Chapter 21 : Polymicrobial Diseases: Current and Future Research

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Polymicrobial Diseases: Current and Future Research, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817947/9781555812447_Chap21-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817947/9781555812447_Chap21-2.gif


According to the developing concept of polymicrobial diseases, some diseases in both animals and humans result from infections by multiple pathogens. In some areas, current research focuses on identifying the spectrum of etiologic agents involved. In animals, new polymicrobial diseases are likely to include poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS) in turkeys, papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cattle, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs, and acute interstitial pneumonia in cattle. In humans, new polymicrobial diseases may include multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Identification of new etiologic agents involved in polymicrobial diseases will require improved analytic tools. Rapid technological advancements will help us to define more clearly the etiology of currently described polymicrobial diseases and assist us in identifying additional polymicrobial diseases. The authors say that the field of polymicrobial diseases will continue to grow, and significant advances will be made in the future.

Citation: Brogden K, Guthmiller J. 2002. Polymicrobial Diseases: Current and Future Research, p 401-410. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch21

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Allan, G. M.,, F. McNeilly,, J. Ellis,, S. Krakowka,, B. Meehan,, I. McNair,, I. Walker,, and S. Kennedy. 2000. Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication. Arch. Virol. 145: 24212429.
2. Allan, G. M.,, F. McNeilly,, B. M. Meehan,, J. A. Ellis,, T. J. Connor,, I. McNair,, S. Krakowka,, and S. Kennedy. 2000. A sequential study of experimental infection of pigs with porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus: immunostaining of cryostat sections and virus isolation. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B 47:8194.
3. Aul, J. J.,, K. W. Anderson,, R. M. Wadowsky,, W. J. Doyle,, L. A. Kingsley,, J. C. Post,, and G. D. Ehrlich. 1998. Comparative evaluation of culture and PCR for the detection and determination of persistence of bacterial strains and DNAs in the Chinchilla laniger model of otitis media. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 107: 508513.
4. Belcher, C. E.,, J. Drenkow,, B. Kehoe,, T. R. Gingeras,, N. McNamara,, H. Lemjabbar,, C. Basbaum,, and D. A. Relman. 2000. The transcriptional responses of respiratory epithelial cells to Bordetella pertussis reveal host defensive and pathogen counter-defensive strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1384713852.
5. Brown, C. C.,, P. D. Kilgo,, and K. L. Jacobsen. 2000. Prevalence of papillomatous digital dermatitis among culled adult cattle in the southeastern United States. Am. J. Vet. Res. 61:928930.
6. Cermelli, C.,, and S. Jacobson. 2000. Viruses and multiple sclerosis. Viral Immunol. 13:25512567.
7. Check, W. 2001. Nucleic acid-based tests move slowly into clinical labs. ASM News 67:560565.
8. Chiu, B. 1999. Multiple infections in carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Am. Heart. J. 138:S534S536.
9. Ciantar, M.,, D. A. Spratt,, H. N. Newman,, and M. Wilson. 2001. Capnocytophaga granulosa and Capnocytophaga haemolytica: novel species in subgingival plaque. J. Clin. Periodontol. 28:701705.
10. Contreras, A.,, N. Doan,, C. Chen,, T. Rusitanonta,, M. J. Flynn,, and J. Slots. 2000. Importance of Dialister pneumosintes in human periodontitis. Oral. Microbiol. Immunol. 15:269272.
11. Cummings, C. A.,, and D. A. Relman. 2000. Using DNA microarrays to study host-microbe interactions. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:513522.
12. Demuth, D. R.,, D. C. Irvine,, J. W. Costerton,, G. S. Cook,, and R. J. Lamont. 2001. Discrete protein determinant directs the species-specific adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis to oral streptococci. Infect. Immun. 69:57365741.
13. Eggert, F. M.,, M. H. McLeod,, and G. Flowerdew. 2001. Effects of smoking and treatment status on periodontal bacteria: evidence that smoking influences control of periodontal bacteria at the mucosal surface of the gingival crevice. J. Periodontol. 72:12101220.
14. el-Ghoul, W.,, and B. I. Shaheed. 2001. Ulcerative and papillomatous digital dermatitis of the pastern region in dairy cattle: clinical and histopathological studies. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 108:216222.
15. Ernould, J. C.,, K. Ba,, and B. Sellin. 1999. Increase of intestinal schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment in a Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni mixed focus. Acta Trop. 73: 143152.
16. Fulton, R. W.,, C. W. Purdy,, A. W. Confer,, J. T. Saliki,, R. W. Loan,, R. E. Briggs,, and L. J. Burge. 2000. Bovine viral diarrhea viral infections in feeder calves with respiratory disease: interactions with Pasteurella spp., parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Can. J. Vet. Res. 64:151159.
17. Guy, J. S.,, L. G. Smith,, J. J. Breslin,, J. P. Vaillancourt,, and H. J. Barnes. 2000. High mortality and growth depression experimentally produced in young turkeys by dual infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and turkey coronavirus. Avian Dis. 44:105113.
18. Haahr, S.,, and M. Munch. 2000. The association between multiple sclerosis and infection with Epstein-Barr virus and retrovirus. J. Neurovirol. 6(suppl. 2):S76S79.
19. Hament, J. M.,, J. L. Kimpen,, A. Fleer,, and T. F. Wolfs. 1999. Respiratory viral infection predisposing for bacterial disease: a concise review. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 26:189195.
20. Hjerpe, C. A. 1983. Clinical management of respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Large Anim. Pract. 5:119142.
21. Hooper, L. V.,, M. H. Wong,, A. Thelin,, L. Hansson,, P. G. Falk,, and J. I. Gordon. 2001. Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine. Science 291:881884.
22. Kellam, P. 1998. Molecular identification of novel viruses. Trends Microbiol. 6:160165.
23. Kennedy, S.,, D. Moffett,, F. McNeilly,, B. Meehan,, J. Ellis,, S. Krakowka,, and G. M. Allan. 2000. Reproduction of lesions of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome by infection of conventional pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 alone or in combination with porcine parvovirus. J. Comp. Pathol. 122:924.
24. Knowles, T. G.,, S. N. Brown,, P. D. Warriss,, A. J. Phillips,, S. K. Dolan,, P. Hunt,, J. E. Ford,, J. E. Edwards,, and P. E. Watkins. 1995. Effects on sheep of transport by road for up to 24 hours. Vet. Rec. 136:431438.
25. Kolenbrander, P. E. 2000. Oral microbial communities: biofilms, interactions, and genetic systems. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54:413437.
26. Langendijk, P. S.,, E. M. Kulik,, H. Sandmeier,, J. Meyer,, and J. S. van der Hoeven. 2001. Isolation of Desulfomicrobium orale sp. nov. and Desulfovibrio strain NY682, oral sulfate- reducing bacteria involved in human periodontal disease. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51: 10351044.
27. Lehmkuhl, H. D.,, R. E. Briggs,, and R. C. Cutlip. 1998. Survey for antibodies to bovine adenoviruses in six- to nine-month-old feedyard cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 59:15791580.
28. Lehmkuhl, H. D.,, R. C. Cutlip,, J. T. Meehan,, and B. M. DeBey. 1997. Pathogenesis of infection induced by an adenovirus isolated from a goat. Am. J. Vet. Res. 58:608611.
29. Liu, L.,, H. D. Lehmkuhl,, and M. L. Kaeberle. 1999. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions. Can. J. Vet. Res. 63:4148.
30. Lockhart, S. R.,, C. Pujol,, S. Joly,, and D. R. Soll. 2001. Development and use of complex probes for DNA fingerprinting the infectious fungi. Med. Mycol. 39:18.
31. May, B. J.,, Q. Zhang,, L. L. Li,, M. L. Paustian,, T. S. Whittam,, and V. Kapur. 2001. Complete genomic sequence of Pasteurella multocida, Pm70. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 34603465.
32. Moses, H., Jr.,, and S. Sriram. 2001. An infectious basis for multiple sclerosis: perspectives on the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other agents. BioDrugs 15:199206.
33. Murphy, G. L.,, L. C. Robinson,, and G. E. Burrows. 1993. Restriction endonuclease analysis and ribotyping differentiate Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 isolates from cattle within a feedlot. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:23032308.
34. O’Conner, S.,, C. Taylor,, L. A. Campbell,, S. Epstein,, and P. Libby. 2001. Potential infectious etiologies of atherosclerosis: a multifactorial perspective. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:780788.
35. Okamoto, Y.,, K. Kudo,, K. Shirotori,, M. Nakazawa,, E. Ito,, K. Togawa,, J. A. Patel,, and P. L. Ogra. 1992. Detection of genomic sequences of respiratory syncytial virus in otitis media with effusion in children. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. Suppl. 157:710.
36. O’Toole, G.,, H. B. Kaplan,, and R. Kolter. 2000. Biofilm formation as microbial development. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54:4979.
37. Palmer, R. J., Jr.,, K. Kazmerzak,, M. C. Hansen,, and P. E. Kolenbrander. 2001. Mutualism versus independence: strategies of mixed-species oral biofilms in vitro using saliva as the sole nutrient source. Infect. Immun. 69:57945804.
38. Paster, B. J.,, S. K. Boches,, J. L. Galvin,, R. E. Ericson,, C. N. Lau,, V. A. Levanos,, A. Sahasrabudhe,, and F. E. Dewhirst. 2001. Bacterial diversity in human subgingival plaque. J. Bacteriol. 183:37703783.
39. Post, J. C.,, J. J. Aul,, G. J. White,, R. M. Wadowsky,, T. Zavoral,, R. Tabari,, B. Kerber,, W. J. Doyle,, and G. D. Ehrlich. 1996. PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA after antimicrobial treatment is indicative of persistent, viable bacteria in the chinchilla model of otitis media. Am. J. Otolaryngol. 17:106111.
40. Prosniak, M.,, D. C. Hooper,, B. Dietzschold,, and H. Koprowski. 2001. Effect of rabies virus infection on gene expression in mouse brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:27582763.
41. Qureshi, M. A.,, M. Yu,, and Y. M. Saif. 2000. A novel “small round virus” inducing poult enteritis and mortality syndrome and associated immune alterations. Avian Dis. 44:275283.
42. Schloter, M.,, M. Lebuhn,, T. Heulin,, and A. Hartmann. 2000. Ecology and evolution of bacterial microdiversity. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 24: 647660.
43. Schutten, M.,, M. E. van der Ende,, and A. D. Osterhaus. 2000. Antiretroviral therapy in patients with dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. N. Engl. J. Med. 342:17581760.
44. Smith, H. 1982. The role of microbial interactions in infectious disease. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 297:551561.
45. Smith, J. M.,, E. J. Feil,, and N. H. Smith. 2000. Population structure and evolutionary dynamics of pathogenic bacteria. Bioessays 22:11151122.
46. Storz, J.,, C. W. Purdy,, X. Lin,, M. Burrell,, R. E. Truax,, R. E. Briggs,, G. H. Frank,, and R. W. Loan. 2000. Isolation of respiratory bovine coronavirus, other cytocidal viruses, and Pasteurella spp from cattle involved in two natural outbreaks of shipping fever. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 216:15991604.
47. Swanson, J. C. 1995. Farm animal well-being and intensive productive systems. J. Anim. Sci. 73:27442751.
48. Thibault, V.,, Y. Benhamou,, C. Seguret,, M. Bochet,, C. Katlama,, F. Bricaire,, P. Opolon,, T. Poynard,, and H. Agut. 1999. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations associated with resistance to lamivudine in patients coinfected with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:30133016.
49. Tuomanen, E. 1986. Piracy of adhesins: attachment of superinfecting pathogens to respiratory cilia by secreted adhesins of Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 54:905908.
50. Walker, R. L.,, D. H. Read,, K. J. Loretz,, and R. W. Nordhausen. 1995. Spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis. Vet. Microbiol. 47:343355.
51. Whiteley, M.,, M. G. Bangera,, R. E. Bumgarner,, M. R. Parsek,, G. M. Teitzel,, S. Lory,, and E. P. Greenberg. 2001. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Nature 413:860864.
52. Yu, M.,, M. M. Ismail,, M. A. Qureshi,, R. N. Dearth,, H. J. Barnes,, and Y. M. Saif. 2000. Viral agents associated with poult enteritis and mortality syndrome: the role of a small round virus and a turkey coronavirus. Avian Dis. 44: 297304.
53. Zimmer, C. 2001. Do chronic diseases have an infectious root? Science 293: 19741977.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error