1887

Chapter 5 : Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817961/9781555811891_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817961/9781555811891_Chap05-2.gif

Abstract:

In this chapter, the author reviews the most common commercially available kits and methods for the routine clinical virology laboratory. Outbreaks of influenza occur annually during the winter. The virus infects the columnar epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract, and in the majority of those infected, the virus causes a disease characterized by fever, pharyngitis, and myalgias. The BD Directigen Flu A assay introduced 10 years ago, detects only influenza A virus, and of all the assays listed, it is the most extensively evaluated. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of viral lower respiratory tract infections among infants and young children worldwide. Unlike influenza virus, RSV is relatively difficult to recover in cell culture. Most of the immunoassays for RSV were developed and extensively evaluated in the early 1980s. Gardner and McQuillan comprehensively examined the value of immunofluorescence staining for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in the early 1980s. Since influenza antigens are found in the nucleus and cytoplasm and parainfluenza virus antigens are exclusively cytoplasmic, the staining pattern may provide a clue to the identity of the virus and thus direct subsequent staining. Many viruses, including astroviruses, caliciviruses (Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses), coronaviruses (the genus Torovirus), adenoviruses, and rotaviruses cause gastrointestinal disease in humans, and unfortunately, all are either difficult or impossible to cultivate in routinely used cell cultures. The adenoviruses cause a broad spectrum of human disease, including pharyngitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, and diarrhea.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Viral Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.44402114
0.44402114
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

ZstatFlu (left), FLU OIA (middle), and Directigen Flu A (right).

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Directigen Flu A+B device.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

QuickVue. Courtesy of Quidel Corp.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

VIDAS instrument.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

VIDAS cuvettes and tip.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Directigen RSV kit. Courtesy of BD Diagnostic Systems.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Bartels Respiratory kit. Courtesy of Trinity Biotech.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

ImmunoCard Rotavirus. Courtesy of Meridian Diagnostics.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

ImmunoCard STAT! Rotavirus. Courtesy of Meridian Diagnostics.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Cells stained with Biotest assay. Courtesy of Biotest Diagnostics Corp.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Biotest kit in its entirety. Courtesy of Biotest Diagnostics Corp.

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817961.chap5
1. Arvin, A. M. 1996. Varicella-zoster virus. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9: 361 381.
2. Arvin, A. M.,, and C. G. Prober,. 1999. Herpes simplex viruses, p. 878 887. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
3. Baldanti, F.,, M. G. Revello,, E. Percivalle,, and G. Gerna. 1998. Use of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antigenemia assay for diagnosis and monitoring of HCMV infections and detection of antiviral drug resistance in the immunocompromised. J. Clin. Virol. 11: 51 60.
4. Barenfanger, J.,, C. Drake,, N. Leon,, T. Mueller,, and T. Troutt. 2000. Clinical and financial benefits of rapid detection of respiratory viruses: an outcomes study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2824 2828.
5. Beards, G.,, C. Graham,, and D. Pillay. 1998. Investigation of vesicular rashes for HSV and VZV by PCR. J. Med. Virol. 54: 155 157.
6. Blank, B. S.,, P. L. Meenhorst,, J. W. Mulder,, G. J. Weverling,, H. Putter,, W. Pauw,, W. C. van Dijk,, P. Smits,, S. Lie-A-Ling,, P. Reiss,, and J. M. Lange. 2000. Value of different assays for detection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in predicting the development of HCMV disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 563 569.
7. Blok, M. J.,, M. H. Christiaans,, V. J. Goossens,, J. P. van Hooff,, P. Sillekens,, J. M. Middeldorp,, and C. A. Bruggeman. 1999. Early detection of human cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. Transplantation 67: 1274 1277.
8. Boeckh, M.,, and G. Boivin. 1998. Quantitation of cytomegalovirus: methodologic aspects and clinical applications. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 533 554.
9. Caliendo, A. M.,, K. St George,, S. Y. Kao,, J. Allega,, B. H. Tan,, R. LaFontaine,, L. Bui,, and C. R. Rinaldo. 2000. Comparison of quantitative cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR in plasma and CMV antigenemia assay: clinical utility of the prototype AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test in transplant recipients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2122 2127.
10. Callihan, D. R.,, and M. A. Menegus. 1984. Rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in clinical specimens with human embryonic lung fibroblast and primary rabbit kidney cell cultures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 563 565.
11. Chernoff, D. N.,, R. C. Miner,, B. S. Hoo,, L. P. Shen,, R. J. Kelso,, D. Jekic-McMullen,, J. P. Lalezari,, S. Chou,, W. L. Drew,, and J. A. Kolberg. 1997. Quantification of cytomegalovirus DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes by a branched-DNA signal amplification assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2740 2744.
12. Chomel, J. J.,, M. F. Remilleux,, P. Marchand,, and M. Aymard. 1992. Rapid diagnosis of influenza A. Comparison with ELISA immunocapture and culture. J. Virol. Methods 37: 337 343.
13. Christensen, M. L., 1999. Rotaviruses, p. 999 1004. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
14. Covalciuc, K. A.,, K. H. Webb,, and C. A. Carlson. 1999. Comparison of four clinical specimen types for detection of influenza A and B viruses by optical immunoassay (FLU OIA test) and cell culture methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3971 3974.
15. Dahl, H.,, J. Marcoccia,, and A. Linde. 1997. Antigen detection: the method of choice in comparison with virus isolation and serology for laboratory diagnosis of herpes zoster in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 347 349.
16. de Jong, M. D.,, J. F. Weel,, T. Schuurman,, P. M. Wertheim-van Dillen,, and R. Boom. 2000. Quantitation of varicella-zoster virus DNA in whole blood, plasma, and serum by PCR and electrochemiluminescence. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2568 2573.
17. Dennehy, P. H.,, M. Hartin,, S. M. Nelson,, and S. F. Reising. 1999. Evaluation of the ImmunoCardSTAT! rotavirus assay for detection of group A rotavirus in fecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1977 1979.
18. Dennehy, P. H.,, T. E. Schutzbank,, and G. M. Thorne. 1994. Evaluation of an automated immunodiagnostic assay, VIDAS Rotavirus, for detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 825 827.
19. Doing, K. M.,, M. A. Jerkofsky,, E. G. Dow,, and J. A. Jellison. 1998. Use of fluorescent-antibody staining of cytocentrifuge-prepared smears in combination with cell culture for direct detection of respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2112 2114.
20. Dominguez, E. A.,, L. H. Taber,, and R. B. Couch. 1993. Comparison of rapid diagnostic techniques for respiratory syncytial and influenza A virus respiratory infections in young children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2286 2290.
21. Espy, M. J.,, R. Teo,, T. K. Ross,, K. A. Svien,, A. D. Wold,, J. R. Uhl,, and T. F. Smith. 2000. Diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infections in the clinical laboratory by LightCycler PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3187 3189.
22. Espy, M. J.,, T. K. Ross,, R. Teo,, K. A. Svien,, A. D. Wold,, J. R. Uhl,, and T. F. Smith. 2000. Evaluation of LightCycler PCR for implementation of laboratory diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3116 3118.
23. Gardner, P. S.,, and J. McQuillin. 1980. Rapid Virus Diagnosis: Application of Immunofluorescence, 2nd ed. Butterworths, London, United Kingdom.
24. Gerna, G.,, F. Baldanti,, D. Lilleri,, M. Parea,, E. Alessandrino,, A. Pagani,, F. Locatelli,, J. Middeldorp,, and M. G. Revello. 2000. Human cytomegalovirus immediate-early mRNA detection by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification as a new parameter for preemptive therapy in bone marrow transplant recipients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1845 1853.
25. Grandien, M.,, C. A. Pettersson,, L. Svensson,, and I. Uhnoo. 1987. Latex agglutination test for adenovirus diagnosis in diarrheal disease. J. Med. Virol. 23: 311 316.
26. Hadziyannis, E.,, W. Sholtis,, S. Schindler,, and B. Yen-Lieberman. 1999. Comparison of VIDAS with direct immunofluorescence for the detection of respira- tory syncytial virus in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Virol. 14: 133 136.
27. Hall, C. B. 1999. Respiratory syncytial virus: a continuing culprit and conundrum. J. Pediatr. 135: 2 7.
28. Halstead, D. C.,, S. Todd,, and G. Fritch. 1990. Evaluation of five methods for respiratory syncytial virus detection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 1021 1025.
29. Hiyoshi, M.,, S. Tagawa,, T. Takubo,, K. Tanaka,, T. Nakao,, Y. Higeno,, K. Tamura,, M. Shimaoka,, A. Fujii,, M. Higashihata,, Y. Yasui,, T. Kim,, A. Hiraoka,, and N. Tatsumi. 1997. Evaluation of the AMPLICOR CMV test for direct detection of cytomegalovirus in plasma specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2692 2694.
30. Johnston, S. L.,, and C. S. Siegel. 1990. Evaluation of direct immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, centrifugation culture, and conventional culture for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 2394 2397.
31. Johnston, S. L.,, and H. Bloy. 1993. Evaluation of a rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of influenza A virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 142 143.
32. Kaiser, L.,, M. S. Briones,, and F. G. Hayden. 1999. Performance of virus isolation and Directigen Flu A to detect influenza A virus in experimental human infection. J. Clin. Virol. 14: 191 197.
33. Kellogg, J. A. 1991. Culture vs direct antigen assays for detection of microbial pathogens from lower respiratory tract specimens suspected of containing the respiratory syncytial virus. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 115: 451 458.
34. Knox, C. M.,, D. Chandler,, G. A. Short,, and T. P. Margolis. 1998. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays of vitreous samples for the diagnosis of viral retinitis. Use in diagnostic dilemmas. Ophthalmology 105: 37 44.
35. Landry, M. L.,, and D. Ferguson. 2000. Two-hour cytomegalovirus pp65 antigenemia assay for rapid quantitation of cytomegalovirus in blood samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 427 428.
36. Landry, M. L.,, and D. Ferguson. 2000. SimulFluor respiratory screen for rapid detection of multiple respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by immunofluorescence staining. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 708 711.
37. Landry, M. L.,, S. Cohen,, and D. Ferguson. 2000. Impact of sample type on rapid detection of influenza virus A by cytospin-enhanced immunofluorescence and membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 429 430.
38. Leonardi, G. P.,, H. Leib,, G. S. Birkhead,, C. Smith,, P. Costello,, and W. Conron. 1994. Comparison of rapid detection methods for influenza A virus and their value in health-care management of institutionalized geriatric patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 70 74.
39. Lipson, S. M.,, D. Popiolek,, Q. Z. Hu,, L. H. Falk,, M. Bornfreund,, and L. R. Krilov. 1999. Efficacy of Directigen RSV testing in patient management following admission from a paediatric emergency department. J. Hosp. Infect. 41: 323 329.
40. Long, C. M.,, L. Drew,, R. Miner,, D. Jekic-McMullen,, C. Impraim,, and S. Y. Kao. 1998. Detection of cytomegalovirus in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by the AMPLICOR CMV test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2434 2438.
41. Marcante, R.,, F. Chiumento,, G. Palu,, and G. Cavedon. 1996. Rapid diagnosis of influenza type A infection: comparison of shell-vial culture, directigen flu-A and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. New Microbiol. 19: 141 147.
42. Matthey, S.,, D. Nicholson,, S. Ruhs,, B. Alden,, M. Knock,, K. Schultz,, and A. Schmuecker. 1992. Rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial culture and direct staining by using pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 540 544.
43. Mautner, V.,, V. Steinthorsdottir,, and A. Bailey. 1995. Enteric adenoviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 199: 229 282.
44. Mazzulli, T.,, L. W. Drew,, B. Yen-Lieberman,, D. Jekic-McMullen,, D. J. Kohn,, C. Isada,, G. Moussa,, R. Chua,, and S. Walmsley. 1999. Multicenter comparison of the digene hybrid capture CMV DNA assay (version 2.0), the pp65 antigenemia assay, and cell culture for detection of cytomegalovirus viremia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 958 963.
45. Mazzulli, T.,, R. H. Rubin,, M. J. Ferraro,, R. T. D’Aquila,, S. A. Doveikis,, B. R. Smith,, and T. H. The. 1993. Hirsch MS. Cytomegalovirus antigenemia: clinical correlations in transplant recipients and in persons with AIDS. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2824 2827.
46. Mendoza, J.,, A. Rojas,, J. M. Navarro,, C. Plata,, and M. de la Rosa. 1992. Evaluation of three rapid enzyme immunoassays and cell culture for detection of respiratory syncytial virus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11: 452 454.
47. Michaels, M. G.,, C. Serdy,, K. Barbadora,, M. Green,, A. Apalsch,, and E. R. Wald. 1992. Respiratory syncytial virus: a comparison of diagnostic modalities. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11: 613 616.
48. Miller, H.,, R. Milk,, and F. Diaz-Mitoma. 1993. Comparison of the VIDAS RSV assay and the Abbott Testpack RSV with direct immunofluorescence for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1336 1338.
49. Minnich, L. L.,, and C. G. Ray. 1987. Early testing of cell cultures for detection of hemadsorbing viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 421 422.
50. Moore, P. L.,, A. D. Steele,, and J. J. Alexander. 2000. Relevance of commercial diagnostic tests to detection of enteric adenovirus infections in South Africa. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1661 1663.
50.a. Murray, P. R.,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.). 1999. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
51. Noyola, D. E.,, A. E. Paredes,, B. Clark,, and G. J. Demmler. 2000. Evaluation of a neuraminidase assay for the rapid detection of influenza A and B infection in children. Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 3: 162 167.
52. Noyola, D. E.,, B. Clark,, F. T. O’Donnell,, R. L. Atmar,, J. Greer,, and G. J. Demmler. 2000. Comparison of a new neuraminidase detection assay with an enzyme immunoassay, immunofluorescence, and culture for rapid detection of influenza A and B viruses in nasal wash specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1161 1165.
53. Olsen, M. A.,, K. M. Shuck,, A. R. Sambol,, V. A. Bohnert,, and M. L. Henery. 1993. Performance of the Kallestad Pathfinder enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 16: 325 329.
54. Olsen, M. A.,, K. M. Shuck,, and A. R. Sambol. 1993. Evaluation of Abbott TestPack RSV for the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 16: 105 109.
55. Pedneault, L.,, L. Robillard,, and J. P. Turgeon. 1994. Validation of respiratory syncytial virus enzyme immunoassay and shell vial assay results. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2861 2864.
56. Pellegrin, I.,, I. Garrigue,, D. Ekouevi,, L. Couzi,, P. Merville,, P. Merel,, G. Chene,, M. H. Schrive,, P. Trimoulet,, M. E. Lafon,, and H. Fleury. 2000. New molecular assays to predict occurrence of cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients. J. Infect. Dis. 182: 36 42.
57. Read, S. J.,, and J. B. Kurtz. 1999. Laboratory diagnosis of common viral infections of the central nervous system by using a single multiplex PCR screening assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1352 1355.
58. Reina, J.,, M. Munar,, and I. Blanco. 1996. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescence assay, dot blot enzyme immunoassay, and shell vial culture in the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A virus. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 25: 143 145.
59. Revello, M. G.,, and R. Manservigi. 1996. Molecular diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. Intervirology 39: 185 192.
59.a. Rose, N. R.,, E. Conway de Macario,, J. D. Folds,, H. C. Lane,, and R. M. Nakamura (ed.). 1997. Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
60. Rothbarth, P. H.,, M. C. Hermus,, and P. Schrijnemakers. 1991. Reliability of two new test kits for rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 824 826.
61. Ryan-Poirier, K. A.,, J. M. Katz,, R. G. Webster,, and Y. Kawaoka. 1992. Application of Directigen FLU-A for the detection of influenza A virus in human and nonhuman specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 1072 1075.
62. Schirm, J.,, A. Kooistra,, W. J. van Son,, W. van der Bij,, E. Verschuuren,, H. G. Sprenger,, P. C. Limburg,, and T. H. The. 1999. Comparison of the Murex Hybrid Capture CMV DNA (v2.0) assay and the pp65 CMV antigenemia test for the detection and quantitation of CMV in blood samples from immunocompromised patients. J. Clin. Virol. 14: 153 165.
63. Scicchitano, L. M.,, B. Shetterly,, and P. P. Bourbeau. 1999. Evaluation of Light Diagnostics SimulFluor HSV/VZV immunofluorescence assay. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 35: 205 208.
64. Singh, N.,, D. L. Paterson,, T. Gayowski,, M. M. Wagener,, and I. R. Marino. 2000. Cytomegalovirus antigenemia directed pre-emptive prophylaxis with oral versus I.V. ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients: a randomized, controlled trial. Transplantation 70: 717 722.
65. Slomka, M. J.,, L. Emery,, P. E. Munday,, M. Moulsdale,, and D. W. Brown. 1998. A comparison of PCR with virus isolation and direct antigen detection for diagnosis and typing of genital herpes. J. Med. Virol. 55: 177 183.
66. St George, K.,, M. J. Boyd,, S. M. Lipson,, D. Ferguson,, G. F. Cartmell,, L. H. Falk,, C. R. Rinaldo,, and M. L. Landry. 2000. A multisite trial comparing two cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 antigenemia test kits, Biotest CMV Brite and Bartels/Argene CMV antigenemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1430 1433.
67. Stocchi, R.,, K. N. Ward,, R. Fanin,, M. Baccarani,, and J. F. Apperley. 1999. Management of human cytomegalovirus infection and disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Haematologica 84: 71 79.
68. Storch, G. A.,, C. A. Reed,, and Z. A. Dalu. 1988. Evaluation of a latex agglutination test for herpes simplex virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 787 788.
69. Subbarao, E. K.,, M. C. Dietrich,, T. M. De Sierra,, C. J. Black,, D. M. Super,, F. Thomas,, and M. L. Kumar. 1989. Rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus by a biotin-enhanced immunoassay: test performance by laboratory technologists and housestaff. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8: 865 869.
70. Subbarao, E. K.,, N. J. Whitehurs,, and J. L. Waner. 1987. Comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) kits with immunofluorescence and isolation in cell culture for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 8: 229 234.
71. Sullender, W. M. 2000. Respiratory syncytial virus genetic and antigenic diversity. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13: 1 15.
72. Swierkosz, E. M.,, R. Flanders,, L. Melvin,, J. D. Miller,, and M. W. Kline. 1989. Evaluation of the Abbott TESTPACK RSV enzyme immunoassay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1151 1154.
73. Tang, Y.-W.,, P. S. Mitchell,, M. J. Espy,, T. F. Smith,, and D. H. Persing. 1999. Molecular diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections in the central nervous system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2127 2136.
74. The, T. H.,, A. P. van den Berg,, M. C. Harmsen,, W. van der Bij,, and W. J. van Son. 1995. The cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay: a plea for standardization. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 99(Suppl.): 25 29.
75. Thomas, E. E.,, and L. E. Book. 1991. Comparison of two rapid methods for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (Testpack RSV and Ortho RSV ELISA) with direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation for the diagnosis of pediatric RSV infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 632 635.
76. Todd, S. J.,, L. Minnich,, and J. L. Waner. 1995. Comparison of rapid immunofluorescence procedure with TestPack RSV and Directigen FLU-A for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1650 1651.
77. Tong, C. Y.,, L. E. Cuevas,, H. Williams,, and A. Bakran. 2000. Comparison of two commercial methods for measurement of cytomegalovirus load in blood samples after renal transplantation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1209 1213.
78. van der Bij, W.,, R. Torensma,, W. J. van Son,, J. Anema,, J. Schirm,, A. M. Tegzess,, and T. H. The. 1988. Rapid immunodiagnosis of active cytomegalovirus infection by monoclonal antibody staining of blood leucocytes. J. Med.Virol. 25: 179 188.
79. Verschuuren, E. A.,, M. C. Harmsen,, P. C. Limburg,, W. van Der Bij,, A. P. van Den Berg,, A. M. Kas-Deelen,, B. Meedendorp,, W. J. van Son,, and T. H. The. 1999. Towards standardization of the human cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay. Intervirology 42: 382 389.
80. Visser, C. E.,, C. J. van Zeijl,, E. P. de Klerk,, B. M. Schillizi,, M. F. Beersma,, and A. C. Kroes. 2000. First experiences with an accelerated CMV antigenemia test: CMV Brite Turbo assay. J. Clin. Virol. 17: 65 68.
81. Vizzi, E.,, D. Ferraro,, A. Cascio,, R. Di Stefano,, and S. Arista. 1996. Detection of enteric adenoviruses 40 and 41 in stool specimens by monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays. Res. Virol. 147: 333 339.
82. Walmsley, S.,, K. O’Rourke,, C. Mortimer,, A. Rachlis,, I. Fong,, and T. Mazzulli. 1998. Predictive value of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and digene hybrid capture DNA assays for CMV disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 573 581.
83. Waner, J. L.,, N. J. Whitehurst,, S. J. Todd,, H. Shalaby,, and L. V. Wall. 1990. Comparison of Directigen RSV with viral isolation and direct immunofluorescence for the identification of respiratory syncytial virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 480 483.
84. Waner, J. L.,, S. J. Todd,, H. Shalaby,, P. Murphy,, and L. V. Wall. 1991. Comparison of Directigen FLU-A with viral isolation and direct immunofluorescence for the rapid detection and identification of influenza A virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 479 482.
85. Wattanamano, P.,, J. L. Clayton,, J. J. Kopicko,, P. Kissinger,, S. Elliot,, C. Jarrott,, S. Rangan,, and M. A. Beilke. 2000. Comparison of three assays for cytomegalovirus detection in AIDS patients at risk for retinitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 727 732.
86. Whitley, R. J.,, and F. Lakeman. 1995. Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system: therapeutic and diagnostic considerations. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 414 420.
87. Wren, C. G.,, B. J. Bate,, H. B. Masters,, and B. A. Lauer. 1990. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen in nasal washings by Abbott TestPack enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 1395 1397.
88. Yamazaki, M.,, K. Kimura,, S. Watanabe,, O. Komiyama,, Y. Mishiku,, K. Yamamoto,, N. Sugaya,, Y. Hashimoto,, N. Hagiwara,, T. Maezawa,, and M. Imai. 1999. Use of a rapid detection assay for influenza virus, on nasal aspirate specimens. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 73: 1064 1068.
89. Zeigler, T.,, and N. J. Cox,. 1999. Influenza viruses, p. 928 935. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
90. Zimmerman, S. J.,, E. Moses,, N. Sofat,, W. R. Bartholomew,, and D. Amsterdam. 1991. Evaluation of a visual, rapid membrane enzyme immunoassay for the detection of herpes simplex virus antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 842 845.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Rapid diagnostic tests for influenza virus

Citation: Menegus M. 2002. Rapid Systems and Instruments for the Identification of Viruses 5, p 84-99. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error