1887

Chapter 35 : Persistent Infections by Picornaviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Persistent Infections by Picornaviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap35-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap35-2.gif

Abstract:

Viral persistence is currently one of the main public health problems. It depends on specific virus and host factors and particularly on the capacity of the virus to escape the immune defense. Some picornaviruses establish persistent infections in their natural animal hosts, while others are suspected to be responsible for chronic human diseases. This chapter focuses on the aspects relating to virus persistence. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) persistence appears to be required for immune-mediated demyelination. During the chronic phase, the number of infected cells is always low, there are only small amounts of capsid proteins in infected cells, and viral RNA replication seems to be blocked at the minus-strand RNA synthesis step. Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), another cardiovirus, establishes persistent infections in human erythroleu-kemic K562 cells. B group coxsackieviruses (CVBs) induce different effects in different types of cultured human renal cells, and interestingly, CVB1, -3, -4, and -5 established persistent infections in glomerular mesangial cells, which failed to develop cytopathic effects (CPE). The authors have started to study the molecular mechanisms of poliovirus (PV) persistence in HEp-2c cells because this cell model can be used for both lytic and persistent PV strains, allowing the identification of viral determinants involved in persistence. Persistent picornavirus infections are valuable models for understanding complicated pathologies resulting from persistent viral infections.

Citation: Colbère-Garapin F, Pelletier I, Ouzilou L. 2002. Persistent Infections by Picornaviruses, p 437-448. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch35

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.44737735
Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis
0.4333578
0.44737735
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Principal events in the persistent FMDV infection of BHK-21 cells. The graph summarizes the data presented in several articles ( ). ts, temperature sensitive.

Citation: Colbère-Garapin F, Pelletier I, Ouzilou L. 2002. Persistent Infections by Picornaviruses, p 437-448. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch35
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Simplified models of persistent PV infection in neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells (star shapes) and HEp-2 cells (large hexagons). The majority of PV strains (small white hexagons) are able to establish persistent infections in IMR-32 cells ( ). Virus and cell coevolution occurs, leading to the selection of PVpi (small black hexagons). PVpi and PV mutants carrying particular PVpi determinants are ableto establish persistent infections in HEp-2 cells ( ). During the establishment of persistent PV infection, cellular factors are of crucial importance in the IMR-32 cell model, whereas viral determinants play the principal role in the HEp-2 cell model ( ).

Citation: Colbère-Garapin F, Pelletier I, Ouzilou L. 2002. Persistent Infections by Picornaviruses, p 437-448. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch35
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817916.chap35
1. Adami, C.,, A. E. Pritchard,, T. Knauf,, M. Luo,, and H. L. Lipton. 1998. A determinant for central nervous system persistence localized in the capsid of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus by using recombinant viruses. J. Virol. 72: 1662 1665.
2. Andreoletti, L.,, D. Hober,, P. Becquart,, S. Belaich,, M. C. Copin,, V. Lambert,, and P. Wattre. 1997. Experimental CVB3-induced chronic myocarditis in two murine strains: evidence of interrelationships between virus replication and myocardial damage in persistent cardiac infection. J. Med. Virol. 52: 206 214.
3. Andreoletti, L.,, D. Hober,, C. Decoene,, M. C. Copin,, P. E. Lobert,, A. Dewilde,, C. Stankowiac,, and P. Wattre. 1996. Detection of enteroviral RNA by polymerase chain reaction in endomyocardial tissue of patients with chronic cardiac diseases. J. Med. Virol. 48: 53 59.
4. Aubagnac, S.,, M. Brahic,, and J. F. Bureau. 1999. Viral load and a locus on chromosome 11 affect the late clinical disease caused by Theiler's virus. J. Virol. 73: 7965 7971.
5. Aubert, C,, and M. Brahic. 1995. Early infection of the central nervous system by the GDVII and DA strains of Theiler's virus. J. Virol. 69: 3197 3200.
6. Azoulay, A.,, M. Brahic,, and J. F. Bureau. 1994. FVB mice transgenic for the H-2Db gene become resistant to persistent infection by Theiler's virus. J. Virol. 68: 4049 4052.
7. Badorff, C,, G. H. Lee,, B. J. Lamphear,, M. E. Martone,, K. P. Campbell,, R. E. Rhoads,, and K. U. Knowlton. 1999. Enteroviral protease 2A cleaves dystrophin: evidence of cytoskeletal disruption in an acquired cardiomyopathy. Nat. Med. 5: 320 326.
8. Bailly, J. L.,, M. Chambón,, C. Henquell,, J. Icart,, and H. Peigue-Lafeuille. 2000. Genomic variations in echovirus 30 persistent isolates recovered from a chronically infected immunodeficient child and comparison with the reference strain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 552 557.
9. Bellmunt, A.,, G. May,, R. Zell,, P. Pring-Akerblom,, W. Verhagen,, and A. Heim. 1999. Evolution of poliovirus type I during 5.5 years of prolonged enteral replication in an immunodeficient patient. Virology 265: 178 184.
10. Belnap, D. M.,, D. J. Filman,, B. L. Trus,, N. Cheng,, F. P. Booy,, J. F. Conway,, S. Curry,, C. N. Hiremath,, S. K. Tsang,, A. C. Steven,, and J. M. Hogle. 2000. Molecular tectonic model of virus structural transitions: the putative cell entry states of poliovirus. J. Virol. 74: 1342 1354.
11. Benton, P. A.,, D. J. Barret,, R. L. Matts,, and R. E. Lloyd. 1996. The outcome of poliovirus infections in K562 cells is cytolytic rather than persistent after hemin-induced differentiation. J. Virol. 70: 5525 5532.
12. Bergmann, I. E.,, V. Malirat,, P. Auge de Mello,, and I. Gomes. 1996. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease viral sequences in various fluids and tissues during persistence of the virus in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57: 134 137.
13. Bihl, F.,, C. Pena-Rossi,, J. L. Guenet,, M. Brahic,, and J. F. Bureau. 1997. The shiverer mutation affects the persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system. J. Virol. 71: 5025 5030.
14. 14 Borzakian, S.,, T. Couderc,, Y. Barbier,, G. Attal,, I. Pelletier,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1992. Persistent poliovirus infection: establishment and maintenance involve distinct mechanisms. Virology 186: 398 408.
15. Borzakian, S.,, I. Pelletier,, V. Calvez,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1993. Precise missense and silent point mutations are fixed in the genomes of poliovirus mutants from persistently infected cells. J. Virol. 67: 2914 2917.
16. Brahic, M.,, and W. G. Stroop. 1981. Theiler's virus persists in glial cells during demyelinating disease. Cell 26: 123 128.
17. Bureau, J. F.,, X. Montagutelli,, F. Bihl,, S. Lefebvre,, J. L. Guenet,, and M. Brahic. 1993. Mapping loci influencing the persistence of Theiler's virus in the murine central nervous system. Nat. Genet. 5: 87 91.
18. Calvez, V.,, I. Pelletier,, S. Borzakian,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1993. Identification of a region of the poliovirus genome involved in persistent infection of HEp-2 cells. J. Virol. 67: 4432 4435.
19. Calvez, V.,, I. Pelletier,, T. Couderc,, N. Pavio-Guédo,, B. Blondel,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1995. Cell clones cured of persistent poliovirus infection display selective permissivity to the wild-type poliovirus strain Mahoney and partial resistance to the attenuated Sabin 1 strain and Mahoney mutants. Virology 212: 309 322.
20. Calvez, V.,, I. Pelletier,, N. Guédo,, S. Borzakian,, T. Couderc,, B. Blondel,, and F. Colbère-Garapin,. 1995. Persistent poliovirus infection: development of new models with cell lines, p. 370 373. In M. C. Dalakas,, H. Bartfeld,, and L. T. Kurland (ed.), The Post-Polio Syndrome, vol. 753. The New York Academy of Sciences, New York, N.Y.
21. Carp, R. I. 1981. Persistent infection of human lymphoid cells with poliovirus and development of temperature-sensitive mutants. Intervirology 15: 49 56.
22. Cash, E.,, M. Chamorro,, and M. Brahic. 1988. Minus-strand RNA synthesis in the spinal cords of mice persistently infected with Theiler's virus. J. Virol. 62: 1824 1826.
23. Clatch, R. J.,, R. W. Melvold,, S. D. Miller,, and H. L. Lipton. 1985. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease in mice is influenced by the H-2D region: correlation with TMEV specific delayed-type hypersensitivity. J. Immunol. 135: 1408 1414.
24. Colbère-Garapin, F.,, C. Christodoulou,, R. Crainic,, and I. Pelletier. 1989. Persistent poliovirus infection of human neuroblastoma cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sri. USA 86: 7590 7594.
25. Conaldi, P. G.,, L. Biancone,, A. Bottelli,, A. de Martino,, G. Camussi,, and A. Toniolo. 1997. Distinct pathogenic effects of group B coxsackieviruses on human glomerular and tubular kidney cells. J. Virol. 71: 9180 9187.
26. Conaldi, P. G.,, C. Serra,, A. Mossa,, V. Falcone,, F. Basólo,, G. Camussi,, A. Dolei,, and A. Toniolo. 1997. Persistent infection of human vascular endothelial cells by group B coxsackieviruses. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 693 696.
27. Couderc, T.,, N. Guédo,, V. Calvez,, I. Pelletier,, J. Hogle,, F. Colbère-Garapin,, and B. Blondel. 1994. Substitutions in the capsids of poliovirus mutants selected in human neuroblastoma cells confer on the Mahoney type 1 strain a phenotype neurovirulent in mice. J. Virol. 68: 8386 8391.
28. Dalakas, M. C. 1986. New neuromuscular symtoms in patients with old poliomyelitis: a three year follow-up study. Eur. Neurol. 25: 381 387.
29. Davis, L. E.,, D. Bodian,, D. Price,, I. Butler,, and J. H. Vickers. 1977. Chronic progressive poliomyelitis secondary to vaccination of an immunodeficient child. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 241 245.
30. de la Torre, J., C, M. Davila,, F. Sobrino,, J. Ortin,, and E. Domingo. 1985. Establishment of cell lines persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virology 145: 24 35.
31. de la Torre, J., C, E. Martinez-Salas,, J . Diez,, and E. Domingo. 1989. Extensive cell heterogeneity during persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus. J. Virol. 63: 59 63.
32. Destombes, J.,, T. Couderc,, D. Thiesson,, S. Girard,, S. G. Wilt,, and B. Blondel. 1997. Persistent poliovirus infection in mouse motoneurons. J. Virol. 71: 1621 1628.
33. Dethlefs, S.,, M. Brahic,, and E. L. Larsson-Sciard. 1997. An early, abundant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against Theiler's virus is critical for preventing viral persistence. J. Virol. 71: 8875 8878.
34. Diez, J.,, M. Davila,, C. Escarmis,, M. G. Mateu,, J. Domínguez,, J. J. Perez,, E. Giralt,, J. A. Melero,, and E. Domingo. 1990. Unique amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus from a persistent infection in cell culture. J. Virol. 64: 5519 5528.
35. Duncan, G.,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1999. Two determinants in the capsid of a persistent type 3 poliovirus exert different effects on mutant virus uncoating. J. Gen. Virol. 80: 2601 2605.
36. Duncan, G.,, I. Pelletier,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1998. Two amino acid substitutions in the type 3 poliovirus capsid contribute to the establishment of persistent infection in HEp-2c cells by modifying virus-receptor interactions. Virology 241: 14 29.
37. Escarmis, C,, E. C. Carrillo,, M. Ferrer,, J. F. Garcia Arriaza,, N. Lopez,, C. Tami,, N. Verdaguer,, E. Domingo,, and M. T. Franze-Fernandez. 1998. Rapid selection in modified BHK-21 cells of a foot-and-mouth disease virus variant showing alterations in cell tropism. J. Virol. 72: 10171 10179.
38. Escarmis, C,, M. Toja,, M. Medina,, and E. Domingo. 1992. Modifications of the 5' untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus after prolonged persistence in cell culture. Virus Res. 26: 113 125.
39. Fiette, L.,, C. Aubert,, U. Muller,, S. Huang,, M. Aguet,, M. Brahic,, and J. F. Bureau. 1995. Theiler's virus infection of 129Sv mice that lack the interferon alpha/beta or interferon gamma receptors. J. Exp. Med. 181: 2069 2076.
40. Fiette, L.,, M. Brahic,, and C. Pena-Rossi. 1996. Infection of class II-deficient mice by the DA strain of Theiler's virus. J. Virol. 70: 4811 4815.
41. Frank, J. A., Jr.,, E. V. Schmidt,, R. E. Smith,, and C. M. Wilfert. 1986. Persistent infection of rat insulinoma cells with coxsackie B4 virus. Arch. Virol. 87: 143 150.
42. Fricks, C. E.,, and J. M. Hogle. 1990. Cell-induced conformational change in poliovirus: externalization of the amino terminus of VP1 is responsible for liposome binding. J. Virol. 64: 1934 1945.
43. Gebauer, E,, J. C. de la Torre,, I. Gomes,, M. G. Mateu,, H. Barahona,, B. Tïraboschi,, I. Bergmann,, P. A. de Mello,, and E. Domingo. 1988. Rapid selection of genetic and antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus during persistence in cattle. J. Virol. 62: 2041 2049.
44. Gercel, C,, K. B. Mahan,, and V. V. Hamparian. 1985. Preliminary characterization of persistent infection of HeLa cells with human rhinovirus type 2. J. Gen. Virol. 66: 131 139.
45. Ghadge, G. D.,, L. Ma,, S. Sato,, J. Kim,, and R. P. Roos. 1998. A protein critical for a Theiler's virus-induced immune system-mediated demyelinating disease has a cell type-specific antiapoptotic effect and a key role in virus persistence. J. Virol. 72: 8605 8612.
46. Gibson, J. P.,, and V. F. Righthand. 1985. Persistence of echovirus 6 in cloned human cells. J. Virol. 54: 219 223.
47. Jarousse, N.,, L. Fiette,, R. A. Grant,, J. M. Hogle,, A. McAllister,, T. Michiels,, C. Aubert,, F. Tangy,, M. Brahic,, and C. P. Rossi. 1994. Chimeric Theiler's virus with altered tropism for the central nervous system. J. Virol. 68: 2781 2786.
48. Jarousse, N.,, C. Martinat,, S. Syan,, M. Brahic,, and A. McAllister. 1996. Role of VP2 amino acid 141 in tropism of Theiler's virus within the central nervous system. J. Virol. 70: 8213 8217.
49. Jnaoui, K.,, and T. Michiels. 1999. Analysis of cellular mutants resistant to Theiler's virus infection: differential infection of L929 cells by persistent and neurovirulent strains. J. Virol. 73: 7248 7254.
50. Jubelt, B.,, S. L. Ropka,, S. J. Goldfarb,, and J. L. Janavs. 1989. Anti-thymocyte serum delays clearance of poliovirus from the mouse central nervous system. J. Neuroimmunol. 22: 223 232.
51. Kandolf, R.,, A. Canu,, and P. A. Hof Schneider. 1985. Coxsackie B3 virus can replicate in cultured human foetal heart cells and is inhibited by interferon. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 17: 167 181.
52. Kaplan, G.,, A. Levy,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1989. Isolation and characterization of HeLa cell lines blocked at different steps in the poliovirus life cycle. J. Virol. 63: 43 51.
53. Kaplan, G.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1991. Down regulation of poliovirus receptor RNA in HeLa cells resistant to poliovirus infection. J. Virol. 65: 1829 1835.
54. Kew, O. M.,, R. W. Sutter,, B. K. Nottay,, M. J. McDonough,, D. R. Prévôts,, L. Quick,, and M. A. Pallansch. 1998. Prolonged replication of a type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2893 2899.
55. Kim, B. S.,, R. L. Yauch,, Y. Y. Bahk,, J. A. Kang,, M. C. Dal Canto,, and C. K. Hall. 1998. A spontaneous low-pathogenic variant of Theiler's virus contains an amino acid substitution within the predominant VPl(233-250) T-cell epitope. J. Virol. 72: 1020 1027.
56. Klingel, K.,, C. Hohenadl,, A. Canu,, M. Albrecht,, M. Seemann,, G. Mall,, and R. Kandolf. 1992. Ongoing enterovirus-induced myocarditis is associated with persistent heart muscle infection—quantitative analysis of virus replication, tissue damage, and inflammation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 314 318.
57. Klingel, K.,, S. Stephan,, M. Sauter,, R. Zeil,, B. M. McManus,, B. Bultman,, and R. Kandolf. 1996. Pathogenesis of murine enterovirus myocarditis: virus dissemination and immune cell targets. J. Virol. 70: 8888 8895.
58. Larsson-Sciard, E. L.,, S. Dethlefs,, and M. Brahic. 1997. In vivo administration of interleukin-2 protects susceptible mice from Theiler's virus persistence. J. Virol. 71: 797 799.
59. Lemon, S. M.,, P. C. Murphy,, P. A. Shields,, L. H. Ping,, S. M. Feinstone,, T. Cromeans,, and R. W. Jansen. 1991. Antigenic and genetic variation in cytopathic hepatitis A virus variants arising during persistent infection: evidence for genetic recombination. J. Virol. 65: 2056 2065.
60. Leon-Monzon, M. E.,, and M. C. Dalakas. 1995. Detection of poliovirus antibodies and poliovirus genome in patients with the post-polio syndrome. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 753: 208 218.
61. Leparc-Goffart, I.,, J. Julien,, F. Fuchs,, I. Janatova,, M. Aymard,, and H. Kopecka. 1996. Evidence of presence of poliovirus genomic sequences in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with postpolio syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2023 2026.
62. Lipton, H. L.,, and M. L. Jelachich. 1997. Molecular pathogenesis of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease in mice. Intervirology 40: 143 152.
63. Lipton, H. L.,, R. Melvold,, S. D. Miller,, and M. C. Dal Canto. 1995. Mutation of a major histocompatibility class I locus, H-2D, leads to an increased virus burden and disease susceptibility in Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease. J. Neurovirol. 1: 138 144.
64. Lipton, H. L.,, G. Twaddle,, and M. L. Jelachich. 1995. The predominant virus antigen burden is present in macrophages in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease. J. Virol. 69: 2525 2533.
65. Lloyd, R. E.,, and M. Bovee. 1993. Persistent infection of human erythroblastoid cells by poliovirus. Virology 194: 200 209.
66. Lodge, P. A.,, M. Herzum,, J. Olszewski,, and S. A. Huber. 1987. Coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis. Acute and chronic forms of the disease caused by different immunopathogenic mechanisms. Am. J. Pathol. 128: 455 463.
67. Lonberg-Holm, K. L.,, L. B. Gosser,, and J. J. Kauer. 1975. Early alteration of poliovirus in infected cells and its specific inhibition. J. Gen. Virol. 27: 329 342.
68. Luo, M.,, K. S. Toth,, L. Zhou,, A. Pritchard,, and H. L. Lipton. 1996. The structure of a highly virulent Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (GDVII) and implications for determinants of viral persistence. Virology 220: 246 250.
69. Martin, J.,, G. Dunn,, R. Hull,, V. Patel,, and P. D. Minor. 2000. Evolution of the Sabin strain of type 3 poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient during the entire 637-day period of virus excretion. J. Virol. 74: 3001 3010.
70. Martin-Hernandez, A. M.,, E. C. Carrillo,, N. Sevilla,, and E. Domingo. 1994. Rapid cell variation can determine the establishment of a persistent viral infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 3705 3709.
71. Matteucci, D.,, M. Paglianti,, A. M. Giangregorio,, M. R. Capobianchi,, F. Dianzani,, and M. Bendinelli. 1985. Group B coxsackieviruses readily establish persistent infections in human lymphoid cell lines. J. Virol. 56: 651 654.
72. Mc Allister, A.,, F. Tanguy,, C. Aubert,, and M. Brahic. 1990>. Genetic mapping of the ability of Theiler's virus to persist and demyelinate. J. Virol. 64: 4252 4257.
73. McKinney, R. E., Jr.,, S. L. Katz,, and C. M. Wilfert. 1987. Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agam-maglobulinemic patients. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9: 334 356.
74. Melchers, W.,, M. de Visser,, P. Jongen,, A. van Loon,, R. Nibbeling,, P. Oostvogel,, D. Willemse,, and J. Galama. 1992. The postpolio syndrome: no evidence for poliovirus persistence. Ann. Neurol. 32: 728 732.
75. Michiels, T.,, N. Jarousse,, and M. Brahic. 1995. Analysis of the leader and capsid coding regions of persistent and neurovirulent strains of Theiler's virus. Virology 214: 550 558.
76. Miller, J. R. 1981. Prolonged intracerebral infection with poliovirus in asymptomatic mice. Ann. Neurol. 9: 590 596.
77. Miller, S. D.,, C. L. Vanderlugt,, W. S. Begolka,, W. Pao,, R. L. Yauch,, K. L. Neville,, Y. Katz-Levy,, A. Carrizosa,, and B. S. Kim. 1997. Persistent infection with Theiler's virus leads to CNS autoimmunity via epitope spreading. Nat. Med. 3: 1133 1136.
78. Minor, P. D. 1999. Poliovirus vaccination: current understanding of poliovirus interactions in humans and implications for the eradication of poliomyelitis. Expert Rev. Molec. Med. 23: 1 17.
79. Monteyne, P.,, J. F. Bureau,, and M. Brahic. 1997. The infection of mouse by Theiler's virus: from genetics to immunology. Immunol. Rev. 159: 163 176.
80. Muir, P. 1992. The association of enteroviruses persistence with chronic heart disease. Rev. Med. Virol. 2: 9 18.
81. Muir, P.,, F. Nicholson,, M. K. Sharief,, E. J. Thompson,, N. J. Cairns,, P. Lantos,, G. T. Spencer,, H. J. Kaminski,, and J. E. Banatvala. 1995. Evidence for persistent enterovirus infection of the central nervous system in patients with previous paralytic poliomyelitis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 753: 219 232.
82. Murray, P. D.,, K. D. Pavelko,, J. Leibowitz,, X. Lin,, and M. Rodriguez. 1998. CD4( + ) and CD8( + ) T cells make discrete contributions to demyelination and neurologic disease in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. J. Virol. 72: 7320 7329.
83. Njenga, M. K.,, K. D. Pavelko,, J. Baisch,, X. Lin,, C. David,, J. Leibowitz,, and M. Rodriguez. 1996. Theiler's virus persistence and demyelination in major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice. J. Virol. 70: 1729 1737.
84. Nuesch, J. P.,, M. Weitz,, and G. Siegl. 1993. Proteins specifically binding to the 3' untranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA in persistently infected cells. Arch. Virol. 128: 65 79.
85. Obuchi, M.,, Y. Ohara,, T. Takegami,, T. Murayama,, H. Takada,, and H. Iizuka. 1997. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus subgroup strain-specific infection in a murine macrophage-like cell line. J. Virol. 71: 729 733.
86. Okada, Y.,, G. Toda,, H. Oka,, A. Nomoto,, and H. Yoshikura. 1987. Poliovirus infection of established human blood cell lines: relationship between the differentiation stage and susceptibility or cell killing. Virology 156: 238 245.
87. Pardoe, I. V.,, K. K. Grewal,, M. Pah Baldeh,, J. Hamid,, and A. T. H. Burness. 1990. Persistent infection of K562 cells by encephalomyocarditis virus. J. Virol. 64: 6040 6044.
88. Patick, A. K.,, E. L. Oleszak,, J. L. Leibowitz,, and M. Rodriguez. 1990. Persistent infection of a glioma cell line generates a Theiler's virus variant which fails to induce demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. J. Gen. Virol. 71: 2123 2132.
89. Pavio, N.,, M.-H. Buc-Caron,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1996. Persistent poliovirus infection of human fetal brain cells. J. Virol. 70: 6395 6401.
90. Pavio, N.,, T. Couderc,, S. Girard,, J.-Y. Sgro,, B. Blondel,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 2000. Expression of mutated poliovirus receptors in human neuroblastoma cells persistently infected with poliovirus. Virology 274: 331 342.
91. Pelletier, I.,, T. Couderc,, S. Borzakian,, E. Wyckoff,, R. Crainic,, E. Ehrenfeld,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1991. Characterization of persistent poliovirus mutants selected in human neuroblastoma cells. Virology 180: 729 737.
92. Pelletier, L,, G. Duncan,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1998. One amino acid change on the capsid surface of polio-virus Sabin 1 allows the establishment of persistent infections in HEp-2c cell cultures. Virology 241: 1 13.
93. Pelletier, I.,, G. Duncan,, N. Pavio,, and F. Colbère-Garapin. 1998. Molecular mechanisms of poliovirus persistence: key role of capsid determinants during the establishment phase. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 54: 1385 1402.
94. Prato Murphy, M. L.,, R. F. Meyer,, C. Mebus,, A. A. Schudel,, and M. Rodriguez. 1994. Analysis of sites of foot and mouth disease virus persistence in carrier cattle via the polymerase chain reaction. Arch. Virol. 136: 299 307.
95. Rabausch-Starz, L,, A. Schwaiger,, K. Grunewald,, H. K. Muller-Hermelink,, and N. Neu. 1994. Persistence of vims and viral genome in myocardium after coxsackievirus B3-induced murine myocarditis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 96: 69 74.
96. Righthand, V. F. 1991. Transmission of viral persistence by transfection of human cultured cells with RNA of a persistent strain of echoviras 6. Microb. Pathog. 11: 57 65.
97. Righthand, V., R, and R. V. Blackburn. 1989. Steady-state infection by echovirus 6 associated with nonlytic viral RNA and an unprocessed capsid polypeptide. J. Virol. 63: 5268 5275.
98. Rodriguez, M.,, and C. S. David. 1995. H-2 Dd transgene suppresses Theiler's virus-induced demyelination in susceptible strains of mice. J. Neurovirol. 1: 111 117.
99. Rodriguez, M.,, J. Leibowitz,, and C. S. David. 1986. Susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination. Mapping of the gene within the H-2D region. J. Exp. Med. 163: 620 631.
100. Roos, R. P.,, O. C. Richards,, J. Green,, and E. Ehrenfeld. 1982. Characterization of a cell culture persistently infected with the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J. Virol. 43: 1118 1122.
101. Rossi, C. P.,, E. Cash,, C. Aubert,, and A. Coutinho. 1991. Role of the humoral immune response in resistance to Theiler's virus infection. J. Virol. 65: 3895 3899.
102. Rozhon, E. J.,, A. K. Wilson,, and B. Jubelt. 1984. Characterization of genetic changes occurring in attenuated poliovirus 2 during persistent infection in mouse central nervous systems. J. Virol. 50: 137 144.
103. Saiz, J. C, and E. Domingo. 1996. Virulence as a positive trait in viral persistence. J. Virol. 70: 6410 6413.
104. Sapatino, B. V.,, A. D. Petrescu,, B. A. Rosenbaum,, R. Smith,, J. A. Piedrahita,, and C. J. Welsh. 1995. Characteristics of cloned cerebrovascular endothelial cells following infection with Theiler's virus. II. Persistent infection. J. Neuroimmunol. 62: 127 135.
105. Sato, S.,, L. Zhang,, J. Kim,, J. Jakob,, R. A. Grant,, R. Wollmann,, and R. P. Roos. 1996. A neutralization site of DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus important for disease phenotype. Virology 226: 327 337.
106. Senkowski, A.,, B. Shim,, and R. P. Roos. 1995. The effect of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) VP1 carboxyl region on the virus-induced central nervous system disease. J. Neurovirol. 1: 101 110.
107. Sharief, M. K.,, R. Hentges,, and M. Ciardi. 1991. Intrathecal immune response in patients with the post-polio syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 325: 749 755.
108. Takata, H.,, M. Obuchi,, J. Yamamoto,, T. Odagiri,, R. P. Roos,, H. Iizuka,, and Y. Ohara. 1998. L* protein of the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is important for virus growth in a murine macrophage-like cell line. J. Virol. 72: 4950 4955.
109. Tam, P. E.,, and R. P. Messner. 1999. Molecular mechanisms of coxsackievirus persistence in chronic inflammatory myopathy: viral RNA persists through formation of a double-stranded complex without associated genomic mutations or evolution. J. Virol. 73: 10113 10121.
110. Vallbracht, A.,, L. Hofmann,, K. G. Wurster,, and B. Flehmig. 1984. Persistent infection of human fibroblasts by hepatitis A virus. J. Gen. Virol. 65: 609 615.
111. Wada, Y.,, I. J. McCright,, F. G. Whitby,, I. Tsunoda,, and R. S. Fujinami. 1998. Replacement of loop II of VP1 of the DA strain with loop II of the GDVII strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus alters neurovirulence, viral persistence, and demyelination. J. Virol. 72: 7557 7562.
112. Yeung, M. C,, D. L. Chang,, R. E. Camantigue,, and A. S. Lau. 1999. Inhibitory role of the host apoptogenic gene PKR in the establishment of persistent infection by encephalomyocarditis virus in U937 cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 11860 11865.
113. Yoon, J. 1990. The role of viruses and environmental factors in the induction of diabetes. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 164: 95 123.
114. Zhang, S.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1997. Persistent echo-virus infection of mouse cells expressing the viral receptor VLA-2. Virology 235: 293 301.
115. Zhou, L.,, X. Lin,, T. J. Green,, H. L. Lipton,, and M. Luo. 1997. Role of sialyloligosaccharide binding in Theiler's virus persistence. J. Virol. 71: 9701 9712.
116. Zurbriggen, A.,, C. Thomas,, M. Yamada,, R. P. Roos,, and R. S. Fujinami. 1991. Direct evidence of a role for amino acid 101 of VP-1 in central nervous system disease in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection. J. Virol. 65: 1929 1937.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Persistent picornavirus infection with virus production in vivo

Citation: Colbère-Garapin F, Pelletier I, Ouzilou L. 2002. Persistent Infections by Picornaviruses, p 437-448. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Poliovirus persistence in human cell lines

Citation: Colbère-Garapin F, Pelletier I, Ouzilou L. 2002. Persistent Infections by Picornaviruses, p 437-448. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch35

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error