1887

Chapter 4 : Anaerobic Bacteriology

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Anaerobic Bacteriology, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817961/9781555811891_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817961/9781555811891_Chap04-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter talks about the diagnosis of anaerobic bacterial infections involving various steps. Some of the most important considerations involved in the laboratory diagnosis of anaerobic infections include (i) selecting, collecting, and transporting specimens for microbiologic examination and (ii) processing and examining the specimens in the laboratory as rapidly as possible after they are received. Satisfactory commercially available primary isolation media and anaerobic incubation systems are discussed along with detailed recommendations for their use. The current software release (version 3.9) used in the authors' laboratory contains an extensive list of anaerobe genera and species. At present, simple-to-use commercial kits and equipment for specific molecular applications in clinical anaerobic bacteriology have been lacking. It appears that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) could be a powerful tool for rapid identification of bacteria that would otherwise be difficult to differentiate with other methods. This new technology holds promise for markedly decreasing the turnaround time for identification of anaerobes and other slow growing microorganisms, thereby enhancing the clinical relevance of this area of clinical microbiology.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Bacterial Classification
0.5159227
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
0.48898882
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.42869344
0.5159227
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Inoculation of conventional PRAS biochemical test media.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Presumpto quadrant plates 1, 2, and 3. One plate of CDC Anaerobe Blood Agar is also shown. See text and Table 8 for details.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

WEE-TABS stand-alone chromogenic tests. Each tube contains one tablet and a small volume of bacterial suspension.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

API 20A test strip. Miniaturized cupules are inoculated with a bacterial suspension and after 24 to 48 h of incubation, biochemical reactions are visualized.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Minitek Anaerobe II tray containing paper disks impregnated with biochemical substrates. After inoculation with a bacterial suspension and 48 h of anaerobic incubation, positive reactions are indicated by color changes (see text).

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

API ZYM. Miniaturized cupules are inoculated with a turbid bacterial suspension. Nineteen enzymatic reactions are read and interpreted after a 4-h aerobic incubation.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

An-IDENT. This was one of the first commercially available 4-h packaged kits with a database for the identification of anaerobes.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

RapID ANA II. This 4-h rapid test system for the identification of anaerobes contains 10 wells for testing the performance of 18 preformed enzymatic tests.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Vitek ANI card. This 4-h test system is incubated aerobically and comprises a single plastic card with 30 wells for performing various chromogenic and conventional biochemical tests.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

MicroScan Rapid Anaerobe Identification Panel. This 96-well microdilution tray contains dehydrated substrates and is incubated for 4 h aerobically.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

rapid ID 32A. A plastic strip with 32 cupules, 29 of which contain dehydrated substrates for rapid biochemical characterization of anaerobes, is incubated for 4 h aerobically.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

BBL Crystal ANR ID. Thirty wells in a plastic base are aligned and snapped together with a lid containing 29 biochemical and enzymatic substrates. Some reactions are visualized with a UV light reader (upper left-center), while others are read and interpreted using ambient light. (Photo courtesy of Becton Dickinson.)

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

Tox-B cytotoxin assay. Steps involved in the assay protocol are shown. (Photo courtesy of Tech Lab.)

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

Culturette Brand CDT latex agglutination test for glutamate dehydrogenase. (Photo courtesy of Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, Md.)

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

ImmunoCard This rapid EIA detects glutamate dehydrogenase and is used as a screening test for

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 16
FIGURE 16

VIDAS immunoassay analyzer (see text).

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 17
FIGURE 17

Tox A/B EIA. Steps involved in the assay protocol are shown. (Photo courtesy of Tech Lab.)

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 18
FIGURE 18

Premier Cytoclone CD Toxin A/B. Refer to text for details. (Photo courtesy of Meridian Diagnostics.)

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 19
FIGURE 19

Triage Panel. This rapid membrane EIA detects glutamate dehydrogenase and toxin A. Positive results are indicated by bars appearing next to each corresponding antigen (center of panel). (Photo courtesy of Biosite Diagnostics.)

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 20
FIGURE 20

ColorPAC Toxin A rapid membrane EIA test kit. (Photo courtesy of Becton Dickinson.)

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 21
FIGURE 21

MIDI Sherlock Microbial Identification System, an automated GC analytical system. Included in the photo are the following: a Hewlett-Packard 6890 GC with an automatic sampler, a computer, and a printer. The GC contains a fused-silica capillary column and a flame ionization detector.

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 22
FIGURE 22

MALDI-TOF-MS. An example of a composite spectrum (bottom tracing in middle panel) that was produced from three bacterial mass spectral fingerprints is matched with an 89% probability to the reference spectrum of a strain of in the database. The lower panel shows the difference between the test spectrum and the database entry. (Photograph courtesy of Micromass UK Limited.)

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817961.chap4
1. al-Barrak, A.,, J. Embil,, B. Dyck,, K. Olekson,, D. Nicoll,, M. Alfa,, and A. Kabani. 1999. An outbreak of toxin A negative, toxin B positive Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a Canadian tertiary-care hospital. Can. Commun. Dis. Rep. 25:6569.
2. Allen, S. D., 1982. Systems for rapid identification of anaerobic bacteria, p. 214217. In R. C. Tilton (ed.), Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C.
3. Allen, S. D.,, and B. I. Duerden,. 1998. Infections due to non-sporing anaerobic bacilli and cocci, p. 743776. In L. Collier,, A. Balows,, and M. Sussman (ed.), Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed., vol. 3. Edward Arnold Publisher, London, United Kingdom.
4. Allen, S. D.,, C. L. Emery,, and J. A. Siders,. 1999. Clostridium, p. 654671. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
5. Allen, S. D.,, and J. A. Siders. 1982. An approach to the diagnosis of anaerobic pleuropulmonary infections. Clin. Lab. Med. 2:285303.
6. Allen, S. D.,, J. A. Siders,, and L. M. Marler. 1995. Current issues and problems in dealing with anaerobes in the clinical laboratory. Clin. Lab. Med. 15:333364.
7. Allen, S. D.,, J. A. Siders,, and L. M. Marler,. 1985. Isolation and examination of anaerobic bacteria, p. 413443. In E. H. Lennette,, A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, and E. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
8. Allen, S. D.,, J. A. Siders,, M. J. Riddell,, J. A. Fill,, and W. S. Wegener. 1995. Cellular fatty acid analysis in the differentiation of Clostridium in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20(Suppl. 2):S198201.
9. Alonso, R.,, C. Munoz,, S. Gros,, D. Garcia de Viedma,, T. Pelaez,, and E. Bouza. 1999. Rapid detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile from stool samples by a nested PCR of toxin B gene. J. Hosp. Infect. 41:145149.
10. Aranda, E.,, M. M. Rodriguez,, M. A. Asensio,, and J. J. Cordoba. 1997. Detection of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in foods by PCR and DNA probe. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25:186190.
11. Arnold, R. J.,, and J. P. Reilly. 1998. Fingerprint matching of E. coli strains with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of whole cells using a modified correlation approach. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12:630636.
12. Baez, L. A.,, V. K. Juneja,, and S. K. Sackitey. 1996. Chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of PCR-amplified enterotoxin A from Clostridium perfringens. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 32:145158.
13. Barbut, F.,, C. Kajzer,, N. Planas,, and J.-C. Petit. 1993. Comparison of three enzyme immunoassays, a cytotoxicity assay, and toxigenic culture for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:963967.
14. Baron, E. J.,, and S. D. Allen. 1993. Should clinical laboratories adopt new taxonomic changes? If so, when? Clin. Infect. Dis. 16(Suppl. 4):S449450.
15. Baron, E. J.,, R. Bennion,, J. Thompson,, C. Strong,, P. Summanen,, M. McTeague,, and S. M. Finegold. 1992. A microbiological comparison between acute and complicated appendicitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:227231.
16. Baron, E. J.,, and D. M. Citron,. 1999. Algorithm for identification of anaerobic bacteria, p. 652653. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
17. Baron, E. J.,, P. Summanen,, J. Downes,, M. C. Roberts,, H. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 1989. Bilophila wadsworthia, gen. nov. and sp. nov., a unique gram-negative anaerobic rod recovered from appendicitis specimens and human faeces. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:34053411.
18. Bartlett, J. G., 1998. Anaerobic bacteria, p. 18881901. In S. L. Gorbach,, J. G. Bartlett,, and N. R. Blacklow (ed.), Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
19. Bate, G. 1986. Comparison of Minitek Anaerobe II, API An-Ident, and RapID ANA systems for identification of Clostridium difficile. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 85:716718.
20. Bentley, A. H.,, N. B. Patel,, M. Sidorczuk,, P. Loy,, J. Fulcher,, P. Dexter,, J. Richards,, S. P. Borriello,, K. W. Zak,, and E. M. Thorn. 1998. Multicentre evaluation of a commercial test for the rapid diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-mediated antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17:788790.
21. Brander, M. A.,, and H. R. Jousimies-Somer. 1992. Evaluation of the RapID ANA II and API ZYM systems for identification of Actinomyces species from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:31123116.
22. Brondz, I.,, and I. Olsen. 1991. Multivariate analyses of cellular fatty acids in Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Wolinella, and Campylobacter spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:183189.
23. Buchanon, R. E.,, and N. E. Gibbons (ed.). 1974. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
24. Buogo, C.,, S. Capaul,, H. Hani,, J. Frey,, and J. Nicolet. 1995. Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in pigs using a DNA amplification technique (PCR). Zentbl. Veterinarmed. Reihe B 42:5158.
25. Cavallaro, J. J.,, L. S. Wiggs,, and J. M. Miller. 1997. Evaluation of the BBL Crystal Anaerobe identification system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:31863191.
25a.. Celig, D. M.,, and P. C. Schreckenberger. 1991. Clinical evaluation of the RapID-ANA II panel for identification of anaerobic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:457462.
26. Citron, D. M.,, E. J. Baron,, S. M. Finegold,, and E. J. Goldstein. 1990. Short prereduced anaerobically sterilized (PRAS) biochemical scheme for identification of clinical isolates of bile-resistant Bacteroides species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:22202223.
27. Citron, D. M.,, S. H. Gerardo,, M. C. Claros,, F. Abrahamian,, D. Talan,, and E. J. Goldstein. 1996. Frequency of isolation of Porphyromonas species from infected dog and cat bite wounds in humans and their characterization by biochemical tests and arbitrarily primedpolymerase chain reaction fingerprinting. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23(Suppl. 1):S7882.
28. Cohen, S. H.,, Y. J. Tang,, B. Hansen,, and J. Silva, Jr. 1998. Isolation of a toxin B-deficient mutant strain of Clostridium difficile in a case of recurrent C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:410412. (Erratum, 26:1250.)
29. Cummins, C. S.,, and C. W. Moss. 1990. Fatty acid composition of Propionibacterium propionicum (Arachnia propionica). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40:307308.
30. Demirev, P. A.,, Y. P. Ho,, V. Ryzhov,, and C. Fenselau. 1999. Microorganism identification by mass spectrometry and protein database searches. Anal. Chem. 71:27322738.
31. Dowell, V. R., Jr.,, and S. D. Allen,. 1981. Anaerobic bacterial infections, p. 171213. In A. Balows, and W. J. Hausler (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Bacterial, Mycotic, and Parasitic Infections, 6th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
32. Dowell, V. R., Jr.,, and T. M. Hawkins. 1981. Laboratory Methods in Anaerobic Bacteriology. CDC Laboratory Manual, HHS publication no. (CDC) 81-8272. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
33. Dowell, V. R., Jr.,, and G. L. Lombard,. 1982. Differential agar media for identification of anaerobic bacteria, p. 258262. In R. C. Tilton (ed.), Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
34. Dowell, V. R., Jr.,, and G. L. Lombard. 1984. Procedures for preliminary identification of bacteria. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga.
35. Drucker, D. B.,, H. S. Aluyi,, V. Boote,, J. M. Wilson,, and Y. Ling. 1993. Polar lipids of strains of Prevotella, Bacteroides and Capnocytophaga analysed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Microbios 75:4556.
36. Durmaz, B.,, H. R. Jousimies-Somer,, and S. M. Finegold. 1995. Enzymatic profiles of Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Bacteroides species obtained with the API ZYM system and Rosco diagnostic tablets. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20(Suppl. 2):S192194.
37. Engelkirk, P. G.,, J. Duben-Engelkirk,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1992. Principles and Practice of Clinical Anaerobic Bacteriology. Star Publishing, Belmont, Calif.
38. Fach, P.,, M. Gibert,, R. Griffais,, J. P. Guillou,, and M. R. Popoff. 1995. PCR and gene probe identification of botulinum neurotoxin A-, B-, E-, F-, and G-producing Clostridium spp. and evaluation in food samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:389392.
39. Fach, P.,, and M. R. Popoff. 1997. Detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in food and fecal samples with a duplex PCR and the slide latex agglutination test. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:42324236.
40. Fekety, R. 1997. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. American College of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92:739750.
41. Ferreira, J. L.,, M. K. Hamdy,, S. G. McCay,, M. Hemphill,, N. Kirma,, and B. R. Baumstark. 1994. Detection of Clostridium botulinum type F using the polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Cell. Probes 8:365373.
42. Finegold, S. M., 2000. Anaerobic bacteria: general concepts, p. 25192537. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th ed., vol. 2. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, Pa.
43. Finegold, S. M.,, and W. L. George (ed.). 1989. Anaerobic Infections in Humans. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.
44. Fontana, C.,, T. Jezzi,, G. P. Testore,, and B. Dainelli. 1995. Differentiation of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium sordellii, and Clostridium perfringens from diarrheal stool by API ZYM and API LRA oxidase test. Microbiol. Immunol. 39:231235.
45. Franciosa, G.,, L. Fenicia,, C. Caldiani,, and P. Aureli. 1996. PCR for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C in avian and environmental samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:882885.
46. Franciosa, G.,, J. L. Ferreira,, and C. L. Hatheway. 1994. Detection of type A, B, and E botulism neurotoxin genes in Clostridium botulinum and other Clostridium species by PCR: evidence of unexpressed type B toxin genes in type A toxigenic organisms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:19111917.
47. Gargan, R. A.,, and I. Phillips. 1979. A comparison of three methods for the transport of clinical specimens containing anaerobes. Med. Lab. Sci. 36:159169.
48. Gerding, D. N.,, and J. S. Brazier. 1993. Optimal methods for identifying Clostridium difficile infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16(Suppl. 4):S439442.
49. Gerding, D. N.,, S. Johnson,, L. R. Peterson,, M. E. Mulligan,, and J. Silva, Jr. 1995. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 16:459477.
50. Ghanem, F. M.,, A. C. Ridpath,, W. E. Moore,, and L. V. Moore. 1991. Identification of Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium argentinense, and related organisms by cellular fatty acid analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:11141124.
50a.. Gröschel, D. H. 1996. Clostridium difficile infection. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 33:203245.
51. Guillot, E.,, and C. Mouton. 1996. A PCR-DNA probe assay specific for Bacteroides forsythus. Mol. Cell. Probes 10:413421.
52. Hagen, J. C.,, W. S. Wood,, and T. Hashimoto. 1977. Effect of temperature on survival of Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis and Escherichia coli in pus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6:567570.
53. Hall, V.,, G. L. O’Neill,, J. T. Magee,, and B. I. Duerden. 1999. Development of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis for identification of Actinomyces species and comparison with pyrolysis-mass spectrometry and conventional biochemical tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:22552261.
54. Hansen, S. L.,, and B. J. Stewart. 1976. Comparison of API and Minitek to Center for Disease Control methods for the biochemical characterization of anaerobes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4:227231.
55. Hanson, C. W.,, R. Cassorla,, and W. J. Martin. 1979. API and Minitek systems in identification of clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli and Clostridium species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10:1418.
56. Head, C. B.,, and S. Ratnam. 1988. Comparison of API ZYM system with API AN-Ident, API 20A, Minitek Anaerobe II, and RapID-ANA systems for identification of Clostridium difficile. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:144146.
57. Hielm, S.,, E. Hyytia,, J. Ridell,, and H. Korkeala. 1996. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in fish and environmental samples using polymerase chain reaction. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 31:357365.
58. Hofstad, T. 1980. Evaluation of the API ZYM system for identification of Bacteroides and Fusobacterium species. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 168:173177.
59. Holdeman, L. V.,, E. P. Cato,, and W. E. C. Moore. 1977. Anaerobe Laboratory Manual. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
60. Holdeman, L. V.,, and W. E. Moore. 1975. Identification of anaerobes in the clinical laboratory. Am. J. Med. Technol. 41:411416.
61. Holdeman, L. V.,, and W. E. C. Moore (ed.). 1987. Anaerobe Laboratory Manual (Supplement), 4th ed. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
62. Holland, R. D.,, J. G. Wilkes,, F. Rafii,, J. B. Sutherland,, C. C. Persons,, K. J. Voorhees,, and J. O. Lay, Jr. 1996. Rapid identification of intact whole bacteria based on spectral patterns using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 10:12271232.
63. Holloway, Y.,, and J. Dankert. 1979. Identification of anaerobes on the Minitek System, compared to a conventional system. Zentbl. Bakteriol. Orig. A 245:324331.
64. Hudspeth, M. K.,, S. H. Gerardo,, D. M. Citron,, and E. J. Goldstein. 1997. Growth characteristics and a novel method for identification (the WEE-TAB system) of Porphyromonas species isolated from infected dog and cat bite wounds in humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:24502453.
65. Hussain, Z.,, R. Lannigan,, B. C. Schieven,, L. Stoakes,, T. Kelly,, and D. Groves. 1987. Comparison of RapID-ANA and Minitek with a conventional method for biochemical identification of anaerobes. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7:6972.
66. Jacobs, J.,, B. Rudensky,, J. Dresner,, A. Berman,, M. Sonnenblick,, Y. van Dijk,, and A. M. Yinnon. 1996. Comparison of four laboratory tests for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:561566.
67. Jenkins, S. A.,, D. B. Drucker,, M. G. Keaney,, and L. A. Ganguli. 1991. Evaluation of the RAPID ID 32A system for the identification of Bacteroides fragilis and related organisms. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 71:360365.
68. Johnson, S.,, and D. N. Gerding. 1998. Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:10271036.
69. Jousimies-Somer, H.,, and P. Summanen. 1997. Microbiology terminology update: clinically significant anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (excluding spirochetes). Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:1114.
70. Jousimies-Somer, H. R.,, P. H. Summanen,, and S. M. Finegold,. 19991. Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and other anaerobic gram-negative rods and cocci, p. 690711. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
71. Karasawa, T.,, T. Nojiri,, Y. Hayashi,, T. Maegawa,, K. Yamakawa,, X. M. Wang,, and S. Nakamura. 1999. Laboratory diagnosis of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by polymerase chain reaction: presence of toxin genes and their stable expression in toxigenic isolates from Japanese individuals. J. Gastroenterol. 34:4145.
72. Kato, H.,, N. Kato,, K. Watanabe,, N. Iwai,, H. Nakamura,, T. Yamamoto,, K. Suzuki,, S. M. Kim,, Y. Chong,, and E. B. Wasito. 1998. Identification of toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:21782182.
73. Kato, N.,, C. Y. Ou,, H. Kato,, S. L. Bartley,, V. K. Brown,, V. R. Dowell, Jr.,, and K. Ueno. 1991. Identification of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by the polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:3337.
74. Kato, N.,, C. Y. Ou,, H. Kato,, S. L. Bartley,, C. C. Luo,, G. E. Killgore,, and K. Ueno. 1993. Detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in stool specimens by the polymerase chain reaction. J. Infect. Dis. 167:455458.
75. Kelley, R. W. 1982. Phenotypic differentiation of some of the Veillonella species with the API ZYM system. Can. J. Microbiol. 28:703705.
76. Kitch, T. T.,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1989. Accuracy and reproducibility of the 4-hour ATB 32A method for anaerobe identification. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:25092513.
77. Koneman, E. W.,, S. D. Allen,, W. M. Janda,, P. C. Schreckenberger,, and W. C. Winn, Jr. 1997. Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 5th ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
78. Kreader, C. A. 1998. Persistence of PCR-detectable Bacteroides distasonis from human feces in river water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:41034105.
79. Krishnamurthy, T.,, M. T. Davis,, D. C. Stahl,, and T. D. Lee. 1999. Liquid chromatography/microspray mass spectrometry for bacterial investigations. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 13:3949.
80. Krishnamurthy, T.,, and P. L. Ross. 1996. Rapid identification of bacteria by direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization mass spectrometric analysis of whole cells. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 10:19921996.
81. Laughon, B. E.,, S. A. Syed,, and W. J. Loesche. 1982. API ZYM system for identification of Bacteroides spp., Capnocytophaga spp., and spirochetes of oral origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:97102.
82. Levett, P. N. 1985. Identification of Clostridium difficile using the API ZYM system. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4:505507.
83. Limaye, A. P.,, D. K. Turgeon,, B. T. Cookson,, and T. R. Fritsche. 2000. Pseudomembranous colitis caused by a toxin A− B+ strain of Clostridium difficile. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:16961697.
84. Looney, W. J.,, A. J. Gallusser,, and H. K. Modde. 1990. Evaluation of the ATB 32 A system for identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:15191524.
85. Lyerly, D. M.,, and S. D. Allen,. 1997. The Clostridia, p. 559623. In A. M. Emmerson,, P. Hawkey,, and S. Gillespie (ed.), Principles and Practice of Clinical Bacteriology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y.
86. Lyerly, D. M.,, L. M. Neville,, D. T. Evans,, J. Fill,, S. Allen,, W. Greene,, R. Sautter,, P. Hnatuck,, D. J. Torpey,, and R. Schwalbe. 1998. Multicenter evaluation of the Clostridium difficile TOX A/B TEST. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:184190.
87. Magee, J. T.,, J. M. Hindmarch,, K. W. Bennett,, B. I. Duerden,, and R. E. Aries. 1989. A pyrolysis mass spectrometry study of fusobacteria. J. Med. Microbiol. 28:227236.
88. Magee, J. T.,, J. M. Hindmarch,, B. I. Duerden,, and L. Goodwin. 1992. Classification of oral pigmented anaerobic bacilli by pyrolysis mass spectrometry and biochemical tests. J. Med. Microbiol. 37:5661.
89. Mangels, J. I., 1998. Anaerobic bacteriology, p. 127167. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Essential Procedures for Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
90. Marler, L.,, S. Allen,, and J. Siders. 1984. Rapid enzymatic characterization of clinically encountered anaerobic bacteria with the API ZYM system. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 3:294300.
91. Marler, L. M.,, J. A. Siders,, and S. D. Allen. 2001. Direct Smear Atlas: a Monograph of Gram-Stained Preparations of Clinical Specimens. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
92. Marler, L. M.,, J. A. Siders,, L. C. Wolters,, Y. Pettigrew,, B. L. Skitt,, and S. D. Allen. 1991. Evaluation of the new RapID-ANA II system for the identification of clinical anaerobic isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:874878.
93. Matto, J.,, M. Saarela,, S. Alaluusua,, V. Oja,, H. Jousimies-Somer,, and S. Asikainen. 1998. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis from saliva by PCR by using a simple sample-processing method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:157160.
94. Matto, J.,, M. Saarela,, B. von Troil-Linden,, S. Alaluusua,, H. Jousimies-Somer,, and S. Asikainen. 1996. Similarity of salivary and subgingival Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolates by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 11:395401.
95. Miles, B. L.,, J. A. Siders,, and S. D. Allen. 1988. Evaluation of a commercial latex test for Clostridium difficile for reactivity with C. difficile and cross-reactions with other bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:24522455.
96. Miller, J. M.,, and H. T. Holmes,. 1999. Specimen, collection, transport and storage, p. 3363. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
97. Miller, P. H.,, L. S. Wiggs,, and J. M. Miller. 1995. Evaluation of API An-IDENT and RapID ANA II systems for identification of Actinomyces species from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:329330.
98. Miwa, N.,, T. Nishina,, S. Kubo,, and K. Fujikura. 1996. Nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of low levels of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in animal feces and meat. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 58:197203.
99. Moll, W. M.,, J. Ungerechts,, G. Marklein,, and K. P. Schaal. 1996. Comparison of BBL Crystal ANR ID Kit and API rapid ID 32 A for identification of anaerobic bacteria. Zentbl. Bakteriol. 284:329347.
100. Moncrief, J. S.,, L. Zheng,, L. M. Neville,, and D. M. Lyerly. 2000. Genetic characterization of toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile isolates by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:30723075.
101. Moore, L. V.,, D. M. Bourne,, and W. E. Moore. 1994. Comparative distribution and taxonomic value of cellular fatty acids in thirty-three genera of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:338347.
102. Mosca, A.,, P. Summanen,, S. M. Finegold,, G. De Michele,, and G. Miragliotta. 1998. Cellular fatty acid composition, soluble-protein profile, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Eubacterium lentum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:752755.
103. Moss, C. W., 1984. Chemotaxonomic studies of microorganisms using gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and associated analytical techniques, p. 6370. In A. Sanna, and G. Morace (ed.), New Horizons in Microbiology. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, N.Y.
104. Moss, C. W.,, and S. B. Dees. 1975. Identification of microorganisms by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of cellular fatty acids. J. Chromatogr. 112:594604.
105. Moss, C. W.,, V. R. Dowell, Jr.,, D. Farshtchi,, L. J. Raines,, and W. B. Cherry. 1969. Cultural characteristics and fatty acid composition of propionibacteria. J. Bacteriol. 97:561570.
106. Moss, C. W.,, and V. J. Lewis. 1967. Characterization of clostridia by gas chromatography. I. Differentiation of species by cellular fatty acids. Appl. Microbiol. 15:390397.
107. Murdoch, D. A. 1998. Gram-positive anaerobic cocci. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:81120.
108. Murdoch, D. A. 1999. Reclassification of Peptostreptococcus magnus (Prevot 1933) Holdeman and Moore 1972 as Finegoldia magna comb. nov. and Peptostreptococcus micros (Prevot 1933) Smith 1957 as Micromonas micros comb. nov. Anaerobe 5:555559.
109. Murdoch, D. A.,, H. N. Shah,, S. E. Gharbia,, and D. Rajendram. 2000. Proposal to restrict the genus Peptostreptococcus (Kluyver & van Niel 1936) to Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. Anaerobe 6:257260.
110. Murray, P. R.,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.). 1999. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press,Washington, D.C.
111. Pattyn, S. R.,, M. Ieven,, and L. Buffet. 1993. Comparative evaluation of the Rapid ID 32A kit system, miniaturized standard procedure and a rapid fermentation procedure for the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Acta Clin. Belg. 48:8185.
112. Peterson, L. R.,, P. J. Kelly,, and H. A. Nordbrock. 1996. Role of culture and toxin detection in laboratory testing for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:330336.
113. Quentin, C.,, M. A. Desailly-Chanson,, and C. Bebear. 1991. Evaluation of AN-Ident. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:231235.
114. Rodloff, A. C.,, S. L. Hillier,, and B. J. Moncla,. 1999. Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, Actinomyces, and other non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, p. 672689. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
115. Rosenblatt, J. E. 1985. Anaerobic identification systems. Clin. Lab. Med. 5:5965.
116. Saito, M.,, M. Matsumoto,, and M. Funabashi. 1992. Detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin gene by the polymerase chain reaction amplification procedure. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 17:4755.
117. Sambol, S. P.,, M. M. Merrigan,, D. Lyerly,, D. N. Gerding,, and S. Johnson. 2000. Toxin gene analysis of a variant strain of Clostridium difficile that causes human clinical disease. Infect. Immun. 68:54805487.
118. Schoepe, H.,, H. Potschka,, T. Schlapp,, J. Fiedler,, H. Schau,, and G. Baljer. 1998. Controlled multiplex PCR of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strains in food samples. Mol. Cell. Probes 12:359365.
119. Schreckenberger, P. C.,, D. M. Celig,, and W. M. Janda. 1988. Clinical evaluation of the Vitek ANI card for identification of anaerobic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:225230.
120. Shah, H. N.,, and S. E. Gharbia,. 1991. Bacteroides and Fusobacterium classification and relationship to other bacteria, p. 6284. In B. I. Duerden, and B. S. Drasar (ed.), Anaerobes in Human Diseases. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
121. Shetab, R.,, S. H. Cohen,, T. Prindiville,, Y. J. Tang,, M. Cantrell,, D. Rahmani,, and J. Silva, Jr. 1998. Detection of Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin gene by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:17291732.
122. Siders, J. A., 1992. Prereduced anaerobically sterilized biochemicals, p. 2.7.. In H. D. Isenberg (ed.), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
123. Slots, J. 1981. Enzymatic characterization of some oral and nonoral gram-negative bacteria with the API ZYM system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:288294.
124. Slots, J.,, A. Ashimoto,, M. J. Flynn,, G. Li,, and C. Chen. 1995. Detection of putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival specimens by 16S ribosomal DNA amplification with the polymerase chain reaction. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20(Suppl. 2):S304307.
125. Smith, L. D. S.,, and B. L. Williams. 1984. The Pathogenic Anaerobic Bacteria, 3rd ed. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.
126. Stackebrandt, E.,, and B. M. Goebel. 1994. Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:846849.
127. Stackebrandt, E.,, W. Liesack,, and D. Witt. 1992. Ribosomal RNA and rDNA sequence analyses. Gene 115:255260.
128. Staneck, J. L.,, L. S. Weckbach,, S. D. Allen,, J. A. Siders,, P. H. Gilligan,, G. Coppitt,, J. A. Kraft,, and D. H. Willis. 1996. Multicenter evaluation of four methods for Clostridium difficile detection: Immuno- Card C. difficile, cytotoxin assay, culture, and latex agglutination. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:27182721.
129. Stargel, D.,, F. S. Thompson,, S. E. Phillips,, G. L. Lombard,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1976. Modification of the Minitek Miniaturized Differentiation System for characterization of anaerobic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 3:291301.
130. Stargel, M. D.,, G. L. Lombard,, and V. R. Dowell, Jr. 1978. Alternative procedures for identification of anaerobic bacteria. Am. J. Med. Technol. 44:709722.
131. Stoakes, L.,, T. Kelly,, K. Manarin,, B. Schieven,, R. Lannigan,, D. Groves,, and Z. Hussain. 1990. Accuracy and reproducibility of the MicroScan rapid anaerobe identification system with an automated reader. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:11351138.
132. Summanen, P.,, E. J. Baron,, D. M. Citron,, C. A. Strong,, H. M. Wexler,, and S. M. Finegold. 1993. Wadsworth Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual, 5th ed. Star Publishing, Belmont, Calif.
133. Summanen, P.,, and H. Jousimies-Somer. 1988. Comparative evaluation of RapID ANA and API 20 A for identification of anaerobic bacteria. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7:771775.
134. Takeuchi, S.,, N. Hashizume,, T. Kinoshita,, T. Kaidoh,, and Y. Tamura. 1997. Detection of Clostridium septicum hemolysin gene by polymerase chain reaction. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 59:853855.
135. Tanner, A. C.,, M. N. Strzempko,, C. A. Belsky,, and G. A. McKinley. 1985. API ZYM and API An-Ident reactions of fastidious oral gram-negative species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:333335.
136. Tharagonnet, D.,, P. R. Sisson,, C. M. Roxby,, H. R. Ingham,, and J. B. Selkon. 1977. The API ZYM system in the identification of Gram-negative anaerobes. J. Clin. Pathol. 30:505509.
137. Traci, P. A.,, and C. L. Duncan. 1974. Cold shock lethality and injury in Clostridium perfringens. Appl. Microbiol. 28:815821.
138. Tuner, K.,, E. J. Baron,, P. Summanen,, and S. M. Finegold. 1992. Cellular fatty acids in Fusobacterium species as a tool for identification. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:32253229.
139. van Winkelhoff, A. J.,, M. Clement,, and J. de Graaff. 1988. Rapid characterization of oral and nonoral pigmented Bacteroides species with the ATB Anaerobes ID system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:10631065.
140. Wang, R. F.,, W. W. Cao,, and C. E. Cerniglia. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of Fusobacterium prausnitzii based upon the 16S rRNA gene sequence and PCR confirmation. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:341343.
141. Welch, D. F. 1991. Applications of cellular fatty acid analysis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4:422438.
142. Welham, K. J.,, M. A. Domin,, D. E. Scannell,, E. Cohen,, and D. S. Ashton. 1998. The characterization of micro-organisms by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 12:176180.
143. Whaley, D. N.,, L. S. Wiggs,, P. H. Miller,, P. U. Srivastava,, and J. M. Miller. 1995. Use of Presumpto Plates to identify anaerobic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:11961202.
144. Wimberley, N.,, L. J. Faling,, and J. G. Bartlett. 1979. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy technique to obtain uncontaminated lower airway secretions for bacterial culture. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 119:337343.
145. Yamagishi, T.,, K. Sugitani,, K. Tanishima,, and S. Nakamura. 1997. Polymerase chain reaction test for differentiation of five toxin types of Clostridium perfringens. Microbiol. Immunol. 41:295299.
146. Yamashita, Y.,, S. Kohno,, H. Koga,, K. Tomono,, and M. Kaku. 1994. Detection of Bacteroides fragilis in clinical specimens by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:679683.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Examples of specimens and collection procedures in anaerobic bacteriology

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Commercially available anaerobe transport devices

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Commercially available anaerobic incubation systems: manufacturers and catalog list prices

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Manufacturers and vendors of anaerobe chambers and GCs

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Selection of conventional PRAS biochemical tests to differentiate anaerobe isolates

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Commercially available products for anaerobe identification and list prices

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 7

Media and characteristics of anaerobe isolates that can be determined using the Presumpto quadrant plate procedure for anaerobe identification

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 8

Practical and simple manual methods for characterization and presumptive identification of anaerobes

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 9

Source of supplies for disk tests used in presumptive identification of anaerobes

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 10

Tests available in single-tablet format for assessing preformed enzymatic activity of anaerobes

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 11

Miniaturized and rapid commercial packaged kit systems for identification of anaerobes

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 12

Test substrates available in the API ZYM system for detecting preformed enzymatic activities

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 13

Data compiled from published commercial kit evaluations on the identification of commonly encountered anaerobes to genus and species level, correctly without the use of additional tests

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 14

Summary of biochemical test reactions or substrates available in the 4-h commercial packaged microsystems

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 15

Identification of anaerobic bacteria by rapid ID 32 A

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 16

Identification of anaerobic bacteria using the BBL Crystal ANR ID System

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 17

Tests for the detection of antigens in stool specimens

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 18

Commercially available products related to testing

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 19

Composite performance data compiled for six immunodiagnostic products marketed for detection of

Citation: Allen S, Emery C, Siders J. 2002. Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 50-83. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch4

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error