1887

Chapter 39 : Mechanism of Poliovirus Eradication

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Mechanism of Poliovirus Eradication, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap39-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817916/9781555812102_Chap39-2.gif

Abstract:

Systematic international efforts to eradicate polio from the developing world began in the Americas in 1985, when the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) declared a target date of 1990 for the eradication of polio throughout the Americas. Surveillance for wild polioviruses has two arms: (i) acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case investigations and (ii) virologic studies of polioviruses obtained from clinical specimens. AFP surveillance by itself is neither highly specific nor highly sensitive for detecting individual wild poliovirus infections. Poliovirus eradication has achieved the elimination of individual lineages (equivalent to chains of transmission), different genotypes (groups of related lineages sharing >85% nucleotide sequence identity), and probably wild poliovirus type 2. Polio cases associated with these importations have revealed pockets of unimmunized children in the new host areas, prompting local immunization responses. However, by far the most effective response is to eliminate the source reservoirs. Various supplementary approaches are implemented to monitor ongoing laboratory performance. A serious challenge to the integrity of poliovirus surveillance data is the occurrence of poliovirus contamination of cultures. Recently, polio outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) have been recognized in three different parts of the world. The occurrence of iVDPVs and cVDPVs appears to be rare. Moreover, most chronic poliovirus excretors in developed countries spontaneously stop shedding or die of complications from their immunodeficiency. As an increasing number of highly developed countries have switched to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), the chances for the occurrence of new iVDPV infections have decreased.

Citation: Kew O, Pallansch M. 2002. Mechanism of Poliovirus Eradication, p 481-491. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch39

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.437977
0.437977
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Countries with indigenous wild poliovirus circulation (shaded) in 1988, 1998, and 2001

Citation: Kew O, Pallansch M. 2002. Mechanism of Poliovirus Eradication, p 481-491. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Trees of VP1 sequence relationships among representative isolates of surviving type 1 poliovirus genotypes.

Citation: Kew O, Pallansch M. 2002. Mechanism of Poliovirus Eradication, p 481-491. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Trees of VP1 sequence relationships among representative isolates of surviving type 3 poliovirus genotypes.

Citation: Kew O, Pallansch M. 2002. Mechanism of Poliovirus Eradication, p 481-491. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Progressive eradication of wild poliovirus genotypes, 1988 to 2001. Stop signs indicate the year and location where the last isolate was obtained for each extinct genotype.

Citation: Kew O, Pallansch M. 2002. Mechanism of Poliovirus Eradication, p 481-491. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Trees showing long-range importation and cross-border transmission of wild type 1 poliovirus lineages, 1999 to 2001. The VP1 sequence of the Bulgaria isolate was kindly provided by Lucia Fiore.

Citation: Kew O, Pallansch M. 2002. Mechanism of Poliovirus Eradication, p 481-491. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch39
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817916.chap39
1. Alexander, J. P. ,Jr.,, H. E. Gary, Jr.,, and M. A. Pal-lansch. 1997. Duration of poliovirus excretion and its implications for acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: a review of the literature. J Infect. Dis. 175( Suppl. 1): S176 S182.
2. Andrus, J. K.,, C. de Quadros,, J. M. Olivé,, and H. F. Hull. 1992. Screening of cases of acute flaccid paralysis for poliomyelitis eradication: ways to improve specificity. Buü. W.H.O. 70: 591 596.
3. Balanant, J.,, S. Guillot,, A. Candréa,, F. Delpeyroux,, and R. Crainic. 1991. The natural genomic variability of poliovirus analyzed by a restriction fragment polymorphism assay. Virology 184: 645 654
4. Bellmunt, A.,, G. May,, R. Zeil,, R Pring-Akerblom,, W. Verhagen,, and A. Heim. 1999. Evolution of poliovirus type I during 5.5 years of prolonged enteral replication in an immunodeficient patient. Virology 265: 178 184.
5. Benyesh-Melnick, M.,, J. L. Melnick,, W. E. Rawls,, I. Wimberley,, J. Barrera-Oro,, E. Ben-Porath,, and V. Ren-nick. 1967. Studies on the immunogenicity, communica-bility, and genetic stability of oral poliovaccine administered during the winter. Am. J. Epidemiol. 86: 112 136.
6. Cammack, N. J.,, A. Phillips,, G. Dunn,, V. Patel,, and P. D. Minor. 1989. Intertypic genomic rearrangements of poliovirus strains in vaccinées. Virology 167: 507 514.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Certification of poliomyelitis eradication—the Americas, 1994. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43: 720722.
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Public health dispatch: outbreak of poliomyelitis—Cape Verde, 2000. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 1070.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Public health dispatch: certification of poliomyelitis eradication—Western Pacific Region, October 2000. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 13.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Circulation of a type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus—Egypt, 1982-1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 4142, 51.
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Apparent global interruption of wild poliovirus type 2 transmission. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 222224.
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Public health dispatch: acute flaccid paralysis associated with circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus—Philippines, 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 874875.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Imported wild poliovirus causing poliomyelitis—Bulgaria, 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 10331035.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication—Egypt, 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51: 305307.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Laboratory surveillance for wild poliovirus and vaccine-derived poliovirus, 2000-2001. Morb. Mortai. Wkly. Rep. 51: 369371.
16. Chiba, Y.,, H. Murakami,, M. Kobayashi,, H. Shimizu,, H. Yoshida,, T. Yoneyama,, T. Miyamura,, J. Yu,, and L. Zhang. 2000. A case of poliomyelitis associated with infection of wild poliovirus in Qinghai Province, China, in October 1999. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 53: 135 136.
17. Cruz, R. R. 1984. Cuba: mass polio vaccination program, 1962-1982. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S408 S412.
18. De, L.,, B. K. Nottay,, C. -R Yang,, B. R Holloway,, M. A. Pallansch,, and O. Kew. 1995. Identification of vaccine-related polioviruses by hybridization with specific RNA probes. J. Ciin. Microbiol. 33: 562 571.
19. De, L.,, C. -R Yang,, E. da Silva,, J. Boshell,, P. Cáceres,, J. R. Gómez,, M. Pallansch,, and O. Kew. 1997. Genotype-specific RNA probes for the direct identification of wild polioviruses by blot hybridization. J. Ciin. Microbiol. 35: 2834 2840.
20. de la Torre, J.C,, C. Giachetti,, B. L. Semler,, and J. J. Holland. 1992. High frequency of single-base transitions and extreme frequency of precise multiple-base reversion mutations in poliovirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 2531 2535.
21. Domingo, E.,, and J. J. Holland. 1997. RNA virus mutations and fitness for survival. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 51: 151 178.
22. Drake, J. W. 1993. Rates of spontaneous mutation among RNA viruses. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 4171 4175.
23. Fine, P. E. M.,, and I. A. M. Carneiro. 1999. Transmis-sibility and persistence of oral polio vaccine viruses: implications for the global poliomyelitis eradication initiative. Am. J. Epidemiol. 150: 1001 1021.
24. Gavrilin, G. V.,, E. A. Cherkasova,, G. Y. Lipskaya,, O. M. Kew,, and V. I. Agol. 2000. Evolution of circulating wild poliovirus and of vaccine-derived poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient: a unifying model. J. Virol 74: 7381 7390.
25. Georgescu, M.-M.,, F. Delpeyroux,, and R. Crainic. 1995. Tripartite genome organization of a natural type 2 vaccine/nonvaccine recombinant poliovirus. J. Gen. Virol 76: 2343 2348.
26. Georgescu, M. M.,, F. Delpeyroux,, M. Tardy-Panit,, J. Balanant,, M. Combiescu,, A. A. Combiescu,, S. Guillot,, and R. Crainic. 1994. High diversity of poliovirus strains isolated from the central nervous system from patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. J. Virol. 68: 8089 8101.
27. Holland, J. J.,, E. Domingo,, J. C. de la Torre,, and D. A. Steinhauer. 1990. Mutation frequencies at defined codon sites in vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus can be increased only slightly by chemical mutagenesis. J. Virol 64: 3960 3962.
28. Hovi, T.,, and M. Stenvik. 1994. Selective isolation of poliovirus in recombinant murine cell line expressing the human poliovirus receptor gene. J. Ciin. Microbiol. 32: 1366 1368.
29. Kew, O. M.,, L. De,, C.-F. Yang,, B. K. Nottay,, E. da Silva,, and M. A. Pallansch,. 1993. The role of virologie sur-veilance in the global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis, p. 215 246. In E. Kurstak (ed.), Control of Virus Diseases, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
30. Kew, O. M.,, V. Morris-Glasgow,, M. Landaverde,, C. Burns,, J. Shaw,, Z. Garib,, J. André,, E. Blackman,, C. J. Freeman,, J. Jorba,, R. Sutter,, G. Tambini,, L. Venczel,, C. Pedreira,, F. Laender,, H. Shimizu,, T. Yoneyama,, T. Mi-yamura,, H. van der Avoort,, M. S. Oberste,, D. Kil-patrick,, S. Cochi,, M. Pallansch,, and C. de Quadros. 2002. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science 296: 356 359.
31. Kew, O. M.,, M. N. Mulders,, G. Y. Lipskaya,, E. E. da Silva,, and M. A. Pallansch. 1995. Molecular epidemiology of polioviruses. Semin. Virol. 6: 401 414.
32. Kew, O. M.,, M. A. Pallansch,, B. K. Nottay,, R. Rico-Hesse,, L. De,, and C.-F. Yang. 1990. Genotypic relationships among wild polioviruses from different regions of the world, p. 357 365. In M. A. Brinton and F. X. Heinz (ed.), New Aspects of Fositive-Strand RNA Viruses. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
33. Kew, O. M.,, R. W. Sutter,, B. Nottay,, M. McDonough,, D. R. Prévôts,, L. Quick,, and M. Pallansch. 1998. Prolonged replication of a type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2893 2899.
34. Kilpatrick, D. R.,, B. Nottay,, C.-F. Yang,, S.-J. Yang,, E. da Silva,, S. Peñaranda,, M. Pallansch,, and O. Kew. 1998. Serotype-specific identification of polioviruses by PCR using primers containing mixed-base or deoxyinosine residues at positions of codon degeneracy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 352 357.
35. Kilpatrick, D. R.,, B. Nottay,, C.-F. Yang,, S.-J. Yang,, M. N. Mulders,, B. P. Holloway,, M. A. Pallansch,, and O. M. Kew. 1996. Group-specific identification of polio-virus by PCR using primers containing mixed-base or deoxyinosine residues at positions of codon degeneracy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2990 2996.
36. Kinnunen, L.,, A. Huovilainen,, T. Pöyry,, and T. Hovi. 1990. Rapid molecular evolution of wild type 3 poliovirus during infection in individual hosts. J. Gen. Virol. 71: 317 324.
37. Lipskaya, G. Y.,, E. A. Chervonskaya,, G. I. Belova,, S. V. Maslova,, T. N. Kutateladze,, S. G. Drozdov,, M. N. Mulders,, M. A. Pallansch,, O. M. Kew,, and V. I. Agol. 1995. Geographic genotypes (geotypes) of poliovirus case isolates from the former Soviet Union: relatedness to other known poliovirus genotypes. J. Gen. Virol. 76: 1687 1699.
38. Lipskaya, G. Y.,, A. R. Muzychenko,, O. K. Kutitova,, S. V. Maslova,, M. Equestre,, S. G. Drozdov,, R. Perez Bercoff,, and V. I. Agol. 1991. Frequent isolation of in-tertypic poliovirus recombinants with serotype 2 specificity from vaccine-associated polio cases. J. Med. Virol. 35: 290 296.
39. Liu, H.-M.,, D.-P. Zheng,, L.-B. Zhang,, M. S. Oberste,, M. A. Pallansch,, and O. M. Kew. 2000. Molecular evolution of a type 1 wild-vaccine poliovirus recombinant during widespread circulation in China. J. Virol. 74: 11153 11161.
40. Manor, Y.,, R. Handsher,, T. Halmut,, M. Neuman,, A. Bobrov,, H. Rudich,, A. Vonsover,, L. Shulman,, O. Kew,, and E. Mendelson. 1999. Detection of poliovirus circulation by environmental surveillance in the absence of clinical cases in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1670 1675.
41. Martin, J.,, G. Dunn,, R. Hull,, V. Patel,, and P. D. Minor. 2000. Evolution of the Sabin strain of type 3 poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient during the entire 637-day period of virus excretion. J Virol. 74: 3001 3010.
42. Mulders, M. N.,, A. M. van Loon,, H. G. A. M. van der Avoort,, J. H. J. Riemerink,, A. Ras,, T. M. Bestebroer,, M. A. Drebot,, O. M. Kew,, and M. P. G. Koopmans. 1995. Molecular characterization of the wild poliovirus type 3 epidemic in the Netherlands (1992-93). J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 3252 3256.
43. Nathanson, N.,, and J. R. Martin. 1970. The epidemiology of poliomyelitis: enigmas surrounding its appearance, epidemicity, and disappearance. Am. J. Epidemiol. 110: 672 692.
44. Pallansch, M. A.,, and R. P. Roos,. 2001. Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses, p. 723 775. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Strauss (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
45. Pan American Health Organization. 1985. Director announces campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis from the Americas by 1990. Bull. AHO 19: 2135.
46. Patriarca, P. A.,, R. W. Sutter,, and P. M. Oostvogel. 1997. Outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis, 1976-1995. J. Infect. Dis. 175: S165 S172.
47. Paul, J. R. 1971. A History of Poliomyelitis. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
48. Pipkin, P. A.,, D. J. Wood,, V. R. Racaniello,, and P. D. Minor. 1993. Characterisation of L cells expressing the human poliovirus receptor for the specific detection of polioviruses in vitro. J. Virol. Methods 41: 333 340.
49. Piotkin, S. A.,, A. Murdin,, and E. Vidor,. 1999. Inactivated polio vaccine, p. 345 363. In S. A. Plotkin, and W. A. Orenstein (ed.), Vaccines, 3rd ed. The W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
50. Pöyry, T.,, M. Stenvik,, and T. Hovi. 1988. Viruses in sewage waters during and after a poliomyelitis outbreak and subsequent nationwide oral poliovirus vaccination campaign in Finland. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 371 374.
51. Risi, J. B. 1984. The control of poliomyelitis in Brazil. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6( Suppl. 2): S400 S403.
52. Shulman, L.,, J. Manor,, R. Handsher,, F. Delpeyroux,, M. McDonough,, T. Halmut,, I. Silberstein,, J. Alfandari,, J. Quay,, T. Fisher,, J. Robinov,, O. Kew,, R. Crainic,, and E. Mendelson. 2000. Molecular and antigenic characterization of a highly evolved derivative of the type 2 oral poliovaccine strain isolated from sewage in Israel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3729 3734
53. Shulman, L. M.,, R. Handsher,, S.-J. Yang,, C.-F. Yang,, J. Manor,, A. Vonsover,, Z. Grossman,, M. Pallansch,, E. Mendelson,, and O. M. Kew. 2000. Resolution of the pathways of poliovirus type 1 transmission during an outbreak. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 945 952.
54. Sutter, R. W.,, S. L. Cochi,, and J. L. Melnick,. 1999. Live attenuated poliovirus vaccine, p. 364 408. In S. A. Plot-kin, and W. A. Orenstein (ed.), Vaccines, 3rd ed. The W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
55. Tambini, G.,, J. K. Andrus,, E. Marques,, J. Boshell,, M. Pallansch,, C. A. de Quadros,, and O. M. Kew. 1993. Direct detection of wild poliovirus transmission by stool surveys of healthy children and analysis of community wastewater. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 1510 1514.
56. Technical Consulting Group to the World Health Organization on the Global Eradication of Poliomyelitis. 2002. “Endgame” issues for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 7277.
57. van der Avoort, H. G.,, J. H. Reimerink,, A. Ras,, M. N. Mulders,, and A. M. van Loon. 1995. Isolation of epidemic poliovirus from sewage during the 1992-3 type 3 outbreak in The Netherlands. Epidemiol. Infect. 114: 481 491.
58. van der Avoort, H. G. A. M.,, B. P. Hull,, T. Hovi,, M. A. Pallansch,, O. M. Kew,, R. Crainic,, D. J. Wood,, M. N. Mulders,, and A. M. van Loon. 1995. A comparative study of five methods of intratypic differentiation of polioviruses. J Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2562 2566.
59. van Wezel, A. L.,, and A. G. Hazendonk. 1979. Intratypic serodifferentiation of poliomyelitis virus by strain-specific antisera. Intemirology 11: 2 8.
60. Wimmer, E.,, C. U. Hellen,, and X. Cao. 1993. Genetics of poliovirus. Annu. Rev. Genet. 27: 353 436.
61. Wood, D. J.,, R. W. Sutter,, and W. R. Dowdle. 2000. Stopping poliovirus vaccination after eradication: issues and challenges. Bull. W.H.O. 78: 347 357.
62. World Health Assembly. 1998. Polio eradication by the year 2000 Resolution 41.28. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
63. World Health Organization. 1997. Manual for the virologie investigation of poliomyelitis. (WHO/EPI/GEN/ 97.1.) World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
64. World Health Organization. 2001. Global polio eradication of poliomyelitis: report of the sixth meeting of the Global Technical Consultative Group for Poliomyelitis Eradication. (WHO/V&B/01.32.) World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
65. World Health Organization. 2002. Progress towards the global eradication of poliomyelitis, 2001. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 77: 98107.
66. Yang, C.,- F, L. De,, B. P. Holloway,, M. A. Pallansch,, and O. M. Kew. 1991. Detection and identification of vaccine-related polioviruses by the polymerase chain reaction. Virus Res. 20: 159 179.
67. Yang, C.,- E, L. De,, S.-J. Yang,, J. R. Gómez,, J. R. Cruz,, B. P. Holloway,, M. A. Pallansch,, and O. M. Kew. 1992. Genotype-specific in vitro amplification of sequences of the wild type 3 polioviruses from Mexico and Guatemala. Virus Res. 24: 277 296.
68. Yoshida, H.,, J. Li,, T. Yoneyama,, K. Yoshii,, H. Shimizu,, T. H. Nguyen,, K. Toda,, T. L. Nguyen,, V. T. Phan,, T. Miyamura,, and A. Hagiwara. 1997. Two major strains of type 1 wild poliovirus circulating in Indochina. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 1233 1237.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error