsackievirus A9 into host cells: specific interactions with alpha v beta 3 integrin, the vitronectin receptor. Virology 203:357365.
81. Russell, W. R. 1947. Poliomyelitis: the preparalytic stage and the effect of physical activity on the severity of paralysis. Br. Med. J. 2:1023.
82. Sabin, A. B. 1956. Pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Reappraisal in the light of new data. Science 123:11511157.
83. Sabin, A. B.,, and L. Boulger. 1973. History of Sabin attenuated poliovirus oral live vaccine strains. J. Biol. Stand. 1:115118.
84. Schultz, D. E.,, M. Honda,, L. E. Whetter,, K. L. McKnight,, and S. M. Lemon. 1996. Mutations within the 5' nontranslated RNA of cell culture-adapted hepatitis A virus which enhance cap-independent translation in cultured African green monkey kidney cells. J. Virol. 70: 10411049.
85. Seif, I.,, P. Coulon,, P. E. Rollin,, and A. Flamand. 1985. Rabies virulence: effect on pathogenicity and sequence characterization of rabies virus mutations affecting antigenic site III of the glycoprotein. J. Virol. 53:926934.
86. Skinner, M. A.,, V. R. Racaniello,, G. Dunn,, J. Cooper,, P. D. Minor,, and J. W. Almond. 1989. New model for the secondary structure of the 5' non-coding RNA of poliovirus is supported by biochemical and genetic data that also shows that RNA secondary structure is important in neurovirulence. J. Mol. Biol. 207:379392.
87. Solecki, D.,, G. Bernhardt,, M. Lipp,, and E. Wimmer. 2000. Identification of a nuclear respiratory factor-1 binding site within the core promoter of the human poliovirus receptor/CD155 gene. J. Biol. Chem. 275:1245312462.
88. Solecki, D.,, S. Schwarz,, E. Wimmer,, M. Lipp,, and G. Bernhardt. 1997. The promoters from human and monkey poliovirus receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 272:55795586.
89. Solecki, D.,, E. Wimmer,, M. Lipp,, and G. Bernhardt. 1999. Identification and characterization of the cis-acting elements of the human CD155 gene core promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 274:17911800.
90. Spriggs, D. R.,, R. T. Bronson,, and B. N. Fields. 1983. Hemagglutinin variants of Reovirus type 3 have altered central nervous system tropism. Science 220:505507.
91. Squitti, R.,, M. E. De Stefano,, D. Edgar,, and G. Toschi. 1999. Effects of axotomy on the expression and ultra-structural localization of N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule in the quail ciliary ganglion: an in vivo model of neuroplasticity. Neuroscience 91:707722.
92. Strebel, P. M.,, N. Ion-Nedelcu,, A. L. Baughman,, R. M. Sutter,, and S. L. Cochi. 1995. Intramuscular injections within 30 days of immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine—a risk factor for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 332:500506.
93. Sutter, R. W.,, P. A. Patriarca,, A. J. Suleiman,, S. Brogan,, P. G. Malankar,, S. L. Cochi,, A. A. Al-Ghassani,, and M. S. el-Bualy. 1992. Attributable risk of DTP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine) injection in provoking paralytic poliomyelitis during a large outbreak in Oman. J. Infect. Dis. 165:444449.
94. Tardy-Panit, M.,, B. Blondel,, A. Martin,, F. Tekaia,, F. Horaud,, and F. Delpeyroux. 1993. A mutation in the RNA polymerase of poliovirus type 1 contributes to attenuation in mice. J. Virol. 67:46304638.
95. Tomko, R. P.,, R. Xu,, and L. Philipson. 1997. HCAR and MCAR: the human and mouse cellular receptors for subgroup C adenoviruses and B coxsackieviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:33523356.
96. Toyoda, H.,, C. F. Yang,, N. Takeda,, A. Nomoto,, and E. Wimmer. 1987. Analysis of RNA synthesis of type 1 poliovirus by using an in vitro molecular genetic approach. J. Virol. 61:28162822.
97. Triantafilou, M.,, K. Triantafilou,, K. M. Wilson,, Y. Takada,, N. Fernandez,, and G. Stanway. 1999. Involvement of beta2-microglobulin and integrin alphavbeta3 molecules the coxsackievirus A9 infectious cycle. J. Gen. Virol. 80:25912600.
98. Voroshilova, M.,, and M. Chumakov. 1959. Poliomyelitis-like properties of AB-IV coxsackie A7 group of viruses. Prog. Med. Virol. 2:106107.
99. Wadia, N. H.,, S. M. Katrak,, V. P. Misra,, P. N. Wadia,, K. Miyamura,, K. Hashimoto,, T. Ogino,, T. Hikiji,, and R. Kono. 1983. Polio-like motor paralysis associated with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in an outbreak in 1981 in Bombay, India: clinical and serologic studies. J. Infect. Dis. 147:660668.
100. Wang, S. M.,, C. C. Liu,, H. W. Tseng,, J. R. Wang,, C. C. Huang,, Y. J. Chen,, Y. J. Yang,, S. J. Lin,, and T. F. Yeh. 1999. Clinical spectrum of enterovirus 71 infection in children in southern Taiwan, with an emphasis on neurological complications. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:184190.
101. Westrop, G. D.,, K. A. Wareham,, D. M. A. Evans,, G. Dunn,, P. D. Minor,, D. I. Magrath,, F. Taffs,, S. Marsden,, M. A. Skinner,, G. Schild,, and J. W. Almond. 1989. Genetic basis of attenuation of the Sabin type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine. J. Virol. 63:13381344.
102. Wimmer, E.,, J. J. Harber,, J. A. Bibb,, M. Gromeier,, H. H. Lu,, and G. Bernhardt,. 1994. Poliovirus receptors, p. 101127. In E. Wimmer (ed.), Cellular Receptors for Animal Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, N.Y.
103. Wimmer, E.,, C. U. T. Hellen,, and X. M. Cao. 1993. Genetics of poliovirus. Annu. Rev. Genet. 27:353436.
104. Yang, W.-X.,, T. Tersaki,, K. Shiroki,, S. Ohka,, J. Aoki,, S. Tanabe,, T. Nomura,, E. Terada,, Y. Sugiyama,, and A. Nomoto. 1997. Efficient delivery of circulating poliovirus to the central nervous system independently of poliovirus receptor. Virology 229:421428.
105. Yin-Murphy, M. 1984. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Prog. Med. Virol. 29:2344.
106. Zhang, S.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1997. Expression of the poliovirus receptor in intestinal epithelial cells is not sufficient to permit poliovirus replication in the mouse gut. J. Virol. 71:49154920.


Generic image for table

Picornaviruses, their clinical manifestations, and receptor specificities

ND, not determined; HCAR, human coxsackievirus B and adenovirus receptor; DAF, decay-accelerating factor; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HAVcr-1, receptor for hepatitis A virus; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1.

Citation: Gromeier M, Nomoto A. 2002. Determinants of Poliovirus Pathogenesis, p 367-379. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch29
Generic image for table

Members of the CD155-related family of genes

CD155, and mPRR2 are secreted splice variants.

Citation: Gromeier M, Nomoto A. 2002. Determinants of Poliovirus Pathogenesis, p 367-379. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch29

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error