Chapter 1 : Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Humans

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Humans, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817947/9781555812447_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817947/9781555812447_Chap01-2.gif


Polymicrobial diseases in animals and humans are induced by polyviral infections, polybacterial infections, polymicrobial infections involving viruses and bacteria, polymicrobial infections involving fungi and parasites, and polymicrobial infections as a result of microbe-induced immunosuppression. They are serious diseases whose etiologic agents are sometimes difficult to diagnose and treat. Five common mechanisms of disease pathogenesis exist. First, physical, physiologic, or metabolic abnormalities and stress predispose the host to polymicrobial disease. Second, one organism induces changes in the mucosa that may favor the colonization of others. Third, microorganisms or their products trigger proinflammatory cytokines to increase the severity of disease, reactivate latent infections, or favor the colonization of other microorganisms. Fourth, organisms may share determinants among each other, which give them the ability to damage tissue. Finally, one organism can alter the immune system, which allows the colonization of the host by other microorganisms. Many areas of study in polymicrobial diseases are in their infancy, and the author hopes that this chapter will stimulate interest and work in this evolving field.

Citation: Brogden K. 2002. Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Humans, p 3-20. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Alenius, S.,, R. Niskanen,, N. Juntti,, and B. Larsson. 1991. Bovine coronavirus as the causative agent of winter dysentery: serological evidence. Acta Vet. Scand. 32: 163 170.
2. Allan, G. M.,, F. McNeilly,, J. Ellis,, S. Krakowka,, B. Meehan,, I. McNair,, I. Walker,, and S. Kennedy. 2000. Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication. Arch. Virol. 145: 2421 2429.
3. Allan, G. M.,, F. McNeilly,, B. M. Meehan,, J. A. Ellis,, T. J. Connor,, I. McNair,, S. Krakowka,, and S. Kennedy. 2000. A sequential study of experimental infection of pigs with porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus: immunostaining of cryostat sections and virus isolation. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B 47: 81 94.
4. Allen, J. W.,, L. Viel,, K. G. Bateman,, E. Nagy,, S. Rosendal,, and P. E. Shewen. 1992. Serological titers to bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Pasteurella haemolytica in feedlot calves with respiratory disease: associations with bacteriological and pulmonary cytological variables. Can. J. Vet. Res. 56: 281 288.
5. Allory, Y.,, F. Charlotte,, Y. Benhamou,, P. Opolon,, Y. Le Charpentier,, T. Poynard, and the MULTIVIRC Group. 2000. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the histological features of chronic hepatitis C: a casecontrol study. Hum. Pathol. 31: 69 74.
6. Anderson, N. V.,, Y. D. Youanes,, J. G. Vestweber,, C. A. King,, R. D. Klemm,, and G. A. Kennedy. 1991. The effects of stressful exercise on leukocytes in cattle with experimental pneumonic pasteurellosis. Vet. Res. Commun. 15: 189 204.
7. Atmar, R. L. 1999. Chlamydia species and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 1: 73 79.
8. Avila, M. M.,, E. Casanueva,, C. Piccardo,, D. Liberatore,, G. Cammarieri,, M. Cervellini,, I. Gojman,, and O. Libonatti. 1996. HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus infections in adolescents lodged in security institutes of Buenos Aires. Pediatr. AIDS HIV Infect. 7: 346 349.
9. Bakaletz, L. O. 1995. Viral potentiation of bacterial superinfection of the respiratory tract. Trends Microbiol. 3: 110 114.
10. Baker, J. C.,, J. A. Ellis,, and E. G. Clark. 1997. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 13: 425 454.
11.. Baqui, A. A.,, M. A. Jabra-Rizk,, J. I. Kelley,, M. Zhang,, W. A. Falkler, Jr.,, and T. F. Meiller. 2000. Enhanced interleukin-1 beta, interleukin- 6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by LPS stimulated human monocytes isolated from HIV+ patients. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 22: 401 421.
12. Barker, W. H.,, and J. P. Mullooly. 1982. Pneumonia and influenza deaths during epidemics: implications for prevention. Arch. Intern. Med. 142: 85 89.
13. Beck, J.,, R. Garcia,, G. Heiss,, P. S. Vokonas,, and S. Offenbacher. 1996. Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. J. Periodontol. 67: 1123 1137.
14. Bender, A.,, H. Sprenger,, J. H. Gong,, A. Henke,, G. Bolte,, H. P. Spengler,, M. Nain,, and D. Gemsa. 1993. The potentiating effect of LPS on tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by influenza A virus-infected macrophages. Immunobiology 187: 357 371.
15. Bergstrom, R. C.,, B. A. Werner,, and L. R. Maki. 1980. Dual infections in sheep: Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Int. Goat Sheep Res. 1: 190 194.
16. Bettelheim, K. A.,, D. S. Bowden,, J. C. Doultree,, M. G. Catton,, D. Chibo,, N. J. Ryan,, P. J. Wright,, I. C. Gunesekere,, J. M. Griffith,, D. Lightfoot,, G. G. Hogg,, V. Bennett- Wood,, and J. A. Marshall. 1999. Combined infection of Norwalk-like virus and verotoxin- producing bacteria associated with a gastroenteritis outbreak. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 17: 34 36.
17. Biondi, M.,, and L. G. Zannino. 1997. Psychological stress, neuroimmunomodulation, and susceptibility to infectious diseases in animals and man: a review. Psychother. Psychosom. 66: 3 26.
18. Blackall, P. J. 1999. Infectious coryza: overview of the disease and new diagnostic options. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 627 632.
19. Bolin, S. R. 1995. The pathogenesis of mucosal disease. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 11: 489 500.
20. Bowden, G. H. 1999. Controlled environment model for accumulation of biofilms of oral bacteria. Methods Enzymol. 310: 216 224.
21. Bradshaw, D. J.,, and P. D. Marsh. 1999. Use of continuous flow techniques in modeling dental plaque biofilms. Methods Enzymol. 310: 279 296.
22. Brandt, M. E.,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. A. Hajjeh,, E. A. Graviss,, J. Rees,, E. D. Spitzer,, R. W. Pinner,, L. W. Mayer, and the Cryptococcal Disease Active Surveillance Group. 1996. Molecular subtypes and antifungal susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 812 820.
23. Briggs, R. E.,, and G. H. Frank. 1992. Increased elastase activity in nasal mucus associated with nasal colonization by Pasteurella haemolytica in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-infected calves. Am. J. Vet. Res. 53: 631 635.
24. Brockmeier, S. L.,, M. V. Palmer,, and S. R. Bolin. 2000. Effects of intranasal inoculation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, or a combination of both organisms in pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 61: 892 899.
25. Brockmeier, S. L.,, M. V. Palmer,, S. R. Bolin,, and R. B. Rimler. 2001. Effects of intranasal inoculation with Bordetella bronchiseptica, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, or a combination of both organisms on subsequent infection with Pasteurella multocida in pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62: 521 525.
26. Brogden, K. A.,, H. D. Lehmkuhl,, and R. C. Cutlip. 1998. Pasteurella haemolytica complicated respiratory infections in sheep and goats. Vet. Res. 29: 233 254.
27. Brook, I.,, and E. H. Fraizer. 1993. Role of anaerobic bacteria in liver abscesses in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12: 743 747.
28. Brook, I.,, and E. H. Frazier. 1997. The aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of perirectal abscesses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2974 2976.
29. Brook, I.,, and E. H. Frazier. 2000. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology in intra-abdominal infections associated with diverticulitis. J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 827 830.
30. Brook, I.,, and E. H. Frazier. 1998. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of chronic venous ulcers. Int. J. Dermatol. 37: 426 428.
31. Brook, I.,, and E. H. Frazier. 1996. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infected hemorrhoids. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 91: 333 335.
32. Brook, I.,, and E. H. Frazier. 1998. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of retroperitoneal abscesses. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 938 941.
33. Brown, C. C.,, P. D. Kilgo,, and K. L. Jacobsen. 2000. Prevalence of papillomatous digital dermatitis among culled adult cattle in the southeastern United States. Am. J. Vet. Res. 61: 928 930.
34. Brownlie, J. 1990. The pathogenesis of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. 9: 43 59.
35. Bruschke, C. J.,, M. M. Hulst,, R. J. Moormann,, P. A. van Rijn,, and J. T. van Oirschot. 1997. Glycoprotein Erns of pestiviruses induces apoptosis in lymphocytes of several species. J. Virol. 71: 6692 6696.
36. Casadevall, A.,, and L. A. Pirofski. 2000. Host-pathogen interactions: basic concepts of microbial commensalism, colonization, infection, and disease. Infect. Immun. 68: 6511 6518.
37. Casadevall, A.,, and L. A. Pirofski. 1999. Host-pathogen interactions: redefining the basic concepts of virulence and pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 67: 3703 3713.
38. Cate, T. R. 1998. Impact of influenza and other community-acquired viruses. Semin. Respir. Infect. 13: 17 23.
39. Cermelli, C.,, and S. Jacobson. 2000. Viruses and multiple sclerosis. Viral Immunol. 13: 255 267.
40. Clarke, J. K.,, G. Ionas,, and M. R. Alley. 1992. Mixed infection with one species of microorganism. Vet. Rec. 130: 20.
41. Cobb, J. M.,, and A. Steptoe. 1996. Psychosocial stress and susceptibility to upper respiratory tract illness in an adult population sample. Psychosom. Med. 58: 404 412.
42. Cohen, O. J.,, A. Kinter,, and A. S. Fauci. 1997. Host factors in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. Immunol. Rev. 159: 31 48.
43. Cole, N. A. 1996. Metabolic changes and nutrient repletion in lambs provided with electrolyte solutions before and after feed and water deprivation. J. Anim. Sci. 74: 287 294.
44. Cotter, P. A.,, M. H. Yuk,, S. Mattoo,, B. J. Akerley,, J. Boschwitz,, D. A. Relman,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for efficient establishment of tracheal colonization. Infect. Immun. 66: 5921 5929.
45. Coventry, J.,, G. Griffiths,, C. Scully,, and M. Tonetti. 2000. ABC of oral health: periodontal disease. BMJ 321: 36 39.
46. Cowley, S. 2001. The biology of HIV infection. Lepr. Rev. 72: 212 220.
47. Crespo, J.,, J. L. Lozano,, B. Carte,, B. de las Heras,, F. de la Cruz,, and F. Pons-Romero. 1997. Viral replication in patients with concomitant hepatitis B and C virus infections. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 16: 445 451.
48. Cundell, D.,, H. R. Masure,, and E. I. Tuomanen. 1995. The molecular basis of pneumococcal infection: a hypothesis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 204 212.
49. Cundell, D. R.,, N. P. Gerard,, C. Gerard,, I. Idanpaan-Heikkila,, and E. I. Tuomanen. 1995. Streptococcus pneumoniae anchor to activated human cells by the receptor for platelet-activating factor. Nature 377: 435 438.
50. Cundell, D. R.,, and E. Tuomanen,. 1995. Attachment and interaction of bacteria at respiratory mucosal surfaces, p. 3 20. In J. A. Roth,, C. A. Bolin,, K. A. Brogden,, F. C. Minion,, and M. J. Wannemuehler (ed.), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
51. Cutlip, R. C.,, H. D. Lehmkuhl,, and K. A. Brogden. 1993. Chronic effects of coinfection in lambs with parainfluenza-3 virus and Pasteurella haemolytica. Small Ruminant Res. 11: 171 178.
52. Cutlip, R. C.,, H. D. Lehmkuhl,, K. A. Brogden,, and N. J. Hsu. 1996. Lesions in lambs experimentally infected with ovine adenovirus serotype 6 and Pasteurella haemolytica. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 8: 296 303.
53. Dagnall, G. J. 1994. The role of Branhamella ovis, Mycoplasma conjunctivae and Chlamydia psittaci in conjunctivitis of sheep. Br. Vet. J. 150: 65 71.
54. Davison, V. E.,, and B. A. Sanford. 1981. Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to influenza A virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cell cultures. Infect. Immun. 32: 118 126.
55. DeStefano, F.,, R. F. Anda,, H. S. Kahn,, D. F. Williamson,, and C. M. Russell. 1993. Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. Br. Med. J. 306: 688 691.
56. Diesel, D. A.,, J. L. Lebel,, and A. Tucker. 1991. Pulmonary particle deposition and airway mucociliary clearance in cold-exposed calves. Am. J. Vet. Res. 52: 1665 1671.
57. Done, S. H.,, and D. J. Paton. 1995. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: clinical disease, pathology and immunosuppression. Vet. Rec. 136: 32 35.
58. Ebersole, J. L.,, D. Cappelli,, S. C. Holt,, R. E. Singer,, and T. Filloon. 2000. Gingival crevicular fluid inflammatory mediators and bacteriology of gingivitis in nonhuman primates related to susceptibility to periodontitis. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 15: 19 26.
59. el-Ghoul, W.,, and B. I. Shaheed. 2001. Ulcerative and papillomatous digital dermatitis of the pastern region in dairy cattle: clinical and histopathological studies. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 108: 216 222.
60. Ellis, D.,, D. Marriott,, R. A. Hajjeh,, D. Warnock,, W. Meyer,, and R. Barton. 2000. Epidemiology: surveillance of fungal infections. Med. Mycol. 38: 173 182.
61. Ernould, J. C.,, K. Ba,, and B. Sellin. 1999. Increase of intestinal schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment in a Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni mixed focus. Acta Trop. 73: 143 152.
62. Fadly, A. M. 1997. Avian retroviruses. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 13: 71 85.
63. Fauci, A. S.,, G. Pantaleo,, S. Stanley,, and D. Weissman. 1996. Immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 124: 654 663.
64. Floret, D. 1997. Virus-bacteria co-infections. Arch. Pediatr. 4: 1119 1124. (In French.)
65. Fontes, R. A., Jr.,, C. M. Ogilvie,, and T. Miclau. 2000. Necrotizing soft-tissue infections. J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 8: 151 158.
66. Frank, G. H. 1979. Pasteurella haemolytica and respiratory disease in cattle, p. 153 160. In Proceedings of the 83rd Annual Meeting of The United States Animal Health Association.
67. Fulton, R. W.,, C. W. Purdy,, A. W. Confer,, J. T. Saliki,, R. W. Loan,, R. E. Briggs,, and L. J. Burge. 2000. Bovine viral diarrhea viral infections in feeder calves with respiratory disease: interactions with Pasteurella spp., parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Can. J. Vet. Res. 64: 151 159.
68. Galina, L.,, C. Pijoan,, M. Sitjar,, W. T. Christianson,, K. Rossow,, and J. E. Collins. 1994. Interaction between Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in specific pathogen-free piglets. Vet. Rec. 134: 60 64.
69. Gilmour, N. J. L. 1980. Pasteurella haemolytica infections in sheep. Vet. Q. 2: 191 198.
70. Gottlieb, M. S.,, R. Schroff,, H. M. Schanker,, J. D. Weisman,, P. T. Fan,, R. A. Wolf,, and A. Saxon. 1981. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 305: 1425 1431.
71. Gotuzzo, E.,, C. Arango,, A. de Queiroz-Campos,, and R. E. Isturiz. 2000. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I in Latin America. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 14: 211 239, x-xi.
72. Graham, N. M.,, R. M. Douglas,, and P. Ryan. 1986. Stress and acute respiratory infection. Am. J. Epidemiol. 124: 389 401.
73. Grandin, T. 1997. Assessment of stress during handling and transport. J. Anim. Sci. 75: 249 257.
74. Guimaraes, M. L.,, F. I. Bastos,, P. R. Telles,, B. Galvao-Castro,, R. S. Diaz,, V. Bongertz,, and M. G. Morgado. 2001. Retrovirus infections in a sample of injecting drug users in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil: prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes, and co-infection with HTLV-I/II. J. Clin. Virol. 21: 143 151.
75. Gupta, V.,, T. Dada,, R. B. Vajpayee,, N. Sharma,, and V. K. Dada. 2001. Polymicrobial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis. J. Refract. Surg. 17: 147 148.
76. Guy, J. S.,, L. G. Smith,, J. J. Breslin,, J. P. Vaillancourt,, and H. J. Barnes. 2000. High mortality and growth depression experimentally produced in young turkeys by dual infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and turkey coronavirus. Avian Dis. 44: 105 113.
77. Haahr, S.,, and M. Munch. 2000. The association between multiple sclerosis and infection with Epstein-Barr virus and retrovirus. J. Neurovirol. 6( Suppl. 2): S76 S79.
78. Hajjeh, R. A. 1995. Disseminated histoplasmosis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21( Suppl. 1): S108 S110.
79. Hament, J. M.,, J. L. Kimpen,, A. Fleer,, and T. F. Wolfs. 1999. Respiratory viral infection predisposing for bacterial disease: a concise review. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 26: 189 195.
80. Hassan, J. O.,, and R. Curtiss III. 1994. Virulent Salmonella typhimurium-induced lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in chickens. Infect. Immun. 62: 2027 2036.
81. Heiskanen-Kosma, T.,, M. Korppi,, C. Jokinen,, S. Kurki,, L. Heiskanen,, H. Juvonen,, S. Kallinen,, M. Sten,, A. Tarkiainen,, P. R. Ronnberg,, M. Kleemola,, P. H. Makela,, and M. Leinonen. 1998. Etiology of childhood pneumonia: serologic results of a prospective, population-based study. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 17: 986 991.
82. Hirai, T.,, T. Nunoya,, T. Ihara,, K. Kusanagi,, and K. Shibuya. 2001. Dual infection with PCV-2 and porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus in neonatal piglets. Vet. Rec. 148: 482 484.
83. Hjerpe, C. A. 1983. Clinical management of respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Large Anim. Pract. 5: 119 142.
84. Hoskin, S. O.,, P. R. Wilson,, W. A. Charleston,, and T. N. Barry. 2000. A model for study of lungworm (Dictyocaulus sp.) and gastrointestinal nematode infection in young red deer (Cervus elaphus). Vet. Parasitol. 88: 199 217.
85. Howard, C. J. 1990. Immunological responses to bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. 9: 95 103.
86. Hujoel, P. P.,, B. G. Leroux,, H. Selipsky,, and B. A. White. 2000. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy and tooth loss. A cohort study. J. Periodontol. 71: 736 742.
87. Ingham, H. R.,, and P. R. Sisson. 1984. Pathogenic synergism. Microbiol. Sci. 1: 206 208.
88. Jabra-Rizk, M. A.,, W. A. Falkler, Jr.,, W. G. Merz,, J. I. Kelley,, A. A. Baqui,, and T. F. Meiller. 1999. Coaggregation of Candida dubliniensis with Fusobacterium nucleatum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1464 1468.
89. Jelinek, P. D.,, L. J. Depiazzi,, D. A. Galvin,, I. T. Spicer,, M. A. Palmer,, and D. R. Pitman. 2000. Occurrence of different strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in new clinical lesions in sheep exposed to footrot associated with multistrain infections. Aust. Vet. J. 78: 273 276.
90. Jones, C. D. R. 1987. Proliferation of Pasteurella haemolytica in the calf respiratory tract after abrupt change in climate. Res. Vet. Sci. 42: 179 186.
91. Jones, G. E.,, J. S. Gilmour,, and A. G. Rae. 1982. The effect of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica on specific pathogen-free lambs. J. Comp. Pathol. 92: 261 266.
92. Jones, G. E.,, J. S. Gilmour,, and A. G. Rae. 1982. The effects of different strains of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae on specific pathogen-free and conventionally-reared lambs. J. Comp. Pathol. 92: 267 272.
93. Kannan, G.,, T. H. Terrill,, B. Kouakou,, O. S. Gazal,, S. Gelaye,, E. A. Amoah,, and S. Samake. 2000. Transportation of goats: effects on physiological stress responses and live weight loss. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 1450 1457.
94. Kapil, S.,, and R. J. Basaraba. 1997. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory coronavirus. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 13: 455 469.
95. Keles, I.,, A. K. Sharma,, Z. Woldehiwet,, and R. D. Murray. 1999. The effects of bovine respiratory syncytial on normal ovine lymphocyte responses to mitogens or antigens in vitro. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22: 1 13.
96. Keles, I.,, Z. Woldehiwet,, and R. D. Murray. 1998. In-vitro studies on mechanisms of immunosuppresion associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 118: 337 345.
97. Kennedy, S.,, D. Moffett,, F. McNeilly,, B. Meehan,, J. Ellis,, S. Krakowka,, and G. M. Allan. 2000. Reproduction of lesions of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by infection of conventional pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 alone or in combination with porcine parvovirus. J. Comp. Pathol. 122: 9 24.
98. Knowles, T. G.,, S. N. Brown,, P. D. Warriss,, A. J. Phillips,, S. K. Dolan,, P. Hunt,, J. E. Ford,, J. E. Edwards,, and P. E. Watkins. 1995. Effects on sheep of transport by road for up to 24 hours. Vet. Rec. 136: 431 438.
99. Kolenbrander, P. E. 1993. Coaggregation of human oral bacteria: potential role in the accretion of dental plaque. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 74: 79S 86S.
100. Kolenbrander, P. E.,, R. N. Andersen,, K. Kazmerzak,, R. Wu,, and R. J. Palmer, Jr. 1999. Spatial organization of oral bacteria in biofilms. Methods Enzymol. 310: 322 332.
101. Krause, P. J.,, S. R. Telford III,, A. Spielman,, V. Sikand,, R. Ryan,, D. Christianson,, G. Burke,, P. Brassard,, R. Pollack,, J. Peck,, and D. H. Persing. 1996. Concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis. Evidence for increased severity and duration of illness. JAMA 275: 1657 1660.
102. Larsen, H. J.,, G. Overnes,, H. Waldeland,, and G. M. Johansen. 1994. Immunosuppression in sheep experimentally infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Res. Vet. Sci. 56: 216 224.
103. Laupland, K. B.,, H. D. Davies,, D. E. Low,, B. Schwartz,, K. Green,, A. McGeer, and the Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. 2000. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in children and association with varicellazoster virus infection. Pediatrics 105: E60.
104. Lebbad, M.,, H. Norrgren,, A. Naucler,, F. Dias,, S. Andersson,, and E. Linder. 2001. Intestinal parasites in HIV-2 associated AIDS cases with chronic diarrhoea in Guinea-Bissau. Acta Trop. 80: 45 49.
105. Lehmkuhl, H. D.,, J. A. Contreras,, R. C. Cutlip,, and K. A. Brogden. 1989. Clinical and microbiologic findings in lambs inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica after infection with ovine adenovirus type 6. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50: 671 675.
106. Lewis, M. J.,, V. W. Gautier,, X. P. Wang,, M. H. Kaplan,, and W. W. Hall. 2000. Spontaneous production of C-C chemokines by indi- viduals infected with human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) alone and HTLVII/ HIV-1 coinfected individuals. J. Immunol. 165: 4127 4132.
107. Loneragan, G. H.,, D. H. Gould,, G. L. Mason,, F. B. Garry,, G. S. Yost,, D. L. Lanza,, D. G. Miles,, B. W. Hoffman,, and L. J. Mills. 2001. Association of 3-methyleneindolenine, a toxic metabolite of 3-methylindole, with acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62: 1525 1530.
108. Loneragan, G. H.,, D. H. Gould,, G. L. Mason,, F. B. Garry,, G. S. Yost,, D. G. Miles,, B. W. Hoffman,, and L. J. Mills. 2001. Involvement of microbial respiratory pathogens in acute interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62: 1519 1524.
109. Lopez, A.,, M. G. Maxie,, L. Ruhnke,, M. Savan,, and R. G. Thomson. 1986. Cellular inflammatory response in the lungs of calves exposed to bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycoplasma bovis, and Pasteurella haemolytica. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 1283 1286.
110. Lore, K.,, A. Sonnerborg,, J. Olsson,, B. K. Patterson,, T. E. Fehniger,, L. Perbeck,, and J. Andersson. 1999. HIV-1 exposed dendritic cells show increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production but reduced IL-1ra following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. AIDS 13: 2013 2021.
111. Lutticken, D. 1997. Viral diseases of the immune system and strategies to control infectious bursal disease by vaccination. Acta Vet. Hung. 45: 239 249.
112. Mardh, P. A.,, K. Tchoudomirova,, S. Elshibly,, and D. Hellberg. 1998. Symptoms and signs in single and mixed genital infections. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 63: 145 152.
113. Mardirossian, A.,, A. Contreras,, M. Navazesh,, H. Nowzari,, and J. Slots. 2000. Herpesviruses 6, 7 and 8 in HIV- and non-HIVassociated periodontitis. J. Periodontal Res. 35: 278 284.
114.. Martin, W. B. 1996. Respiratory infections of sheep. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19: 171 179.
115. Martuscelli, G.,, J. P. Fiorellini,, C. C. Crohin,, and T. H. Howell. 2000. The effect of interleukin-11 on the progression of ligature-induced periodontal disease in the beagle dog. J. Periodontol. 71: 573 578.
116. Masihi, K. N.,, H. Hintelmann,, K. Madaj,, and G. Gast. 1995. Production of lipopolysaccharide- induced tumour necrosis factor during influenza virus infection in mice coincides with viral replication and respiratory oxidative burst. Mediat. Inflamm. 4: 181 185.
117. Mathurin, P.,, V. Thibault,, K. Kadidja,, N. Ganne-Carrie,, J. Moussalli,, M. El Younsi,, V. Di Martino,, F. Lunel,, F. Charlotte,, M. Vidaud,, P. Opolon,, and T. Poynard. 2000. Replication status and histological features of patients with triple (B, C, D) and dual (B, C) hepatic infections. J. Viral Hepat. 7: 15 22.
118. Mattila, K. J.,, M. S. Nieminen,, V. V. Valtonen,, V. P. Rasi,, Y. A. Kesaniemi,, S. L. Syrjala,, P. S. Jungell,, M. Isoluoma,, K. Hietaniemi,, and M. J. Jokinen. 1989. Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction. Br. Med. J. 298: 779 781.
119. May, B. J.,, Q. Zhang,, L. L. Li,, M. L. Paustian,, T. S. Whittam,, and V. Kapur. 2001. Complete genomic sequence of Pasteurella multocida, Pm70. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 3460 3465.
120. Miedzobrodzki, J.,, and A. B. Macura. 1993. Effect of Staphylococcal proteinase on adherence of Candida albicans to mucous membrane cells in vitro. Med. Dosw. Mikrobiol. 45: 245 247. (In Polish.)
121. Mills, E. L. 1984. Viral infections predisposing to bacterial infections. Annu. Rev. Med. 35: 469 479.
122. Moore, P. A.,, T. Orchard,, J. Guggenheimer,, and R. J. Weyant. 2000. Diabetes and oral health promotion: a survey of disease prevention behaviors. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131: 1333 1341.
123. Moriuchi, H.,, M. Moriuchi,, S. B. Mizell,, L. A. Ehler,, and A. S. Fauci. 2000. In vitro reactivation of human immunodeficiency virus 1 from latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells after bacterial stimulation. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 2041 2044.
124. Morrison, H. I.,, L. F. Ellison,, and G. W. Taylor. 1999. Periodontal disease and risk of fatal coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases. J. Cardiovasc. Risk 6: 7 11.
125. Moses, H., Jr.,, and S. Sriram. 2001. An infectious basis for multiple sclerosis: perspectives on the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other agents. BioDrugs 15: 199 206.
126. Mosier, D. A. 1997. Bacterial pneumonia. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 13: 483 493.
127. Nain, M.,, F. Hinder,, J. H. Gong,, A. Schmidt,, A. Bender,, H. Sprenger,, and D. Gemsa. 1990. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha production of influenza A virus-infected macrophages and potentiating effect of lipopolysaccharides. J. Immunol. 145: 1921 1928.
128. Nakai, T.,, K. Kume,, H. Yoshikawa,, T. Oyamada,, and T. Yoshikawa. 1988. Adherence of Pasteurella multocida or Bordetella bronchiseptica to the swine nasal epithelial cell in vitro. Infect. Immun. 56: 234 240.
129. Newberry, L. A.,, J. K. Skeeles,, D. L. Kreider,, J. N. Beasley,, J. D. Story,, R. W. Mc- New,, and B. R. Berridge. 1993. Use of virulent hemorrhagic enteritis virus for the induction of colibacillosis in turkeys. Avian Dis. 37: 1 5.
130. Nichol, K. P.,, and J. D. Cherry. 1967. Bacterial- viral interrelations in respiratory infections of children. N. Engl. J. Med. 277: 667 672.
131. Offenbacher, S. 1996. Periodontal diseases: pathogenesis. Ann. Periodontol. 1: 821 878.
132. O’Sullivan, J. M.,, H. F. Jenkinson,, and R. D. Cannon. 2000. Adhesion of Candida albicans to oral streptococci is promoted by selective adsorption of salivary proteins to the streptococcal cell surface. Microbiology 146: 41 48.
133. Palme, R.,, C. Robia,, W. Baumgartner,, and E. Mostl. 2000. Transport stress in cattle as reflected by an increase in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations. Vet. Rec. 146: 108 109.
134. Paster, B. J.,, S. K. Boches,, J. L. Galvin,, R. E. Ericson,, C. N. Lau,, V. A. Levanos,, A. Sahasrabudhe,, and F. E. Dewhirst. 2001. Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque. J. Bacteriol. 183: 3770 3783.
135. Pierson, F. W.,, C. T. Larsen,, and C. H. Domermuth. 1996. The production of colibacillosis in turkeys following sequential exposure to Newcastle disease virus or Bordetella avium, avirulent hemorrhagic enteritis virus, and Escherichia coli. Avian Dis. 40: 837 840.
136. Post, K. W.,, N. A. Cole,, and R. H. Raleigh. 1991. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida recovered from cattle with bovine respiratory disease complex. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 3: 124 126.
137. Potgieter, L. N. 1997. Bovine respiratory tract disease caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 13: 471 481.
138. Potgieter, L. N. 1995. Immunology of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 11: 501 520.
139. Qureshi, M. A.,, M. Yu,, and Y. M. Saif. 2000. A novel “small round virus” inducing poult enteritis and mortality syndrome and associated immune alterations. Avian Dis. 44: 275 283.
140. Rautenschlein, S.,, and J. M. Sharma. 2000. Immunopathogenesis of haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) in turkeys. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 24: 237 246.
141. Rautenschlein, S.,, M. Suresh,, and J. M. Sharma. 2000. Pathogenic avian adenovirus type II induces apoptosis in turkey spleen cells. Arch. Virol. 145: 1671 1683.
142. Raza, M. W.,, C. C. Blackwell,, M. M. Ogilvie,, A. T. Saadi,, J. Stewart,, R. A. Elton,, and D. M. Weir. 1994. Evidence for the role of glycoprotein G of respiratory syncytial virus in binding of Neisseria meningitidis to HEp-2 cells. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 10: 25 30.
143. Raza, M. W.,, O. R. El Ahmer,, M. M. Ogilvie,, C. C. Blackwell,, A. T. Saadi,, R. A. Elton,, and D. M. Weir. 1999. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus enhances expression of native receptors for non-pilate Neisseria meningitidis on HEp-2 cells. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 23: 115 124.
144. Register, K. B.,, R. M. Lee,, and C. Thomson. 1998. Two-color hybridization assay for simultaneous detection of Bordetella bronchiseptica and toxigenic Pasteurella multocida from swine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3342 3346.
145. Rimler, R. B.,, and R. A. Kunkle. 1998. Bacterin-induced protection of turkeys against fowl cholera following infection with Bordetella avium. Avian Dis. 42: 752 756.
146.. Rosenberger, J. K.,, and S. S. Cloud. 1998. Chicken anemia virus. Poult. Sci. 77: 1190 1192.
147. Rowland, R. W. 1999. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. Ann. Periodontol. 4: 65 73.
148. Rozdzinski, E.,, W. N. Burnette,, T. Jones,, V. Mar,, and E. Tuomanen. 1993. Prokaryotic peptides that block leukocyte adherence to selectins. J. Exp. Med. 178: 917 924.
149. Saif, Y. M. 1998. Infectious bursal disease and hemorrhagic enteritis. Poult. Sci. 77: 1186 1189.
150. Sanford, B. A.,, A. Shelokov,, and M. A. Ramsay. 1978. Bacterial adherence to virus-infected cells: a cell culture model of bacterial superinfection. J. Infect. Dis. 137: 176 181.
151. Sawyer, M. M. 1992. Border disease of sheep: the disease in the newborn, adolescent and adult. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15: 171 177.
152. Schutten, M.,, M. E. van der Ende,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2000. Antiretroviral therapy in patients with dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. N. Engl. J. Med. 342: 1758 1760.
153. Schwarzmann, S. W.,, J. L. Adler,, R. J. Sullivan, Jr.,, and W. M. Marine. 1971. Bacterial pneumonia during the Hong Kong influenza epidemic of 1968-1969. Arch. Intern. Med. 127: 1037 1041.
154. Servilio, J. 1995. HIV/TB dual infection cause for concern. Positively Aware 6: 8.
155. Shafiq, M.,, P. E. Schoch,, B. A. Cunha,, and M. D. Iliescu. 2000. Nocardia asteroides and Cryptococcus neoformans lung abscess. Am. J. Med. 109: 70 71.
156. Shah, H. N.,, S. E. Gharbia,, D. M. Andrews,, J. C. Williams,, N. Mehta,, and K. Gulabivala. 1996. Oral pathogens as contributors to systemic infections. Trends Microbiol. 4: 372 374.
157. Sharma, J. M.,, K. Karaca,, and T. Pertile. 1994. Virus-induced immunosuppression in chickens. Poult. Sci. 73: 1082 1086.
158. Sharma, J. M.,, I. J. Kim,, S. Rautenschlein,, and H. Y. Yeh. 2000. Infectious bursal disease virus of chickens: pathogenesis and immunosuppression. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 24: 223 235.
159. Slots, J.,, and A. Contreras. 2000. Herpesviruses: a unifying causative factor in periodontitis? Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 15: 277 280.
160. Smith, G. R.,, S. A. Barton,, and L. M. Wallace. 1991. Further observations on enhancement of the infectivity of Fusobacterium necrophorum by other bacteria. Epidemiol. Infect. 106: 305 310.
161. Smith, H. 1982. The role of microbial interactions in infectious disease. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 297: 551 561.
162. Solano, G. I.,, E. Bautista,, T. W. Molitor,, J. Segales,, and C. Pijoan. 1998. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection on the clearance of Haemophilus parasuis by porcine alveolar macrophages. Can. J. Vet. Res. 62: 251 256.
163. Solano, G. I.,, J. Segales,, J. E. Collins,, T. W. Molitor,, and C. Pijoan. 1997. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) interaction with Haemophilus parasuis. Vet. Microbiol. 55: 247 257.
164. Storz, J.,, C. W. Purdy,, X. Lin,, M. Burrell,, R. E. Truax,, R. E. Briggs,, G. H. Frank,, and R. W. Loan. 2000. Isolation of respiratory bovine coronavirus, other cytocidal viruses, and Pasteurella spp from cattle involved in two natural outbreaks of shipping fever. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 216: 1599 1604.
165. Storz, J.,, L. Stine,, A. Liem,, and G. A. Anderson. 1996. Coronavirus isolation from nasal swap samples in cattle with signs of respiratory tract disease after shipping. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 208: 1452 1455.
166. Strangert, K. 1970. Clinical course and prognosis of whooping-cough in Swedish children during the first six months of life. A study of hospitalized patients 1958-67. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 2: 45 48.
167. Swanson, J. C. 1995. Farm animal well-being and intensive productive systems. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 2744 2751.
168. Thacker, E. L.,, P. G. Halbur,, R. F. Ross,, R. Thanawongnuwech,, and B. J. Thacker. 1999. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae potentiation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced pneumonia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 620 627.
169. Torres, J.,, M. Gracenea,, M. S. Gomez,, A. Arrizabalaga,, and O. Gonzalez-Moreno. 2000. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. muris in wild rodents and insectivores in Spain. Vet. Parasitol. 92: 253 260.
170. Tristram, D. A.,, W. Hicks, Jr.,, and R. Hard. 1998. Respiratory syncytial virus and human bronchial epithelium. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124: 777 783.
171. Tuomanen, E. 1986. Piracy of adhesins: attachment of superinfecting pathogens to respiratory cilia by secreted adhesins of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 54: 905 908.
172. Vallinoto, A. C.,, V. N. Azevedo,, D. E. Santos,, S. Caniceiro,, F. C. Mesquita,, W. W. Hall,, M. O. Ishak,, and R. Ishak. 1998. Serological evidence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II coinfections in HIV-1 positive patients in Belem, state of Para, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 93: 407 409.
173. van de Kar, N. C.,, L. A. Monnens,, M. A. Karmali,, and V. W. van Hinsbergh. 1992. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 induce expression of the verocytotoxin receptor globotriaosylceramide on human endothelial cells: implications for the pathogenesis of the hemolytic uremic syndrome. Blood 80: 2755 2764.
174. Van Reeth, K.,, H. Nauwynck,, and M. Pensaert. 2000. A potential role for tumour necrosis factor-alpha in synergy between porcine respiratory coronavirus and bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the induction of respiratory disease in pigs. J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 613 620.
175. Vargas, K.,, S. A. Messer,, M. Pfaller,, S. R. Lockhart,, J. T. Stapleton,, J. Hellstein,, and D. R. Soll. 2000. Elevated phenotypic switching and drug resistance of Candida albicans from human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals prior to first thrush episode. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3595 3607.
176. Veenhuizen, M. F. 1998. Three bacterial pathogens in the porcine respiratory disease complex. Compendium 20: S11 S21.
177. Walker, R. L.,, D. H. Read,, K. J. Loretz,, and R. W. Nordhausen. 1995. Spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis. Vet. Microbiol. 47: 343 355.
178. Walsh, J.,, L. Dietlein,, F. Low,, G. Burch,, and W. Mogabgab. 1960. Bronchotracheal response in human influenza. Arch. Intern. Med. 108: 376 388.
179. Warr, G. A.,, and G. J. Jakab. 1983. Pulmonary inflammatory responses during viral pneumonia and secondary bacterial infection. Inflammation 7: 93 104.
180. Wensvoort, G.,, C. Terpstra,, J. M. Pol,, E. A. ter Laak,, M. Bloemraad,, E. P. de Kluyver,, C. Kragten,, L. van Buiten,, A. den Besten,, F. Wagenaar,, J. M. Broekhuijsen,, P. L. J. M. Moonen,. T. Zetstra,, E. A. de Boer,, H. J. Tibben,, M. F. de Jong,, P. van ’t Veld,, G. J. R. Groenland,, J. A. van Gennep,, M. T. Voets,, J. H. M. Verheijden,, and J. Braamskamp. 1991. Mystery swine disease in The Netherlands: the isolation of Lelystad virus. Vet. Q. 13: 121 130.
181. Westfall, D. S.,, W. A. Jensen,, W. J. Reagan,, S. V. Radecki,, and M. R. Lappin. 2001. Inoculation of two genotypes of Hemobartonella felis (California and Ohio variants) to induce infection in cats and the response to treatment with azithromycin. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62: 687 691.
182. Whiteley, L. O.,, S. K. Maheswaran,, D. J. Weiss,, T. R. Ames,, and M. S. Kannan. 1992. Pasteurella haemolytica A1 and bovine respiratory disease: pathogenesis. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 6: 11 22.
183. Wilson, M. 1999. Use of constant depth film fermentor in studies of biofilms of oral bacteria. Methods Enzymol. 310: 264 279.
184. Woods, C. W.,, C. McRill,, B. D. Plikaytis,, N. E. Rosenstein,, D. Mosley,, D. Boyd,, B. England,, B. A. Perkins,, N. M. Ampel,, and R. A. Hajjeh. 2000. Coccidioidomycosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons in Arizona, 1994-1997: incidence, risk factors, and prevention. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 1428 1434.
185. Woods, R. D.,, R. A. Kunkle,, J. F. Ridpath,, and S. R. Bolin. 1999. Bovine viral diarrhea virus isolated from fetal calf serum enhances pathogenicity of attenuated transmissible gastroenteritis virus in neonatal pigs. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 11: 400 407.
186. Wray, C.,, and P. L. Roeder. 1987. Effect of bovine virus diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus infection on salmonella infection in calves. Res. Vet. Sci. 42: 213 218.
187. Wu, L.,, W. A. Paxton,, N. Kassam,, N. Ruffing,, J. B. Rottman,, N. Sullivan,, H. Choe,, J. Sodroski,, W. Newman,, R. A. Koup,, and C. R. Mackay. 1997. CCR5 levels and expression pattern correlate with infectability by macrophage-tropic HIV-1, in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 185: 1681 1691.
188. Yu, M.,, M. M. Ismail,, M. A. Qureshi,, R. N. Dearth,, H. J. Barnes,, and Y. M. Saif. 2000. Viral agents associated with poult enteritis and mortality syndrome: the role of a small round virus and a turkey coronavirus. Avian Dis. 44: 297 304.
189. Zarski, J. P.,, B. Bohn,, A. Bastie,, J. M. Pawlotsky,, M. Baud,, F. Bost-Bezeaux,, J. Tran van Nhieu,, J. M. Seigneurin,, C. Buffet,, and D. Dhumeaux. 1998. Characteristics of patients with dual infection by hepatitis B and C viruses. J. Hepatol. 28: 27 33.


Generic image for table

Reports of polymicrobial infection and disease

Citation: Brogden K. 2002. Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Humans, p 3-20. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch1
Generic image for table

Reported examples of polymicrobial diseases

Citation: Brogden K. 2002. Polymicrobial Diseases of Animals and Humans, p 3-20. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error