1887

Chapter 38 : Global Eradication of Poliovirus:History and Rationale

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Global Eradication of Poliovirus:History and Rationale, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap38-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap38-2.gif

Abstract:

Poliovirus is highly transmissible, with only 1 of every 100 to 1,000 infections among susceptible individuals resulting in clinically recognizable disease. The origin of global eradication of poliomyelitis is conventionally attributed to Albert Sabin and his colleagues in the frequently quoted and often reprinted 1960 report on the effects of rapid mass oral polio vaccine (OPV) immunization in Toluca, Mexico. For many, smallpox eradication would be a fluke in the annals of public health. No other infectious diseases were thought to share the unique characteristics that made it possible to eradicate smallpox: clinically apparent disease; low agent transmissibility; and an effective, inexpensive, and easily administered vaccine. The eradication of smallpox had proven the value of program goals based on disease outcome rather than service coverage. As with smallpox eradication, one of the anticipated major benefits of polio eradication is the cessation of immunization. Unlike the live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine strain, Sabin OPV strains commonly spread from vaccinees to close nonimmune contacts and are genetically unstable, regaining certain wild virus characteristics upon replication in the human gut. The only way to fully control poliomyelitis in the developing tropical world with limited health infrastructure is to interrupt virus transmission through mass OPV immunization. Global eradication is a natural outcome.

Citation: Dowdle W, Cochi S. 2002. Global Eradication of Poliovirus:History and Rationale, p 473-480. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch38

Key Concept Ranking

Inactivated Polio Vaccine
0.49034175
Acute Flaccid Paralysis
0.4428227
0.49034175
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817916.chap38
1.Anonymous. 1982. Can infectious diseases be eradicated? A report on the International Conference on the Eradication of Infectious Diseases. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4: 912983.
2. Aylward, R. B.,, H. F. Hull,, S. L. Cochi,, R. W. Sutter,, J. M. Olive,, and B. Melgaard. 2000. Disease eradication as a public health strategy: a case study of poliomyelitis eradication. Bull. W. H. O. 78: 285 297.
3. Aylward, R. B.,, H. F. Hull,, C. A. de Quadros,, J. M. Olive,, and B. Melgaard,. 1998. Disease eradication initiatives and general health services: ensuring common principles lead to mutual benefits, p. 61 74. In W. R. Dowdle, and D. R. Hopkins (ed.), The Eradication of Infectious Diseases. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.
4. Baptista-Risi, J. 1984. The control of poliomyelitis in Brazil. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S400 S403.
5. Baptista-Risi, J., 1997. Poliomyelitis in Brazil, p. 159 179. In T. M. Daniel, and F. C. Robbins (ed.), Polio. University of Rochester Press, Rochester, N.Y.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Recommendations of the International Task Force for Disease Eradication. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 42: 138.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Certification of poliomyelitis eradication in the Americas. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43: 720722.
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Outbreak of poliomyelitis—Dominican Republic and Haiti, 2000. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 10941103.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Circulation of a type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus—Egypt, 1982-1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 4151.
10. Chin, J. 1984. Can paralytic poliomyelitis be eliminated? Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S581 S585.
11. Cochi, S. L.,, C. A. de Quadros,, S. Dittmann,, S. Foster,, J. Galvez Tan,, F. Grant,, J. M. Olive,, H. Pigman,, C. Taylor,, and K. A. Wang,. 1998. Group report: what are the societal and political criteria for disease eradication? p. 157 175. In W. R. Dowdle, and D. R. Hopkins (ed.), The Eradication of Infectious Diseases. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.
12. Cochi, S. L.,, R. W. Sutter,, O. M. Kew,, M. Pallansch,, and W. R. Dowdle. 1997. A Decision Tree for Stopping Folio Immunization. EPI/POLIO/TECH.97/WP18. The World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
13. de Quadros, C. A., 1997. Onwards towards victory, p. 181 198. In T. M. Daniel, and F. C. Robbins (ed.), Polio. University of Rochester Press, Rochester, N.Y.
14. de Quadros, C. A.,, B. S. Hersh,, J. M. Olive,, J. K. Andrus,, C. M. da Silveira,, and P. A. Carrasco. 1997. Eradication of wild poliovirus from the Americas: acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, 1988-1995. J. Infect. Dis. 175( Suppl. 1): S37 S42.
15. Dove, A. W.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1997. The polio eradication effort: should vaccine eradication be next? Science 277: 779 780.
16. Dowdle, W. R.,, and M. E. Birmingham. 1997. The biologic principles of poliovirus eradication. J. Infect. Dis. 175( Suppl. 1): S286 S292.
17. Fenner, F.,, A. Hall,, and W. R. Dowdle,. 1998. What is eradication? p. 3 17. In W. R. Dowdle, and D. Hopkins (ed.), The Eradication of Infectious Diseases. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.
18. Fenner, F.,, D. A. Henderson,, I. Arita,, A. Jezek,, and I. Ladnyi. 1988. Smallpox and Its Eradication. The World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
19. Fernandez de Castro, J. 1984. Mass vaccination against poliomyelitis in Mexico. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S397 S399.
20. Fine, P. E.,, and I. A. Carneiro. 1999. Transmissibility and persistence of oral polio vaccine viruses: implications for the global poliomyelitis eradication initiative. Am. J. Epidemiol. 150: 1001 1021.
21. Gregg, M. B. 1984. Paralytic poliomyelitis can be eliminated. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S577 S580.
22. Henderson, D. A. 1998. Eradication: lessons from the past. Bull. W. H. O(Suppl. 2). 76: 17 21.
23. Henderson, R. H. 1984. The expanded programme on immunization of the World Health Organization. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S475 S479.
24. Hinman, A. R.,, W. H. Foege,, C. A. de Quadros,, P. A. Patriarca,, W. A. Orenstein,, and E. W. Brink. 1987. The case for global eradication of poliomyelitis. Bull. W. H. O. 65: 835 840.
25. Hull, H. R.,, and R. B. Aylward. 1997. Ending polio immunization. Science 277: 780.
26. John, T. J. 1984. Poliomyelitis in India: prospects and problems of control. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6: S438 S441.
27. Kew, O. M.,, V. Morris-Glasgow,, M. Landaverde,, C. Burns,, J. Shaw,, Z. Garib,, J. Andre,, E. Blackman,, C. Freeman,, J. Jorba,, R. W. Sutter,, G. Tambini,, L. Venczel,, C. Pedreira,, F. Laender,, H. Shimizu,, T. Yoneyama,, T. Miyamura,, H. van der Avoort,, M. Oberste,, D. Kil-patrick,, S. L. Cochi,, M. Pallansch,, and C. A. de Quadros. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science 296: 356 359.
28. Mas, L. P. 1999. Eradication of poliomyelitis in Cuba: a historical perspective. Bull. W. H. O. 77: 681 687.
29. Ottesen, E.,, W. R. Dowdle,, F. Fenner,, K.-O. Habermehl,, T. J. John,, M. Koch,, G. Medley,, A. Muller,, S. Ostroff,, and H. Zeichhardt,. 1998. Group report: how is eradication to be defined and what are the biological criteria? p. 47 59. In W. R. Dowdle, and D. Hopkins (ed.), The Eradication of Infectious Diseases: Dahlem Workshop Reports. John Wiley, New York, N.Y.
30. Pan American Health Organization. 1985. Director announces campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis from the Americas. Bull. Pan Am. Health Organ. 19: 213215.
31. Patriarca, P. A.,, P. F. Wright,, and T. J. John. 1991. Factors affecting the immunogenicity of oral poliovirus vaccine in developing countries: review. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13: 926 939.
32. Pinheiro, F. P.,, O. M. Kew,, M. H. Hatch,, C. M. da Silveira,, and C. A. de Quadros. 1997. Eradication of wild poliovirus from the Americas: wild poliovirus surveillance —laboratory issues. J. Infect. Dis. 175( Suppl. 1): S43 S49.
33. Piotkin, S.,, and H. Koproski. 1959. Epidemiologic Studies of Safety and Efficacy of Vaccination with CHAT Strain of Attenuated Poliovirus in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo, in Live Poliovirus Vaccines. Scientific publication no. 44. Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Washington, D.C.
34. Robbins, F. C.,, and C. A. de Quadros. 1997. Certification of the eradication of indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in the Americas. J. Infect. Dis. 175( Suppl. 1): S281 S285.
35. Robbins, F. C. 1984. Summary and recommendations. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S596 S600.
36. Robinson, D. 1984. Political, administrative, and economic resources for the control of poliomyelitis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S586 S588.
37. Rodriguez, C. R. 1984. Cuba: mass polio vaccination program, 1962 1982. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S408 S412.
38. Sabin, A. B. 1980. Vaccination against poliomyelitis in economically underdeveloped countries. Bull. W. H. O. 58: 141 157.
39. Sabin, A. B. 1984. Strategies for elimination of poliomyelitis in different parts of the world with use of oral poliovirus vaccine. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S391 S396.
40. Sabin, A. B. 1985. Oral poliovirus vaccine: history of its development and use and current challenge to eliminate poliomyelitis from the world. J. Infect. Dis. 151: 420 436.
41. Sabin, A. B.,, M. Ramos-Alvarez,, J. Alvarez-Amezquita,, W. Pelon,, R. Michaels,, I. Spigland,, M. Koch,, J. Barnes,, and J. Rhim. 1960. Live, orally given poliovirus vaccine: effects of rapid mass immunization on population under conditions of massive enteric infections with other viruses. JAMA 173: 1521 1626.
42. Task Force for Child Survival and Development. 1988. Protection of the World's Children: an Agenda for the 1990s. Task Force for Child Survival and Development, Atlanta, Ga.
43. Wang, K.,, L. B. Zhang,, M. W. Otten, Jr.,, X. L. Zhang,, C. Yasuo,, R. Z. Zhang,, T. Xu,, X. Liu,, M. Liu,, Q. L. Li,, J. J. Yu,, and Z. Wang. 1997. Status of the eradication of indigenous wild poliomyelitis in the People's Republic of China. J. Infect. Dis. 175( Suppl. 1): S105 S112.
44. Ward, N. A. 1984. Practicalities of a global poliomyelitis control program. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S591 S593.
45. Warren, K. S. 1988. Conference: Protecting the world's children, an agenda for the 1990s. Lancet 1: 659 59.
46. Wood, D. J.,, R. W. Sutter,, and W. R. Dowdle. 2000. Stopping poliovirus vaccination after eradication: issues and challenges. Bull. W. H. O. 78: 347 357.
47. World Health Assembly. 1988. Global eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000: resolution of the 41st World Health Assembly. Resolution WHA 41.28. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
48. World Health Organization. 1978. Primary Health Care: Report of Care International Conference on Primary Health Care. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
49. World Health Organization. 1997. Polio: the Beginning of die End. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
50. World Health Organization. 1998. Global Eradication of Poliomyelitis: Report of the Meeting on the Scientific Basis for Stopping Polio Immunization. WHO/EPI/GEN/98.12. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
51. World Health Organization. 1998. Global Eradication of Poliomyelitis: Report of the Third Meeting of the Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Polio. WHO/EPI/GEN/98.12. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
52. World Health Organization. 1999. WHO Global Action Plan for Laboratory Containment of Wild Polioviruses. WHO/V&B/99.32. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
53. Yang, B.,, J. Zhang,, M. W. Otten, Jr.,, K. Kusumoto,, T. Jiang,, R. Zhang,, L. Zhang,, and K. A. Wang. 1995. Eradication of poliomyelitis: progress in the People's Republic of China. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14: 308 314.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error