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Chapter 3 : Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria

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Abstract:

Preliminary detection of bacterial pathogens and isolation in pure culture on solid media was followed by culture confirmation using one of the early-generation kits for bacterial identification. In more recent years, the development and, in some cases, very common use of direct antigen testing has revolutionized the algorithms for specimen testing which are used today in physicians’ office laboratories, community hospitals, and tertiary-care medical centers. Early antigen tests sometimes lacked the sensitivity which was offered by conventional testing. Researchers tested 345 strains of coryneform bacteria and 33 strains of spp. (representing 49 taxa). In this study, 80.9% were identified to the species level and 12.2% were identified to the genus level, with 3.7% of the strains misidentified and 3.2% of the strains not identified. Prepackaged commercially available kit systems for the identification of clinically significant gram-negative bacteria have been available for a number of years and offer the clinical microbiologist several distinct advantages over previously available methodologies. The identification systems have evolved over time and have been based on either growth dependent or enzyme-mediated substrate utilization or on the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences. A section talks about fastidious bacteria that include spp., spp., , spp., and spp.

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Gram-Negative Bacteria
0.9074929
Gram-Positive Bacteria
0.8411772
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
0.772777
Gram-Negative Bacilli
0.6764668
Gram-Negative Coccobacilli
0.67330575
Viruses
0.5693051
Gram-Positive Cocci
0.5563466
0.9074929
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

BACTi Staph latex agglutination test kit (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

BD LINK 2 Strep A Rapid Test (courtesy of BD Diagnostic Systems).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

RIM A.R.C. Strep A test strips with negative test (top) and positive test (bottom) results (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

BactiCard Strep with positive test results (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

API Coryne system (courtesy of bioMerieux).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

IDS RapID CB Plus system (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

MicroPlate test format (courtesy of Biolog).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

MicroStation (courtesy of Biolog).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

API 20E, API Rapid 20E, API 20 NE, and Vitek GNI Plus (courtesy of bioMerieux).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

BactiCard with positive test results (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Premier EHEC (courtesy of Meridian Diagnostics).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

ImmunoCard STAT! O157 Plus (courtesy of Meridian Diagnostics).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

RIM O157:H7 latex test kit (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

Campyslide (courtesy of BD Diagnostic Systems).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

ProSpecT Microplate Assay (courtesy of Alexon-Trend).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 16
FIGURE 16

RIM Immuno Microplate Assay (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 17
FIGURE 17

RIM Immuno Microplate Assay tray with positive wells (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 18
FIGURE 18

Premier Platinum HpSA test (courtesy of Meridian Diagnostics).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 23
FIGURE 23

Catarrhalis test disk with positive test results (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 19
FIGURE 19

Micro ID system with inoculated wells, used primarily for (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 20
FIGURE 20

API Quad-Ferm+ (courtesy of bioMerieux).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 21
FIGURE 21

-Kwik tray (courtesy of Micro-Bio-Logics).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 22
FIGURE 22

BactiCard with positive test results (courtesy of Remel).

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Characteristics of agglutination assays for identification of

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Performance of agglutination assays for identification of

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Systems for identification of spp. and other gram-positive cocci

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Commercial serogrouping assays for identification of beta-hemolytic streptococci

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Rapid, direct group A streptococcal detection tests granted waived status

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Rapid, direct group A streptococcal detection tests which do not have waived status

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 7

Commercial identification systems for spp.

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 8

Commercial systems for identification of members of the family and gram-negative nonmembers

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 9

Performance of Premier O157 test in the field and in resolved results after repeat testing

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 10

Sensitivities, specificities, and predictive values for the detection of O157:H7

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 11

Commercial systems for the identification of spp., spp., and other fastidious bacteria

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 12

Performance characteristics of culture, DFA, and PCR for the detection of in nasopharyngeal-swab specimens

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 13

Comparison of the sensitivities and specificities of the multiplex PCR-based assay and culture for following the resolution of discrepant results

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 14

Diagnostic methods for evaluation

Citation: Evangelista A, Truant A, Bourbeau P. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Bacteria, p 22-49. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch3

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