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Chapter 14 : Commercial Methods in Clinical Veterinary Microbiology

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Abstract:

This chapter describes, and in some cases reports evaluations of, those commercial identification systems that are used by veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Most modern viral diagnostic tests are rapid assays aimed at detection of antiviral antibodies (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], Western immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence, serum virus neutralization [SVN], hemagglutination inhibition [HI], agar gel immunodiffusion [AGID], and complement fixation [CF]), detection of viral antigens (immunohistochemistry [IHC], antigen-capture ELISA, and frozen tissue immunofluorescence), or detection (or amplification) of viral nucleic acids (PCR and its related techniques, in situ hybridization [ISH], Southern blot hybridization, and dot blot hybridization). In addition, modern molecular tests and procedures (such as PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism [PCR-RFLP] analysis, sequencing, and sequence analysis) are being used more commonly for further genetic characterization of viruses and for differential diagnosis. With a known viral antigen, latex agglutination test (LAT) can also be used to detect antiviral antibody, such as that for swine pseudorabies virus. LAT kits are commercially available for a few veterinary viruses. The chapter also focuses on reviews of studies that have evaluated the applicability of bacterial identification systems for identification of bacteria isolated from animal specimens. The identification of dermatophytes from animal specimens is emphasized in the chapter because dermatophytes are causes of zoonotic infections as well as common infections in animals. Identification of mites, lice, ticks, fleas, and fly larvae infecting animals is a common occurrence for veterinary parasitologists.

Citation: Inzana T, Lindsay D, Meng X, Post K. 2002. Commercial Methods in Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, p 336-359. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
0.50807995
Equine infectious anemia virus
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0.50807995
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

IHC of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antigen in the alveolar macrophages of a lung from a pig infected with PRRSV. Alveolar macrophages show dark brown staining of PRRSV antigen. Shown is the result of avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex staining and hematoxylin counterstain. Courtesy of Patrick G. Halbur, Iowa State University.

Citation: Inzana T, Lindsay D, Meng X, Post K. 2002. Commercial Methods in Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, p 336-359. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

ISH detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleic acid in the alveolar macrophages of a lung from a pig infected with PRRSV. PRRSV nucleic acid is detected in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Shown is the result of ISH with a digoxigenin-labeled PRRSV riboprobe detected by antidigoxigenin-alkaline phosphatase complex, and nuclear fast red counterstain. Courtesy of Patrick G. Halbur, Iowa State University.

Citation: Inzana T, Lindsay D, Meng X, Post K. 2002. Commercial Methods in Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, p 336-359. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus type 1 and 2 infections by a PCR-RFLP assay. (A) PCR amplification of a 243-bp fragment. Lane 1, negative control sample; lanes 2 to 13, samples containing porcine circovirus (both type 1 and 2). (B) RFLP analysis of the PCR products. Lanes L, 50-bp DNA ladder; lane 1, a sample of liver tissue from a control specific-pathogen-free pig; lanes 2 to 11, clinical samples from 10 cases of porcine circovirus type 2; lane 12, PK15 cells containing porcine circovirus type 1; lane 13, a sample containing porcine circoviruses (both type 1 and 2). The expected PCR fragment (A) and three RFLP fragments, 243, 168, and 75 bp, respectively (B) are indicated with arrows. Modified from Fenaux et al. (25).

Citation: Inzana T, Lindsay D, Meng X, Post K. 2002. Commercial Methods in Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, p 336-359. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

HESKA Solo Step canine heartworm antigen diagnostic test. The test is a flow technology ELISA-based test. A positive test results in two bands on the membrane (control band and test band), whereas a negative test will result in only one band (control band).

Citation: Inzana T, Lindsay D, Meng X, Post K. 2002. Commercial Methods in Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, p 336-359. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch14
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Selected commercial diagnostic kits for antigen or antibody detection of veterinary viruses of major domestic animal species.

Citation: Inzana T, Lindsay D, Meng X, Post K. 2002. Commercial Methods in Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, p 336-359. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch14
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Table 2

Heartworm antigen tests approved for use in dogs

Citation: Inzana T, Lindsay D, Meng X, Post K. 2002. Commercial Methods in Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, p 336-359. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch14

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