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Chapter 2 : Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci

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Abstract:

This chapter describes the occurrence of different enterococcal species among animal reservoirs. It reviews the importance of enterococci as pathogens in animals, the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes among enterococci from nonhuman sources, and the potential transfer of enterococci and their resistance genes to humans. Enterococci are associated with most mammals and birds, and some sporadic reports exist on the isolation of enterococci from reptiles and insects. In addition, enterococcal species can be found in soil, on plants, and in water. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is one of the most widely applied methods for detecting the clonal spread of enterococci. Enterococci have been implicated in a number of infections in animals, mainly mastitis in cattle, and diarrhea. Birds are mainly infected by , , and . Compared to the very large number of studies of enterococci of human origin, there are only limited studies on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes among enterococci isolated from animals, food, or the environment. An overview of the occurrence of resistance to a few selected antimicrobial agents, in different countries and from different reservoirs, is given in the chapter. An overview of resistance genes and transposons detected among enterococci from nonhuman sources is also presented. Aminoglycosides are important in the treatment of infections with enterococci in humans. Enterococci inhabiting nonhuman reservoirs appear to play a critical role in the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants.

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2

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Figure 1

Distribution of different enterococcal species among selected animal species. Adapted from references .

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
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Figure 2

Changes in the occurrence of glycopeptide-resistant . in different reservoirs and countries in Europe following the ban on the use of avoparcin for growth promotion. (A) GRE among broilers (hatched bars) and pigs (open bars) in Denmark. (B) GRE in nonhospitalized humans in Germany. (C) Prevalence of GRE in The Netherlands in 1997 (hatched bars) and 1999 (open bars). (D) GRE from poultry meat samples in Italy. Adapted from references 13, 94, 129, 206. Different methodologies were used in the studies, and the incidences are not directly comparable between studies.

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
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Figure 3

Ecological relationships between different reservoirs.

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

(Top) Gene cluster of Tn. prototype. (Bottom) Insertions: I, according to reference ; II, according to reference ; III, according to reference ; IV, according to reference ; and V, according to reference .

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
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Figure 5

Ten overlapping fragments of prototype VanA element Tn. amplified with primers p1 to p19 ( ). IR, inverted repeat.

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
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Figure 6

Scheme of long PCR of Tn1546-like elements ( ).

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
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Figure 7

Structure of the 5.5-kb fragment of plasmid pUW1965 ( ). The thin lines indicate identities on the DNA level with sequences given below (identities in %). Open reading frames (ORF) with identities with corresponding protein sequences from databases are given as black arrows.

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Genetic relationship of 213 glycopeptide-resistant . strains from human and animal sources

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 2

Percentage distribution of . species among different animal species

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3

Infections in animals caused by enterococci

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 4

Antibacterials used as growth promoters in European Union countries and the United States

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 5

Occurrence of macrolide, streptograrnin, and glycopeptide resistance among enterococcal isolates from nonhuman sources

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 6

Antimicrobial resistance genes and transposons found in enterococci of animal and environmental origin

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 7

Occurrence of glycopeptide-resistant . (.-mediated) outside hospitals in animals, in meat products, and in fecal samples of nonhospitalized humans in a provincial district of Germany

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 8

Molecular typing of the . gene cluster of . from human and animal sources

Citation: Aarestrup F, Butaye P, Witte W. 2002. Nonhuman Reservoirs of Enterococci, p 55-99. In Gilmore M, Clewell D, Courvalin P, Dunny G, Murray B, Rice L (ed), The Enterococci. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817923.ch2