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Chapter 16 : Interactions between Herpesviruses and Bacteria in Human Periodontal Disease

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Abstract:

Destructive periodontal diseases are infectious disorders, but the specific mechanisms by which tooth-supportive tissue is lost remain obscure. This chapter proposes an infectious disease model for severe periodontitis in which herpesviral-bacterial interactions assume a major etiopathogenic role. Herpesviruses, especially cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus type 1 (EBV-1), and HCMV/EBV-1 dual infection, have recently been identified in most of the advanced periodontitis lesions of children, adolescents, and adults. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, and HHV-8 (individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) can also be detected in some periodontitis lesions. Evidence suggests that herpesvirus-infected periodontitis lesions harbor elevated levels of periodontopathic bacteria, including , and . Conceivably, periodontal active herpesvirus infection impairs periodontal defenses, thereby permitting subgingival overgrowth of periodontopathic bacteria. It is further hypothesized that gingival tissue plays a role in the maintenance of herpesvirus load in vivo and that the shedding of herpesviruses from periodontal sites during reactivation plays a role in virus transmission. Understanding the significance of herpesviruses in human periodontitis may allow for improved diagnosis and, ultimately, disease prevention.

Citation: Slots J. 2002. Interactions between Herpesviruses and Bacteria in Human Periodontal Disease, p 317-332. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch16

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Herpesviruses in destructive periodontal disease.

Citation: Slots J. 2002. Interactions between Herpesviruses and Bacteria in Human Periodontal Disease, p 317-332. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch16
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Tables

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Table 1.

Occurrence of HCMV and EBV-1 in 32 progressing and 32 stable periodontitis sites of 16 early-onset periodontitis patientsa

Citation: Slots J. 2002. Interactions between Herpesviruses and Bacteria in Human Periodontal Disease, p 317-332. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Occurrence of HCMV and EBV-1 in deep and shallow periodontal sites of 11 localized juvenile periodontitis patientsa

Citation: Slots J. 2002. Interactions between Herpesviruses and Bacteria in Human Periodontal Disease, p 317-332. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Occurrence of HCMV and in rare types of aggressive periodontitis in young individuals

Citation: Slots J. 2002. Interactions between Herpesviruses and Bacteria in Human Periodontal Disease, p 317-332. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Occurrence of HCMV and EBV-1 in ANUG sites and normal periodontal sites of Nigerian children suffering from malnutritiona

Citation: Slots J. 2002. Interactions between Herpesviruses and Bacteria in Human Periodontal Disease, p 317-332. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch16
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Associations between HCMV and EBV-1 and periodontopathic bacteria

Citation: Slots J. 2002. Interactions between Herpesviruses and Bacteria in Human Periodontal Disease, p 317-332. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch16

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