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Chapter 2 : Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods

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Abstract:

Currently, both manual and automated blood culture systems are available, with the market being dominated increasingly by instrument-based automated systems and methods. This chapter will emphasize those manual and automated systems and media cleared for diagnostic use in the United States at the start of the 21st century as well as comment on possible developments in the rapidly evolving area of clinical microbiology. The fundamental concept of blood culturing has been based on inoculating a defined volume of blood, preferably obtained by a sterile venipuncture, into a broth culture medium that will support the growth of most pathogenic bacteria and fungi. In a study that compared the aerobic FAN bottle to the aerobic 80A bottle, more contaminants were detected in the FAN bottle, and the ESP system had more instrument false-positive readings. Cockerill and colleagues compared the ESP 80A bottle to the Isolator and found that the former recovered more coagulase-negative staphylococci causing bacteremia, whereas the latter recovered more , spp., and all microorganisms combined. In this study, the ESP 80A bottle also was compared to the manual Septi-Chek bottle and found to be equivalent in the recovery of microorganisms. Although current blood culture systems have reduced the time to detecting positive cultures, clinicians and patients still would benefit from accurate assay methods that provide results in minutes to hours as opposed to days. Thus, there continues to be a need for further evolution and development of new commercial blood culture systems.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2

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Gram-Positive Bacteria
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Septi-Chek aerobic bottle with agar-coated paddle attached. Courtesy of Becton-Dickinson Microbiology Systems.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Oxoid Signal system showing positive (right) and negative (left) bottles. Courtesy of Oxoid Ltd.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Isolator blood culture system. Courtesy of Wampole.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

BacT/Alert system showing BacT/Alert 240 module (left), MB module (mycobacterial detection module) (right center), and 3D module (far right). Courtesy of Organon Teknika.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

BACTEC 9240 blood culture system. Courtesy of BD Biosciences.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

BACTEC 9050 blood culture system. Courtesy of BD Biosciences.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

ESP 384 blood culture system. Courtesy of Trek Diagnostic Systems, Inc.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Vital blood culture system. Courtesy of bio- Mérieux, Inc.

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2
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References

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23. Pohlman, J. K.,, B. A. Kirkley,, K. A. Easley,, and J. A. Washington. 1995. Controlled clinical comparison of Isolator and BACTEC 9240 Aerobic/F resin bottle for detection of bloodstream infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2525 2529.
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25. Rohner, P.,, B. Pepey,, and R. Auckenthaler. 1995. Comparison of BacT/Alert with Signal blood culture system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 313 317.
26. Rohner, P.,, B. Pepey,, and R. Auckenthaler. 1996. Comparative evaluation of BACTEC Aerobic Plus/F and Septi-Chek Release blood culture media. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 126 129.
27. Schwabe, L. D.,, R. B. Thomson, Jr.,, K. K. Flint,, and F. P. Koontz. 1995. Evaluation of BACTEC 9240 blood culture system using high-volume resin media. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2451 2453.
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40. Welby-Sellenriek, P. L.,, D. S. Keller,, R. J. Ferrett,, and G. A. Storch. 1997. Comparison of the BacT/Alert FAN aerobic and the Difco ESP 80A aerobic bottles for pediatric blood cultures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1166 1171.
41. Wilson, M. L.,, S. Mirrett,, L. C. McDonald,, M. P. Weinstein,, J. Fune,, and L. B. Reller. 1999. Controlled clinical comparison of bioMerieux VITAL and BACTEC NR-660 blood culture systems for detection of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1709 1713.
42. Wilson, M. L.,, S. Mirrett,, L. B. Reller,, M. P. Weinstein,, and L. G. Reimer. 1993. Recovery of clinically important microorganisms from the BacT/Alert blood culture system does not require 7 day testing. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 16: 31 34.
43. Wilson, M. L.,, M. P. Weinstein,, S. Mirrett,, L. G. Reimer,, S. Smith-Elekes,, C. R. Chirard,, and L. B. Reller. 1995. Controlled evaluation of BacT/Alert standard anaerobic and FAN anaerobic blood culture bottles for the detection of bacteremia and fungemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2265 2270.
44. Wilson, M. L.,, M. P. Weinstein,, L. G. Reimer,, S. Mirrett,, and L. B. Reller. 1992. Controlled comparison of the BacT/Alert and BACTEC 660/730 nonradiometric blood culture systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 323 329.
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47. Zwadyk, P., Jr.,, C. L. Pierson,, and C. Young. 1994. Comparison of Difco ESP and Organon Teknika BacT/Alert continuous-monitoring blood culture systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1273 1279.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Commercially available continuous-monitoring blood culture systems

Citation: Weinstein M, Reller L. 2002. Commercial Blood Culture Systems and Methods, p 12-21. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch2

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