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Chapter 5 : Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5

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Abstract:

In this chapter, the author reviews the most common commercially available kits and methods for the routine clinical virology laboratory. Outbreaks of influenza occur annually during the winter. The virus infects the columnar epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract, and in the majority of those infected, the virus causes a disease characterized by fever, pharyngitis, and myalgias. The BD Directigen Flu A assay introduced 10 years ago, detects only influenza A virus, and of all the assays listed, it is the most extensively evaluated. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of viral lower respiratory tract infections among infants and young children worldwide. Unlike influenza virus, RSV is relatively difficult to recover in cell culture. Most of the immunoassays for RSV were developed and extensively evaluated in the early 1980s. Gardner and McQuillan comprehensively examined the value of immunofluorescence staining for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in the early 1980s. Since influenza antigens are found in the nucleus and cytoplasm and parainfluenza virus antigens are exclusively cytoplasmic, the staining pattern may provide a clue to the identity of the virus and thus direct subsequent staining. Many viruses, including astroviruses, caliciviruses (Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses), coronaviruses (the genus Torovirus), adenoviruses, and rotaviruses cause gastrointestinal disease in humans, and unfortunately, all are either difficult or impossible to cultivate in routinely used cell cultures. The adenoviruses cause a broad spectrum of human disease, including pharyngitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, and diarrhea.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5

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Viral Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

ZstatFlu (left), FLU OIA (middle), and Directigen Flu A (right).

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Directigen Flu A+B device.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

QuickVue. Courtesy of Quidel Corp.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

VIDAS instrument.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

VIDAS cuvettes and tip.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Directigen RSV kit. Courtesy of BD Diagnostic Systems.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Bartels Respiratory kit. Courtesy of Trinity Biotech.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

ImmunoCard Rotavirus. Courtesy of Meridian Diagnostics.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

ImmunoCard STAT! Rotavirus. Courtesy of Meridian Diagnostics.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Cells stained with Biotest assay. Courtesy of Biotest Diagnostics Corp.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Biotest kit in its entirety. Courtesy of Biotest Diagnostics Corp.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Rapid diagnostic tests for influenza virus

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5

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