1887

Chapter 10 : Atrophic Rhinitis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Atrophic Rhinitis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817947/9781555812447_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817947/9781555812447_Chap10-2.gif

Abstract:

Atrophic rhinitis is a contagious respiratory disease of pigs that is highly prevalent throughout the world where modern pig husbandry is practiced. Several agents were suspected to be etiological agents in the early studies. These included bacteria (, or ), a virus (cytomegalovirus), and trichomonads. However, only certain defined strains of and proved to be able to constantly reproduce marked turbinate atrophy, the most characteristic lesion of atrophic rhinitis. A productive infection needs predisposing factors among which preinfection is the most commonly recognized one. This interaction between the two pathogens classifies atrophic rhinitis as a member of the family of polymicrobial infections, and the disease are reviewed with special attention to this aspect. The dominant pathological lesion of atrophic rhinitis is an atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones as assessed by transverse section of the nasal cavity at the level of the first/second upper premolar teeth where the dorsal and ventral conchae are maximally developed in the normal pig. Atrophic rhinitis is thought to reduce growth rates, which makes it an economically important disease for pig producers. Vaccination is widely used to try to reduce the prevalence of atrophic rhinitis in herds affected by the disease. The specific synergistic interactions between and support the notion that it is a genuine polymicrobial disease, which in addition may serve as a useful model system for more complex mixed infections.

Citation: Magyar T, Lax A. 2002. Atrophic Rhinitis, p 169-198. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch10

Key Concept Ranking

Bacterial Proteins
0.4847932
0.4847932
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Cross-sections of snouts of 6-week-old pigs. (a) Uninfected pig showing normal anatomy of nasal structures. (b) Pig after infection with and toxigenic . The left dorsal turbinate is absent, and only a band of connective tissue remains from the left ventral turbinate. The right dorsal turbinate is slightly shrunken, and both scrolls of the right ventral turbinate show moderate atrophy. (c) Pig after infection with and toxigenic . There is complete absence of all turbinate structures accompanied with slight lateral deviation of the nasal septum.

Citation: Magyar T, Lax A. 2002. Atrophic Rhinitis, p 169-198. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Diagram of some of the signal transduction pathways affected by the dermonecrotic (DNT) and adenylate cyclase (Ad cyclase) toxins from and by the toxin (PMT). Targets modified by the toxins are shown by open arrows. Direct interaction between molecules is shown by solid arrows, and interactions where the intervening components are either not shown or not known are indicated by dotted arrows. Abbreviations: GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor; G and G , the alpha subunits of the respective heterotrimeric G proteins; PKA, protein kinase A; cAMP, cyclic AMP; MEK, MAP kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

Citation: Magyar T, Lax A. 2002. Atrophic Rhinitis, p 169-198. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Diagram of some of the potential virulence determinants regulated by the genes in species. Abbreviations: virulence gene; ()- repressed gene; FHA, filamentous hemagglutinin. Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1143 Budapest, Hungary. Oral Microbiology, Guy's King's and St. Thomas' Dental Institute, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom.

Citation: Magyar T, Lax A. 2002. Atrophic Rhinitis, p 169-198. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817947.chap10
1. Ackermann, M. R.,, D. A. Adams,, L. L. Gerken,, M. J. Beckman,, and R. B. Rimler. 1993. Purified Pasteurella multocida protein toxin reduces acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts in the ventral nasal concha of gnotobiotic pigs. Calcif. Tissue Int. 52: 455 459.
2. Ackermann, M. R.,, R. B. Rimler,, and J. R. Thurston. 1991. Experimental model of atrophic rhinitis in gnotobiotic pigs. Infect. Immun. 59: 3626 3629.
3. Akerley, B. J.,, D. M. Monack,, S. Falkow,, and J. F. Miller. 1992. The bvgAS locus negatively controls motility and synthesis of flagella in Bordetella bronchiseptica. J. Bacteriol. 174: 980 990.
4. Alexander, T. J. L.,, K. Thornton,, G. Boon,, R. J. Lysons,, and A. F. Gush. 1980. Medicated early weaning to obtain pigs free from pathogens endemic in the herd of origin. Vet. Rec. 106: 114 119.
5. Andreasen, M.,, P. Baekbo,, and J. P. Nielsen. 2000. Lack of effect of aerial ammonia on atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and toxigenic Pasteurella multocida. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B 47: 161 171.
6. Bäckström, L.,, D. C. Hoefling,, A. C. Morkoc,, and R. P. Cowart. 1985. Effect of atrophic rhinitis on growth rate in Illinois swine herds. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 187: 712 715.
7. Banemann, A.,, and R. Gross. 1997. Phase variation affects long-term survival of Bordetella bronchiseptica in professional phagocytes. Infect. Immun. 65: 3469 3473.
8. Beachey, E. H. 1981. Bacterial adherence: adhesin- receptor interactions mediating the attachment of bacteria to mucosal surfaces. J. Infect. Dis. 143: 325 345.
9. Betsou, F.,, O. Sismeiro,, A. Danchin,, and N. Guiso. 1995. Cloning and sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclasehemolysin- encoding gene. Gene 162: 165 166.
10. Bjorge, J. D.,, A. Jakymiw,, and D. J. Fujita. 2000. Selected glimpses into the activation and function of Src kinase. Oncogene 19: 5620 5635.
11. Bock, A.,, and R. Gross. 2001. The BvgAS two-component system of Bordetella spp.: a versatile modulator of virulence gene expression. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 291: 119 130.
12. Bordet, J.,, and O. Gengou. 1909. Le microbe de la coqueluche. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 20: 731 741.
13. Boschwitz, J. S.,, H. G. J. van der Heide,, F. R. Mooi,, and D. A. Relman. 1997. Bordetella bronchiseptica expresses the fimbrial structural subunit gene fimA. J. Bacteriol. 179: 7882 7885.
14. Boursaux-Eude, C.,, and N. Guiso. 2000. Polymorphism of repeated regions of pertactin in Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect. Immun. 68: 4815 4817.
15. Braend, M.,, and J. L. Flatla. 1954. Rhinitis infectiosa atroficans hos gris. Nord. Vetmed. 6: 81 122.
16. Brassine, M.,, A. Dewaele,, and M. Gouffaux. 1976. Intranasal infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica in gnotobiotic piglets. Res. Vet. Sci. 20: 162 166.
17. Brennan, M. J.,, Z. M. Li,, J. L. Cowell,, M. E. Bisher,, A. C. Steven,, P. Novotny,, and C. R. Manclark. 1988. Identification of a 69-kilodalton nonfimbrial protein as an agglutinogen of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 56: 3189 3195.
18. Brockmeier, S. L. 1999. Early colonization of the rat upper respiratory tract by temperature modulated Bordetella bronchiseptica. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 174: 225 229.
19. Brockmeier, S. L.,, and K. B. Register. 2000. Effect of temperature modulation and bvg mutation of Bordetella bronchiseptica on adhesion, intracellular survival and cytotoxicity for swine alveolar macrophages. Vet. Microbiol. 73: 1 12.
20. Brown, W. R.,, L. Krook,, and W. G. Pond. 1966. Atrophic rhinitis in swine. Etiology, pathogenesis and prophylaxis. Cornell Vet. 56(Suppl. 1): 1 108.
21. Burns, E. H., Jr.,, J. M. Norman,, M. D. Hatcher,, and D. A. Bemis. 1993. Fimbriae and determination of host species specificity of Bordetella bronchiseptica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1838 1844.
22. Busch, C.,, J. Orth,, N. Djouder,, and K. Aktories. 2001. Biological activity of a C-terminal fragment of Pasteurella multocida toxin. Infect. Immun. 69: 3628 3634.
23. Cantrell, D. A. 2001. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling pathways. J. Cell Sci. 114: 1439 1445.
24. Chanter, N.,, and J. M. Rutter. 1990. Colonisation by Pasteurella multocida in atrophic rhinitis of pigs and immunity to the osteolytic toxin. Vet. Microbiol. 25: 253 265.
25. Chanter, N.,, J. M. Rutter,, and A. MacKenzie. 1986. Partial purification of an osteolytic toxin from Pasteurella multocida. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132: 1089 1097.
26. Chanter, N.,, T. Magyar,, and J. M. Rutter. 1989. Interactions between Bordetella bronchiseptica and toxigenic Pasteurella multocida in atrophic rhinitis of pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 47: 48 53.
27. Charles, I. G.,, G. Dougan,, D. Pickard,, S. Chatfield,, M. Smith,, P. Novotny,, P. Morrissey,, and N. F. Fairweather. 1989. Molecular cloning and characterization of protective outer membrane protein P.69 from Bordetella pertussis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 3554 3558.
28. Cheville, N. F.,, R. B. Rimler,, and J. Thurston. 1988. A toxin from Pasteurella multocida type D causes acute hepatic necrosis in pigs. Vet. Pathol. 25: 518 520.
29. Chung, W. B.,, M. T. Collins,, and L. R. Bäckström. 1990. Adherence of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida to swine nasal ciliated epithelial cells in vitro. APMIS 98: 453 461.
30. Collings, L. A.,, and J. M. Rutter. 1985. Virulence of Bordetella bronchiseptica in the porcine respiratory tract. J. Med. Microbiol. 19: 247.
31. Confer, D. L.,, and J. W. Eaton. 1982. Phagocyte impotence caused by an invasive bacterial adenylate cyclase. Science 217: 948 950.
32. Cookson, B. T.,, and W. E. Goldman. 1987. Tracheal cytotoxin: a conserved virulence determinant of all Bordetella species. J. Cell. Biochem. 11B( Suppl.): 124.
33. Cookson, B. T.,, H.-L. Cho,, L. A. Herwaldt,, and W. E. Goldman. 1989. Biological activities and chemical composition of purified tracheal cytotoxin of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 57: 2223 2229.
34. Cornelis, G. R.,, and F. Van Gijsegem. 2000. Assembly and function of type III secretory systems. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54: 735 774.
35. Cotter, P. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1994. BvgAS-mediated signal transduction: analysis of phaselocked regulatory mutants of Bordetella bronchiseptica in a rabbit model. Infect. Immun. 62: 3381 3390.
36. Cotter, P. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 2000. Genetic analysis of the Bordetella infectious cycle. Immunopharmacology 48: 253 255.
37. Cotter, P. A.,, M. H. Yuk,, S. Mattoo,, B. J. Akerley,, J. S. Boschwitz,, D. A. Relman,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for efficient establishment of tracheal colonization. Infect. Immun. 66: 5921 5929.
38. Cowell, J. L.,, E. L. Hewlett,, and D. R. Manclark. 1979. Intracellular localization of the dermonecrotic toxin of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 25: 896 901.
39. Cross, R. F.,, and R. M. Claflin. 1962. Bordetella bronchiseptica induced porcine atrophic rhinitis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 141: 1467 1468.
40. Cundell, D. R.,, K. Kanthakumar,, G. W. Taylor,, W. E. Goldman,, T. Flak,, P. J. Cole,, and R. Wilson. 1994. Effect of tracheal cytotoxin from Bordetella pertussis on human neutrophil function in vitro. Infect. Immun. 62: 639 643.
41. de Jong, M. F., 1983. Atrophic rhinitis caused by intranasal or intramuscular administration of broth-culture and broth-culture filtrates containing AR toxin of Pasteurella multocida, p. 136 146. In K. B. Pedersen, and J. C. Nielsen (ed.), Atrophic Rhinitis in Pigs. Report EUR 8643 EN. Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
42. de Jong, M. F., 1999. Progressive and nonprogressive atrophic rhinitis, p. 355 384. In B. E. Straw,, S. D’Allaire,, W. L. Mengeling,, and D. J. Taylor (ed.), Diseases of Swine, 8th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames..
43. de Jong, M. F.,, and J. P. Nielsen. 1990. Definition of progressive atrophic rhinitis. Vet. Rec. 27: 93.
44. Dominick, M. A.,, and R. B. Rimler. 1986. Turbinate atrophy in gnotobiotic pigs intranasally inoculated with protein toxin isolated from type D Pasteurella multocida. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 1532 1536.
45. Dugal, F.,, M. Belanger,, and M. Jacques. 1992. Enhanced adherence of Pasteurella multocida to porcine tracheal rings preinfected with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Can. J. Vet. Res. 56: 260 264.
46. Duncan, J. R.,, R. K. Ross,, W. P. Switzer,, and R. K. Ramsey. 1966. Pathology of experimental Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in swine: atrophic rhinitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 27: 457 466.
47. Éliás, B.,, and D. Hámori. 1975. Adatok a sertés torzító orrgyulladásának kóroktanához. V. A genetikai tényezók szerepe. Magy. Állatorv. Lapja 30: 535 539.
48. Endoh, M.,, T. Takezawa,, and Y. Nakase. 1980. Adenylate cyclase activity of Bordetella organisms. Microbiol. Immunol. 24: 95 104.
49. Essler, M.,, K. Hermann,, M. Amano,, K. Kaibuchi,, J. Heesemann,, P. C. Weber,, and M. Aelfelbacher. 1998. Pasteurella multocida toxin increases endothelial permeability via Rho kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase. J. Immunol. 161: 5640 5646.
50. Felix, R.,, H. Fleisch,, and P. L. Frandsen. 1992. Effect of Pasteurella multocida toxin on bone resorption in vitro. Infect. Immun. 60: 4984 4988.
51. Foged, N. T.,, J. P. Nielsen,, and S. E. Jorsal. 1989. Protection against progressive atrophic rhinitis by vaccination with Pasteurella multocida toxin purified by monoclonal antibodies. Vet. Rec. 125: 7 11.
52. Forde, C. B.,, R. Parton,, and J. G. Coote. 1998. Bioluminescence as a reporter of intracellular survival of Bordetella bronchiseptica in murine phagocytes. Infect. Immun. 66: 3198 3207.
53. Forde, C. B.,, X. Shi,, J. Li,, and M. Roberts. 1999. Bordetella bronchiseptica-mediated cytotoxicity to macrophages is dependent on bvg-regulated factors, including pertactin. Infect. Immun. 67: 5972 5978.
54. Franque, L. W. 1830. Was ist die Schnüffelkrankheit der Schweine? Dtsch. Z. Gesamte Tierheilkd. 1: 75 77.
55. Frymus, T.,, M. M. Wittenbrink,, and K. Petzold. 1986. Failure to demonstrate adherence of Pasteurella multocida involved in atrophic rhinitis to swine nasal epithelial cells. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B 33: 140 144.
56. Fuller, T. E.,, M. J. Kennedy,, and D. E. Lowery. 2000. Identification of Pasteurella multocida virulence genes in a septicemic mouse model using signature-tagged mutagenesis. Microb. Pathog. 29: 25 38.
57. Gagné, S.,, and B. Martineau-Doizé. 1993. Nasal epithelial changes induced in piglets by acetic acid and by B. bronchiseptica. J. Comp. Pathol. 109: 71 81.
58. Giardina, P. C.,, L. A. Foster,, J. M. Musser,, B. J. Akerley,, J. F. Miller,, and D. W. Dyer. 1995. bvg repression of alcaligin synthesis in Bordetella bronchiseptica is associated with phylogenetic lineage. J. Bacteriol. 177: 6058 6063.
59. Giles, C. J. 1981. Atrophic Rhinitis of Pigs: Studies on the Naturally-Occurring and Experimental Disease in England, with Particular Reference to Bordetella bronchiseptica Infection. Ph.D. thesis. University of London, London, United Kingdom.
60. Giles, C. J.,, and I. M. Smith. 1983. Vaccination of pigs with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet. Bull. 53: 327 338.
61. Giles, C. J.,, I. M. Smith,, A. J. Baskerville,, and E. Brothwell. 1980. Clinical, bacteriological and epidemiological observation on infectious atrophic rhinitis of pigs in Southern England. Vet. Rec. 106: 25 28.
62. Glaser, P.,, D. Ladant,, O. Sezer,, F. Pichot,, A. Ullmann,, and A. Danchin. 1988a. The calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis: cloning and expression in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 2: 19 30.
63. Glaser, P.,, H. Sakamoto,, J. Bellalou,, A. Ullmann,, and A. Danchin. 1988b. Secretion of cyclolysin, the calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase-haemolysin bifunctional protein of Bordetella pertussis. EMBO J. 7: 3997 4004.
64. Goldman, W. E.,, and B. T. Cookson. 1988. Structure and functions of the Bordetella tracheal cytotoxin. Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med. 13(Suppl.): 187 191.
65. Goldman, W. E.,, D. G. Klapper,, and J. B. Baseman. 1982. Detection, isolation, and analysis of a released Bordetella pertussis product toxic to cultured tracheal cells. Infect. Immun. 36: 782 794.
66. Goodnow, R. A. 1980. Biology of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Microbiol. Rev. 44: 722 738.
67. Goodwin, M. S. M.,, and A. A. Weiss. 1990. Adenylate cyclase is critical for colonization and pertussis toxin is critical for lethal infection by Bordetella pertussis in infant mice. Infect. Immun. 58: 3445 3447.
68. Gueirard, P.,, A. Druilhe,, M. Pretolani,, and N. Guiso. 1998. Role of adenylate cyclasehemolysin in alveolar macrophage apoptosis during Bordetella pertussis infection in vivo. Infect. Immun. 66: 1718 1725.
69. Guiso, N.,, M. Szatanik,, and M. Rocancourt. 1989. Protective activity of Bordetella adenylate cyclase-hemolysin against bacterial colonization. Microb. Pathog. 11: 423 431.
70. Gwaltney, S. M.,, R. J. S. Galvin,, K. B. Register,, R. B. Rimler,, and M. R. Ackermann. 1997. Effects of Pasteurella multocida toxin on porcine bone marrow cell differentiation into osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Vet. Pathol. 34: 421 430.
71. Gwatkin, R.,, L. Ozenis,, and J. L. Byrne. 1953. Rhinitis of swine. VII. Production of lesions in pigs and rabbits with a pure culture of Pasteurella multocida. Can. J. Comp. Med. Vet. Sci. 17: 215 217.
72. Hackett, M.,, L. Guo,, J. Shabanowitz,, D. F. Hunt,, and E. L. Hewett. 1994. Internal lysine palmitoylation in adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis. Science 266: 433 435.
73. Hamilton, T. D. C.,, J. M. Roe,, and A. J. F. Webster. 1996. Synergistic role of gaseous ammonia in etiology of Pasteurella multocida-induced atrophic rhinitis in swine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2185 2190.
74. Hamilton, T. D. C.,, J. M. Roe,, C. M. Hayes,, and A. J. F. Webster. 1998. Effects of ammonia inhalation and acetic acid pretreatment on colonization kinetics of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida within upper respiratory tracts of swine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1260 1265.
75. Hamilton, T. D. C.,, J. M. Roe,, C. M. Hayes,, P. Jones,, G. R. Pearson,, and A. J. F. Webster. 1999. Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 6: 199 203.
76. Hanada, M.,, K. Shimoda,, S. Tomita,, Y. Nakase,, and Y. Nishiyama. 1979. Production of lesions similar to naturally occurring swine atrophic rhinitis by cell-free sonicated extract of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 41: 1 8.
77. Hannan, P. C.,, P. J. O’Hanlon,, and N. H. Rogers. 1989. In vitro evaluation of various quinolone antibacterial agents against veterinary mycoplasmas and porcine respiratory bacterial pathogens. Res. Vet. Sci. 46: 202 211.
78. Hanski, E.,, and Z. Farfel. 1985. Bordetella pertussis invasive adenylate cyclase. J. Biol. Chem. 260: 5526 5532.
79. Harris, D. L.,, and W. P. Switzer. 1968. Turbinate atrophy in young pigs exposed to Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida and combined inoculum. Am. J. Vet. Res. 29: 777 785.
80. Harvill, E. T.,, P. A. Cotter,, M. H. Yuk,, and J. F. Miller. 1999. Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. Infect. Immun. 67: 1493 1500.
81. Heiss, L. N.,, J. J. Lancaster,, J. A. Corbett,, and W. E. Goldman. 1994. Epithelial autotoxicity of nitric oxide: role in the respiratory cytopathology of pertussis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 267 270.
82. Heiss, L. N.,, S. A. Moser,, E. R. Unanue,, and W. E. Goldman. 1993. Interleukin-1 is linked to the respiratory epithelial cytopathology of pertussis. Infect. Immun. 61: 3123 3128.
83. Hewlett, E.,, and J. Wolff. 1976. Soluble adenylate cyclase from the culture medium of Bordetella pertussis: purification and characterization. J. Bacteriol. 127: 890 898.
84. Hewlett, E. L.,, C. R. Manclark,, and J. Wolff. 1977. Adenylate cyclase in Bordetella pertussis vaccines. J. Infect. Dis. 136: 5216 5219.
85. Hewlett, E. L.,, M. A. Urban,, C. R. Manclark,, and J. Wolff. 1976. Extracytoplasmic adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 1926 1930.
86. Higgins, T. E.,, A. C. Murphy,, J. M. Staddon,, A. J. Lax,, and E. Rozengurt. 1992. Pasteurella multocida toxin is a potent inducer of anchorage- independent cell growth. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 4240 4244.
87. Horiguchi, Y.,, H. Matsuda,, H. Koyama,, T. Nakai,, and K. Kume. 1992. Bordetella bronchiseptica dermonecrotizing toxin suppressed in vivo antibody responses in mice. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 90: 229 234.
88. Horiguchi, Y.,, N. Inoue,, M. Masuda,, T. Kashimoto,, J. Katahira,, N. Sugimoto,, and M. Matsuda. 1997. Bordetella bronchiseptica dermonecrotizing toxin induces reorganization of actin stress fibers through deamidation of Gln-63 of the GTP-binding protein Rho. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 11623 11626.
89. Horiguchi, Y.,, N. Sugimoto,, and M. Matsuda. 1993. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in osteoblast- like MC3T3-E1 cells by Bordetella bronchiseptica dermonecrotic toxin. Infect. Immun. 61: 3611 3615.
90. Horiguchi, Y.,, T. Nakai,, and K. Kume. 1991. Effects of Bordetella bronchiseptica dermonecrotic toxin on the structure and function of osteoblastic clone MC3T3-E1 cells. Infect. Immun. 59: 1112 1116.
91. Horiguchi, Y.,, T. Okada,, N. Sugimoto,, Y. Morikawa,, J. Katahira,, and M. Matsuda. 1995. Effects of Bordetella bronchiseptica dermonecrotizing toxin on bone formation in calvaria of neonatal rats. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 12: 29 32.
92. Horiguchi, Y.,, T. Senda,, N. Sugimoto,, J. Katahira,, and M. Matsuda. 1995. Bordetella bronchiseptica dermonecrotizing toxin stimulates assembly of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions by modifying the small GTP-binding protein rho. J. Cell. Sci. 108: 3243 3251.
93. Horváth, Z.,, L. Papp,, and B. Éliás. 1972. Studies of Ca and P metabolism in atrophic rhinitis of swine. II. Bone Ca and P contents of healthy and pigs affected with atrophic rhinitis. Acta Vet. Hung. 22: 45 51.
94. Hoskins, I. C.,, and A. J. Lax. 1996. Constitutive expression of Pasteurella multocida toxin. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 141: 189 193.
95. Hoskins, I. C.,, L. H. Thomas,, and A. J. Lax. 1997. Nasal infection with Pasteurella multocida causes proliferation of bladder epithelium in gnotobiotic pigs. Vet. Rec. 140: 22.
96. Il’ina, Z. M.,, and I. Zasukhin. 1975. Role of Pasteurella toxins in the pathogenesis of infectious atrophic rhinitis. Sb. Nauchn. Rab. Sib. Zon Nauch. Vet. Inst. Omsk 25: 76 86.
97. Ishikawa, H.,, and Y. Isayama. 1987. Evidence for sialyl glycoconjugates as receptors for B. bronchiseptica on swine nasal mucosa. Infect. Immun. 55: 1607 1609.
98. Iwaki, M.,, K. Kamachi,, N. Heveker,, and T. Konda. 1999. Suppression of platelet aggregation by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin. Infect. Immun. 67: 2763 2768.
99. Jacob-Dubuisson, F.,, C. Buisine,, N. Mielcarek,, E. Clement,, F. D. Menozzi,, and C. Locht. 1996. Amino-terminal maturation of the Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin. Mol. Microbiol. 19: 65 78.
100. Jacques, M.,, N. Parent,, and B. Foiry. 1988. Adherence of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida to porcine nasal epithelial cells. Can. J. Vet. Res. 52: 283 285.
101. Jutras, I.,, and B. Martineau-Doizé. 1996. Stimulation of osteoclast-like cell formation by Pasteurella multocida toxin from hemopoietic progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow cultures. Can. J. Vet. Res. 60: 34 39.
102. Kabay, M. J.,, A. R. Mercy,, J. M. Lloyd,, and G. M. Robertson. 1992. Vaccine efficacy for reducing turbinate atrophy and improving growth rate in piggeries with endemic atrophic rhinitis. Aust. Vet. J. 69: 101 103.
103. Kashimoto, T.,, J. Katahira,, W. R. Cornejo,, M. Masuda,, A. Fukuoh,, T. Matsuzawa,, T. Ohnishi,, and Y. Horiguchi. 1999. Identification of functional domains of Bordetella dermonecrotizing toxin. Infect. Immun. 67: 3727 3732.
104. Kemeny, L. J. 1972. Experimental atrophic rhinitis produced by Bordetella bronchiseptica culture in young pigs. Cornell Vet. 62: 477 485.
105. Khelef, N.,, A. Zychlinsky,, and N. Guiso. 1993. Bordetella pertussis induces apoptosis in macrophages: role of adenylate cyclasehemolysin. Infect. Immun. 61: 4064 4071.
106. Khelef, N.,, C.-M. Bachelet,, B. B. Vargaftig,, and N. Guiso. 1994. Characterization of murine lung inflammation after infection with parental Bordetella pertussis and mutants deficient in adhesins or toxins. Infect. Immun. 62: 2893 2900.
107. Khelef, N.,, H. Sakamoto,, and N. Guiso. 1992. Both adenylate cyclase and hemolytic activities are required by Bordetella pertussis to initiate infection. Microb. Pathog. 12: 227 235.
108. Kimman, T. G.,, C. W. G. M. Löwik,, L. J. A. van de Wee-Pals,, C. W. Thesingh,, P. Defize,, E. M. Kamp,, and O. L. M. Bijvoet. 1987. Stimulation of bone resorption by inflamed nasal mucosa, dermonecrotic toxin-containing conditioned medium from Pasteurella multocida, and purified dermonecrotic toxin from P. multocida. Infect. Immun. 55: 2110 2116.
109. Knapp, S.,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1988. Two trans-acting regulatory genes (vir and mod) control antigenic modulation in Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 170: 5059 5066.
110. Kobisch, M.,, and P. Novotny. 1990. Identification of a 68-kilodalton outer membrane protein as the major protective antigen of Bordetella bronchiseptica by using specific-pathogen-free piglets. Infect. Immun. 58: 352 357.
111. Lacerda, H. M.,, A. J. Lax,, and E. Rozengurt. 1996. Pasteurella multocida toxin, a potent intracellularly acting mitogen, induces p125FAK and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation, actin stress fiber formation, and focal contact assembly in Swiss 3T3 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 439 445.
112. Lacerda, H. M.,, G. D. Pullinger,, A. J. Lax,, and E. Rozengurt. 1997. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 from Escherichia coli and dermonecrotic toxin from Bordetella bronchiseptica induce p21rho-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin in Swiss 3T3 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 9587 9596.
113. Lacey, B. W. 1960. Antigenic modulation of Bordetella pertussis. J. Hyg. Camb. 58: 57 93.
114. Lax, A. J. 1985. Is phase variation in Bordetella caused by mutation and selection? J. Gen. Microbiol. 131: 913 917.
115. Lax, A. J.,, and A. E. Grigoriadis. 2001. Pasteurella multocida toxin: the mitogenic toxin that stimulates signalling cascades to regulate growth and differentiation. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 291: 261 268.
116. Lax, A. J.,, and N. Chanter. 1990. Cloning of the toxin gene from Pasteurella multocida and its role in atrophic rhinitis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136: 81 87.
117. Lax, A. J.,, N. Chanter,, G. D. Pullinger,, T. Higgins,, J. M. Staddon,, and E. Rozengurt. 1990. Sequence analysis of the potent mitogenic toxin of Pasteurella multocida. FEBS Lett. 277: 59 64.
118. Lee, S. W.,, A. Way,, and E. G. Osen. 1986. Purification and subunit heterogeneity of pili of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect. Immun. 51: 586 593.
119. Leininger, E.,, C. A. Ewanowich,, A. Bhargava,, M. S. Peppler,, J. G. Kenimer,, and M. J. Brennan. 1992. Comparative roles of the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence present in the Bordetella pertussis adhesins pertactin and filamentous hemagglutinin. Infect. Immun. 60: 2380 2385.
120. Leininger, E.,, M. Roberts,, J. G. Kenimer,, I. G. Charles,, N. Fairweather,, P. Novotny,, and M. J. Brennan. 1991. Pertactin, an arggly- asp containing Bordetella pertussis surface protein that promotes adherence of mammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 345 349.
121. Leininger, E.,, P. G. Probst,, M. J. Brennan,, and J. G. Kenimer. 1993. Inhibition of Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin-mediated cell adherence with monoclonal antibodies. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 80: 31 38.
122. Lemichez, E.,, G. Flatau,, M. Bruzzone,, P. Boquet,, and M. Gauthier. 1997. Molecular localization of the Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor CNF1 cell-binding and catalytic domains. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 1061 1070.
123. Lendvai, N.,, T. Magyar,, and G. Semjén. 1992. Cross-protection studies on Bordetella bronchiseptica in mice using an intracerebral challenge model. Vet. Microbiol. 31: 191 196.
124. Leppla, S. H. 1982. Anthrax toxin edema factor: a bacterial adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP concentrations in eukaryotic cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 3162 3166.
125. Lerm, M.,, J. Selzer,, A. Hoffmeyer,, U. R. Rapp,, K. Aktories,, and G. Schmidt. 1999. Deamidation of Cdc42 and Rac by Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1: activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase in HeLa cells. Infect. Immun. 67: 496 503.
126. Leslie, P. H.,, and A. D. Gardner. 1931. The phases of Haemophilus pertussis. J. Hyg. Camb. 31: 531 545.
127. Livey, I.,, and A. C. Wardlaw. 1984. Production and properties of Bordetella pertussis heat labile toxin. J. Med. Microbiol. 17: 91 103.
128. Locht, C.,, P. Bertin,, F. D. Menozzi,, and G. Renauld. 1993. The filamentous haemagglutinin, a multifaceted adhesion produced by virulent Bordetella spp. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 653 660.
129. Logomarsino, J. V.,, W. G. Pond,, B. E. Sheffy,, and L. Krook. 1974. Turbinate morphology in pigs inoculated with Bordetella bronchiseptica and fed high or low calcium diets. Cornell Vet. 64: 573 583.
130. Luker, K. E.,, A. N. Tyler,, G. R. Marshall,, and W. E. Goldman. 1995. Tracheal cytotoxin structural requirements for respiratory epithelial damage in pertussis. Mol. Microbiol. 16: 733 743.
131. Magyar, T. 1990. Virulence and lienotoxicity of Bordetella bronchiseptica in mice. Vet. Microbiol. 25: 199 207.
132. Magyar, T.,, N. Chanter,, A. J. Lax,, J. M. Rutter,, and G. A. Hall. 1988. The pathogenesis of turbinate atrophy in pigs caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet. Microbiol. 18: 135 146.
133. Magyar, T.,, N. Lendvai,, G. Semjén,, and L. Réthy. 1983. Investigation of the biological activities of Bordetella bronchiseptica. II. Adherence to the target cell. Ann. Immunol. Hung. 23: 361 366.
134. Magyar, T.,, R. Glávits,, G. D. Pullinger,, and A. J. Lax. 2000. The pathological effect of the bordetella dermonecrotic toxin in mice. Acta Vet. Hung. 48: 397 406.
135. Mao, J.,, H. Yuan,, W. Xie,, and D. Wu. 1998. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF115 specifically mediates activation of Rho and serum response factor by the G protein α subunit Gα13. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 12973 12976.
136. Martineau-Doizé, B.,, I. Caya,, S. Gagné,, I. Jutras,, and G. Dumas. 1993. Effects of Pasteurella multocida toxin on the osteoclast population of the rat. Comp. Pathol. 108: 81 91.
137. Masuda, M.,, L. Betancourt,, T. Matsuzawa,, T. Kashimoto,, T. Takao,, Y. Shimonishi,, and Y. Horiguchi. 2000. Activation of Rho through a cross-link with polyamines catalyzed by Bordetella dermonecrotizing toxin. EMBO J. 19: 521 530.
138. Mattoo, S.,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 2000. Role of Bordetella bronchiseptica fimbriae in tracheal colonization and development of a humoral immune response. Infect. Immun. 68: 2024 2033.
139. May, B. J.,, Q. Zhang,, L. L. Li,, M. L. Paustian,, T. S. Whittam,, and V. Kapur. 2001. Complete genomic sequence of Pasteurella multocida, Pm70. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 3460 3465.
140. McMillan, D. J.,, M. Shojaei,, G. S. Chhatwal,, C. A. Guzmán,, and M. J. Walker. 1996. Molecular analysis of the bvg-repressed urease of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Microb. Pathog. 21: 379 394.
141. Menozzi, F. D.,, R. Mutombo,, G. Renauld,, C. Gantiez,, J. H. Hannah,, E. Leininger,, M. J. Brennan,, and C. Locht. 1994. Heparin-inhabitable lectin activity of the filamentous hemagglutinin adhesin of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 62: 769 778.
142. Miniats, O. P.,, and J. A. Johnson. 1980. Experimental atrophic rhinitis in gnotobiotic pigs. Can. J. Comp. Med. 44: 358 365.
143. Monack, D. M.,, B. Aricò,, R. Rappuoli,, and S. Falkow. 1989. Phase variants of Bordetella bronchiseptica arise by spontaneous deletions in the vir locus. Mol. Microbiol. 3: 1719 1728.
144. Montaraz, J. A.,, P. Novotny,, and J. Ivanyi. 1985. Identification of a 68-kilodalton protective protein antigen from Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect. Immun. 47: 744 751.
145. Montecucco, C.,, E. Papini,, and G. Schiavo. 1994. Bacterial protein toxins penetrate cells via a four-step mechanism. FEBS Lett. 346: 92 98.
146. Montminy, M. 1997. Transcriptional regulation by cyclic AMP. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 66: 807 822.
147. Muirhead, M. R. 1979. Respiratory diseases of pigs. Br. Vet. J. 135: 497 508.
148. Mullan, P. B.,, and A. J. Lax. 1996. Pasteurella multocida toxin is a mitogen for bone cells in primary culture. Infect. Immun. 64: 959 965.
149. Mullan, P. B.,, and A. J. Lax. 1998. Pasteurella multocida toxin stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts via interaction with osteoblasts. Calcif. Tissue Int. 63: 340 345.
150. Muller, M.,, and A. Hildebrandt. 1993. Nucleotide sequence of the 285 RNA genes from Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica and B. avium, and their implications for phylogenic analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 21: 3320.
151. Murphy, A. C.,, and E. Rozengurt. 1992. Pasteurella multocida toxin selectively facilitates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis by bombesin, vasopressin, and endothelin. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 25296 25303.
152. Musser, J. M.,, D. A. Bemis,, H. Ishikawa,, and R. K. Selander. 1987. Clonal diversity and host distribution in Bordetella bronchiseptica. J. Bacteriol. 169: 2793 2803.
153. Nakai, T.,, A. Sawata,, and K. Kume. 1985. Intracellular locations of dermonectotic toxins in Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46: 870 874.
154. Nakai, T.,, K. Kume,, H. Yoshikawa,, T. Oyamada,, and T. Yoshikawa. 1988. Adherence of Pasteurella multocida or Bordetella bronchiseptica to the swine nasal epithelial cell in vitro. Infect. Immun. 56: 234 240.
155. Nakase, Y. 1957. Studies on Hemophilus bronchisepticus II: phase variation of H. bronchisepticus. Kitasato Arch. Exp. Med. 30: 73 78.
156. Nakase, Y. 1957. Studies on Hemophilus bronchisepticus III: differences of biological properties between phase I and phase III of H. bronchisepticus. Kitasato Arch. Exp. Med. 30: 79 84.
157. Njamkepo, E.,, F. Pinot,, D. François,, N. Guiso,, B. S. Polla,, and M. Bachelet. 2000. Adaptive responses of human monocytes infected by Bordetella pertussis: the role of adenylate cyclase hemolysin. J. Cell. Physiol. 183: 91 99.
158. Ofek, I.,, and E. H. Beachey,. 1980. Bacterial adherence, p. 3 29. In E. H. Beachey (ed.), Receptors and Recognition, series B6. Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom.
159. Parton, R.,, E. Hall,, and A. C. Wardlaw. 1994. Responses to Bordetella pertussis mutant strains and to vaccination in the coughing rat model of pertussis. J. Med. Microbiol. 40: 307 312.
160. Pedersen, K. B.,, and F. Elling. 1984. The pathogenesis of atrophic rhinitis in pigs induced by toxigenic Pasteurella multocida. J. Comp. Pathol. 94: 203 214.
161. Pedersen, K. B.,, and K. Barfod. 1981. The aetiological significance of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida in atrophic rhinitis of swine. Nord. Vetmed. 33: 513 522.
162. Pedersen, K. B.,, and K. Barfod. 1982. Effect on the incidence of atrophic rhinitis of vaccination of sows with vaccine Pasteurella multocida toxin. Nord. Vetmed. 34: 293 302.
163. Penny, R. H. C.,, and J. C. Penny. 1976. Priorities for pig research. Vet. Rec. 99: 451 453.
164. Petersen, S. K. 1990. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Pasteurella multocida toxin gene and evidence for a transcriptional repressor, TxaR. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 821 830.
165. Pettit, R. K.,, M. R. Ackermann,, and R. B. Rimler. 1993. Receptor-mediated binding of Pasteurella multocida dermonecrotic toxin to canine osteosarcoma and monkey kidney (vero) cells. Lab. Investig. 69: 94 100.
166. Pijpers, A.,, B. van Klingeren,, E. J. Schoevers,, J. H. M. Verheijden,, and A. S. J. P. A. M. Van Miert. 1989. In vitro activity of five tetracyclines and some other antimicrobial agents against four porcine respiratory tract pathogens. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 12: 267 276.
167. Porter, J. F.,, and A. C. Wardlaw. 1993. Long-term survival of Bordetella bronchiseptica in lakewater and in buffered saline without added nutrients. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 110: 33 36.
168. Porter, J. F.,, R. Parton,, and A. C. Wardlaw. 1991. Growth and survival of Bordetella bronchiseptica in natural waters and in buffered saline without added nutrients. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 1202 1206.
169. Pullinger, G. D.,, R. Sowdhamini,, and A. J. Lax. 2001. Localization of functional domains of the mitogenic toxin of Pasteurella multocida. Infect. Immun. 69: 7839 7850.
170. Pullinger, G. D.,, T. E. Adams,, P. B. Mullan,, T. I. Garrod,, and A. J. Lax. 1996. Cloning, expression, and molecular characterization of the dermonecrotic toxin gene of Bordetella spp. Infect. Immun. 64: 4163 4171.
171. Register, K. B. 2001. Novel genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in Bordetella bronchiseptica pertactin. Infect. Immun. 69: 1917 1921.
172. Register, K. B.,, and M. R. Ackermann. 1997. A highly adherent phenotype associated with virulent Bvg +-phase swine isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica grown under modulating conditions. Infect. Immun. 65: 5295 5300.
173. Renauld-Mongenie, G.,, J. Cornette,, N. Mielcarek,, F. D. Menozzi,, and C. Locht. 1996. Distinct roles of the N-terminal and C-terminal precursor domains in the biogenesis of the Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin. J. Bacteriol. 178: 1053 1060.
174. Ridley, A. J. 1996. Rho: theme and variations. Curr. Biol. 6: 1256 1264.
175. Ross, R. F.,, J. R. Duncan,, and W. P. Switzer. 1963. Turbinate atrophy in swine produced by pure cultures of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet. Med. 58: 566 570.
176. Ross, R. F.,, W. P. Switzer,, and J. P. Duncan. 1967. Comparison of pathogenicity of various isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica in young pigs. Can. J. Comp. Med. 31: 53 57.
177. Roy, C. R.,, J. F. Miller,, and S. Falkow. 1989. The bvgA gene of Bordetella pertussis encodes a transcriptional activator required for coordinate regulation of several virulence genes. J. Bacteriol. 171: 6338 6344.
178. Rozengurt, E.,, T. Higgins,, N. Chanter,, A. J. Lax,, and J. M. Staddon. 1990. Pasteurella multocida toxin: potent mitogen for cultured fibroblasts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 123 127.
179. Rutter, J. M. 1981. Quantitative observations on Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in atrophic rhinitis of pigs. Vet. Rec. 108: 451 454.
180. Rutter, J. M. 1983. Virulence of Pasteurella multocida in atrophic rhinitis of gnotobiotic pigs infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Res. Vet. Sci. 34: 287.
181. Rutter, J. M. 1985. Atrophic rhinitis in swine. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. 29: 239 279.
182. Rutter, J. M.,, and A. Mackenzie. 1984. Pathogenesis of atrophic rhinitis in pigs: a new perspective. Vet. Rec. 114: 89 90.
183. Rutter, J. M.,, and X. Rojas. 1982. Atrophic rhinitis in gnotobiotic piglets: differences in the pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida in combined infections with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet. Rec. 110: 531 535.
184. Rutter, J. M.,, L. M. Francis,, and B. F. Sansom. 1982. Virulence of Bordetella bronchiseptica from pigs with or without atrophic rhinitis. J. Med. Microbiol. 15: 105 116.
185. Sakurai, Y.,, H. Suzuki,, and E. Terada. 1993. Purification and characterisation of haemagglutinin from Bordetella bronchiseptica. J. Med. Microbiol. 39: 388 392.
186. Savelkoul, P. H.,, B. Kremer,, J. G. Kusters,, B. A. van der Zeijst,, and W. Gaastra. 1993. Invasion of HeLa cells by Bordetella bronchiseptica. Microb. Pathog. 14: 161 168.
187. Savelkoul, P. H. M.,, D. P. G. deKerf,, R. J. Willems,, F. R. Mooi,, B. A. M. van der Zeijst,, and W. Gaastra. 1996. Characterization of the fim2 and fim3 fimbrial subunit genes of Bordetella bronchiseptica: roles of Fim2 and Fim3 fimbriae and flagella in adhesion. Infect. Immun. 64: 5098 5105.
188. Scarlato, V.,, B. Arico,, A. Prugnola,, and R. Rappuoli. 1991. Sequential activation and environmental regulation of virulence genes in Bordetella pertussis. EMBO J. 10: 3971 3975.
189. Scarlato, V.,, B. Arico,, M. Domenighini,, and R. Rappuoli. 1993. Environmental regulation of virulence factors in Bordetella species. Bioessays 15: 99 104.
190. Schipper, H.,, G. F. Krohne,, and R. Gross. 1994. Epithelial cell invasion and survival of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect. Immun. 62: 3008 3011.
191. Schmidt, G.,, U.-M. Goehring,, J. Schirmer,, M. Lerm,, and K. Aktories. 1999. Identification of the C-terminal part of Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin as a transglutaminase for Rho GTPases. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 31875 31881.
192. Schneider, D. R.,, and C. D. Parker. 1983. Effect of pyridines on phenotypic properties of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 38: 548 553.
193. Seifert, H. 1971. Genetic aspects of atrophic rhinitis in the pig. Monatsh. Vetmed. 26: 770 772.
194. Semjén, G.,, and T. Magyar. 1985. A bovine haemagglutinin of Bordetella bronchiseptica responsible for adherence. Acta Vet. Hung. 33: 129 136.
195. Seo, B.,, E. W. Choy,, S. Maudsley,, W. E. Miller,, B. A. Wilson,, and L. M. Luttrell. 2000. Pasteurella multocida toxin stimulates mitogen- activated protein kinase via Gq/11-dependent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 2239 2245.
196. Shimizu, T.,, M. Nakagawa,, S. Shibata,, and K. Suzuki. 1971. Atrophic rhinitis produced by intranasal inoculation of Bordetella bronchiseptica in hysterectomy produced colostrum-deprived pigs. Cornell Vet. 61: 696 705.
197. Sisak, F.,, M. Gois,, and F. Kuksa. 1978. The sensitivity of the strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, isolated from pigs, to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics. Vet. Med. ( Prague) 23: 531.
198. Smith, A. M.,, C. A. Guzman,, and M. J. Walker. 2001. The virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis: a matter of control. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25: 309 333.
199. Smith, I. M.,, C. J. Giles,, and A. J. Baskerville. 1982. The immunisation of pigs against experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet. Rec. 110: 488 494.
200. Smyth, M. G.,, I. G. Sumner,, and A. J. Lax. 1999. Reduced pH causes structural changes in the potent mitogenic toxin of Pasteurella multocida. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 180: 15 20.
201. Smyth, M. G.,, R. W. Pickersgill,, and A. J. Lax. 1995. The potent mitogen Pasteurella multocida toxin is highly resistant to proteolysis but becomes susceptible at lysosomal pH. FEBS Lett. 360: 62 66.
202. Somlyo, A. P.,, and A. V. Somlyo. 2000. Signal transduction by G-proteins, Rho-kinase and protein phosphatase to smooth muscle and non-muscle myosin II. J. Physiol. 522: 177 185.
203. Staddon, J. M.,, N. Chanter,, A. J. Lax,, T. E. Higgins,, and E. Rozengurt. 1990. Pasteurella multocida toxin, a potent mitogen, stimulates protein kinase C-dependent and -independent protein phosphorylation in Swiss 3T3 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 11841 11848.
204. Staddon, J. M.,, C. J. Barker,, A. C. Murphy,, N. Chanter,, A. J. Lax,, R. H. Michell,, and E. Rozengurt. 1991. Pasteurella multocida toxin, a potent mitogen, increases inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate and mobilizes Ca2+ in Swiss 3T3 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 4840 4847.
205. Sterner-Kock, A.,, B. Lanske,, S. Überschär,, and M. J. Atkinson. 1995. Effects of the Pasteurella multocida toxin on osteoblastic cells in vitro. Vet. Pathol. 32: 274 279.
206. Stibitz, S.,, W. Aaronson,, D. Monack,, and S. Falkow. 1989. Phase variation in Bordetella pertussis by frameshift mutation in a gene for a novel two-component system. Nature 338: 266 269.
207. Straw, B. E.,, A. D. Leman,, and R. A. Robinson. 1984. Pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis in pigs from a test station: a follow-up study. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 185: 1544 1546.
208. Straw, B. E.,, E. J. Burgi,, and H. D. Hilley. 1983. Pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis in pigs from a test station. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 182: 607 611.
209. Suda, T.,, N. Takahashi,, N. Udagawa,, E. Jimi,, M. T. Gillespie,, and T. J. Martin. 1999. Modulation of osteoclast differentiation and function by the new members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor and ligand families. Endocr. Rev. 20: 345 357.
210. Switzer, W. P. 1956. Infectious atrophic rhinitis: concept that several agents may cause turbinate atrophy. Am. J. Vet. Res. 17: 478 484.
211. Switzer, W. P. 1963. Elimination of Bordetella bronchiseptica from the nasal cavity of swine by sulphonamide therapy. Vet. Med. 58: 571 574.
212. Switzer, W. P., 1981. Bordetellosis, p. 497 507. In A. D. Leman,, R. D. Glock,, W. L. Mengeling,, R. H. C. Penny,, E. Scholl,, and B. Straw (ed.), Diseases of Swine, 5th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames..
213. Switzer, W. P.,, and D. O. Farrington,. 1975. Infectious atrophic rhinitis, p. 687 711. In H. W. Dunne, and A. D. Leman (ed.), Diseases of Swine, 4th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames..
214. Taylor, S. S.,, J. A. Buechler,, and W. Yonemoto. 1990. cAMP-dependent protein kinase: framework for a diverse family of regulatory enzymes. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 59: 971 1005.
215. Thomas, W.,, G. D. Pullinger,, A. J. Lax,, and E. Rozengurt. 2001. Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor and Pasteurella multocida toxin induce FAK autophosphorylation and src association. Infect. Immun. 69: 5931 5935.
216. Thomas, W.,, Z. K. Ascott,, D. Harmey,, L. W. Slice,, E. Rozengurt,, and A. J. Lax. 2001. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor from Escherichia coli induces RhoA-dependent expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene. Infect. Immun. 69: 6839 6845.
217. Tornoe, N.,, and N. C. Nielsen. 1976. Inoculation experiments with Bordetella bronchiseptica strains in SPF pigs. Nord. Vetmed. 28: 233 242.
218. Tornoe, N.,, N. C. Nielsen,, and J. Svendsen. 1976. Bordetella bronchiseptica isolations from the nasal cavity of pigs in relation to atrophic rhinitis. Nord. Vetmed. 28: 1.
219. Tuomanen, E. 1986. Piracy of adhesins: attachment of superinfecting pathogens to respiratory cilia by secreted adhesins of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 54: 905 908.
220. vanDiemen, P. M.,, M. F. deJong,, G. de Vries Reilingh,, and J. W. van der Hel P, Schrama. 1994. Intranasal administration of Pasteurella multocida toxin in a challenge-exposure model used to induce subclinical signs of atrophic rhinitis in pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 55: 49 54.
221. van Diemen, P. M.,, G. de Vries Reilingh,, and H. K. Parmentier. 1996. Effect of Pasteurella multocida toxin on in vivo immune responses in piglets. Vet. Q. 18: 141 146.
222. Walker, K. E.,, and A. A. Weiss. 1994. Characterization of the dermonecrotic toxin in members of the genus Bordetella. Infect. Immun. 62: 3817 3828.
223. Wang, D.,, J. R. Grammer,, C. S. Cobbs,, J. E. Stewart,, Z. Liu,, R. Rhoden,, T. P. Hecker,, Q. Ding,, and C. L. Gladson. 2000. p125 focal adhesion kinase promotes malignant astrocytoma cell proliferation in vivo. J. Cell Sci. 113: 4221 4230.
224. Ward, P. N.,, A. J. Miles,, I. G. Sumner,, L. H. Thomas,, and A. J. Lax. 1998. Activity of the mitogenic Pasteurella multocida toxin requires an essential C-terminal residue. Infect. Immun. 66: 5636 5642.
225. Weingart, C. L.,, and A. A. Weiss. 2000. Bordetella pertussis virulence factors affect phagocytosis by human neutrophils. Infect. Immun. 68: 1735 1739.
226. Weiss, A. A.,, and M. S. M. Goodwin. 1989. Bordetella pertussis mutants in the infant mouse model. Infect. Immun. 57: 3757 3764.
227. Weiss, A. A.,, and S. Falkow. 1984. Genetic analysis of phase change in Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 43: 263 269.
228. Weiss, A. A.,, E. L. Hewlett,, G. A. Myers,, and S. Falkow. 1984. Pertussis toxin and extracytoplasmic adenylate cyclase as virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis. J. Infect. Dis. 150: 219 221.
229. Wilson, B. A.,, X. Zhu,, M. Ho,, and L. Lu. 1997. Pasteurella multocida toxin activates the inositol triphosphate signaling pathway in Xenopus oocytes via G qα-coupled phospholipase C-β1. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 1268 1275.
230. Winstanley, C.,, and C. A. Hart. 2001. Type III secretion systems and pathogenicity islands. J. Med. Microbiol. 50: 116 126.
231. Winstanley, C.,, B. A. Hales,, L. M. Sibanda,, S. Dawson,, R. M. Gaskell,, and C. A. Hart. 2000. Detection of type III secretion system genes in animal isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Vet. Microbiol. 72: 329 337.
232. Wolff, J.,, and G. H. Cook. 1973. Activity of thyroid membrane adenylate cyclase. J. Biol. Chem. 248: 350 355.
233. Wolff, J.,, G. H. Cook,, A. R. Goldhammer,, and S. A. Berkowitz. 1980. Calmodulin activates prokaryotic adenylate cyclase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 3841 3844.
234. Woolfrey, B. F.,, and J. A. Moody. 1991. Human infections associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 243 255.
235. Yokomizo, Y.,, and T. Shimizu. 1979. Adherence of Bordetella bronchiseptica to swine nasal epithelial cells and its possible role in virulence. Res. Vet. Sci. 27: 15 21.
236. Yuk, M. H.,, E. T. Harvill,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. The BvgAS virulence control system regulates type III secretion in Bordetella bronchiseptica. Mol. Microbiol. 28: 945 959.
237. Yuk, M. H.,, E. T. Harvill,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 2000. Modulation of host immune responses, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by the Bordetella type III secretion system. Mol. Microbiol. 35: 991 1004.
238. Zhang, Y. L.,, and R. D. Sekura. 1991. Purification and characterization of the heat-labile toxin of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 59: 3754 3759.
239. Zywietz, A.,, A. Gohla,, M. Shmelz,, G. Schultz,, and S. Offermanns. 2001. Pleiotropic effects of Pasteurella multocida toxin are mediated by Gq-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 3840 3845.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error