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Chapter 7 : Chlamydia trachomatis

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Abstract:

The chapter discusses commercially available methods for identification of . Selected molecular assays for are also included in this chapter, since the evaluation of methods and the performance of tests for and are often done concomitantly. The first portion of the chapter describes the epidemiology and clinical manifestation of infections with . The next portion details the laboratory aspects of detection of . The chapter details the test performance of the products. The traditional approach to laboratory diagnostic testing for infections has consisted of cell culture of inocula prepared from urogenital specimens. Several studies have shown that without quality assurance of specimen adequacy, more than 10% of specimens will be unsatisfactory because they contain exudate and lack urethral or endocervical columnar cells.

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7

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Outer Membrane Proteins
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Hepatitis B virus
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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Direct immunofluorescence image demonstrating elementary bodies. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Products Corporation.)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Abbott Laboratories TestPack Chlamydia (courtesy of Abbott Laboratories).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Wampole Laboratories Clearview Chlamydia (courtesy of Wampole Laboratories).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

BioStar Chlamydia OIA (kit components; courtesy of BioStar).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

BioStar Chlamydia OIA (reactions; courtesy of BioStar). (a) Weak positive; (b) moderate positive; (c) strong positive.

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Bio-Rad (Sanofi Pasteur) Microwell EIA kit components (courtesy of Bio-Rad).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Beckman Coulter Access system (courtesy of Beckman Coulter).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Beckman Coulter Access CHLAMYDIA kit components (courtesy of Beckman Coulter).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

bioMerieux, Inc., VIDAS multiparametric semiautomated immunoanalysis system (courtesy of bioMerieux, Inc.).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

bioMerieux, Inc., MiniVIDAS multiparametric semiautomated immunoanalysis system (courtesy of bio- Merieux, Inc.).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

bioMerieux, Inc., VIDAS Chlamydia kit cartridges (courtesy of bioMerieux, Inc.).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Abbott Laboratories Chlamydiazyme system (courtesy of Abbott Laboratories).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

Abbott Laboratories IMx system (courtesy of Abbot Laboratories).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

Wampole (Syva) MicroTrak XL system.

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

GenProbe PACE 2 kits (courtesy of GenProbe).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 16
FIGURE 16

Abbott Laboratories LCx analyzer (courtesy of Abbott Laboratories).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 17
FIGURE 17

Roche Cobas Amplicor system (courtesy of Roche Laboratories).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 18
FIGURE 18

Digene Hybrid Capture system and reagents (courtesy of Digene Corporation).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 19
FIGURE 19

GenProbe Amplified assay kit (courtesy of GenProbe).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 20
FIGURE 20

Becton Dickinson ProbeTec ET system (courtesy of Becton Dickinson).

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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163. Widjaja, S.,, S. Cohen,, W. E. Brady,, K. O’Reilly, Susanto, A. Wibowo, Cahyono, R. R. Graham, and K. R. Porter. 1999. Evaluation of a rapid assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in outpatient clinics in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:41834185.
164. Wiesenfeld, H. C.,, M. Uhrin,, B. W. Dixon,, and R. L. Sweet. 1994. Diagnosis of male Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis by polymerase chain reaction. Sex. Transm. Dis. 21:268271.
165. Wylie, J. L.,, S. Moses,, R. Babcock,, A. Jolly,, S. Giercke,, and G. Hammond. 1998. Comparative evaluation of Chlamydiazyme, PACE 2, and AMP-CT assays for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:34883491.
166. Xu, K.,, V. Glanton,, S. R. Johnson,, C. Beck-Sague,, V. Bhullar,, D. H. Candal,, K. S. Pettus,, C. E. Farshy,, and C. M. Black. 1998. Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection by ligase chain reaction testing of urine among adolescent women with and without Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Sex. Transm. Dis. 25:533538.
167. Yang, L. I.,, E. S. Panke,, P. A. Leist,, R. J. Fry,, and R. F. Lee. 1991. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in asymptomatic and symptomatic women: comparison of deoxyribonucleic acid probe test with tissue culture. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 165:14441453.
168. Zelin, J. M.,, A. J. Robinson,, G. L. Ridgway,, E. Allason-Jones,, and P. Williams. 1995. Chlamydial urethritis in heterosexual men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic: prevalence, symptoms, condom usage and partner change. Int. J. STD AIDS 6:2730.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Commercially available immunofluorescent reagents for detection of

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 2

Single-use EIA systems for detection of antigens

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 3

Microwell systems for detection of antigens

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 4

Semiautomated systems for detection of antigens

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 5

Direct nucleic acid probe for detection of

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 6

Nucleic acid amplification assays for detection of

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 7

Selected studies before 1995 evaluating EIA (Chlamydiazyme) detection of endocervical or male urethral C. trachomatis infection by using a culture standard or an expanded culture standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 8

Selected studies prior to 1995 evaluating EIA (Chlamydiazyme) detection of in urine from men by using culture with and without nonculture tests of urethral specimens as a standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 9

Select studies prior to 1995 evaluating EIA (MicroTrak) detection of endocervical or male urethral infection by using an expanded culture standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 10

Selected studies prior to 1995 evaluating EIA (MicroTrak) detection of in urine from males by using a culture with or without nonculture tests of urethral specimens as a standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 11

Selected studies prior to 1995 evaluating DNA probe (PACE 2) detection of endocervical or male urethral infection by using a culture standard or an expanded culture standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 12

Selected studies prior to 1995 evaluating EIA (Chlamydiazyme) detection of in urine from men by using culture with and without nonculture tests of urethral specimens as a standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 13

Selected studies prior to 1995 evaluating PCR (Amplicor) detection of in urine from men and women by using culture with nonculture tests of urethral or endocervical specimens as a standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 14

Selected studies prior to 1996 evaluating LCR (Abbott) detection of infection with endocervical or urine specimens by using culture with nonculture tests of endocervical or urethral specimens as a standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 15

Index to specific references comparing assays

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 16

LCR and GenProbe PACE 2

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 17

Summary of sensitivity and specificity of LCR and GenProbe PACE 2

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 18

LCR, culture, DFA (Syva), and PCR (Amplicor)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 19

Prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity of laboratory assays for

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 20

LCR and culture with female urine

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 21

LCR and culture with vaginal and cervical specimens and expanded standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 22

Performance of cell culture and LCR for detection of in patient-obtained vaginal and clinician-obtained cervical specimens

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 23

LCR and PCR with swab specimens and expanded standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 24

LCR and PCR with flow cytometry

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 25

LCR and EIA with urine and swab specimens and expanded standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 26

Prevalence of and sensitivity of tests by stage of menstrual cycle

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 27

LCR and EIA with urine and swab specimens

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 28

Comparison of results of LCR assay of vaginal-swab samples with those of DFA staining and the LCR assay of cervical samples and urine samples and an EIA of cervical samples from 46 . -positive women

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 29

EIA

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 30

EIA with swab samples

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 31

Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of EIAs in comparison with the resolved standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 32

Nonculture and culture tests with expanded standard

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 33

Performance characteristics of nonculture tests relative to culture before confirmation of positive results

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 34

Performance characteristics of culture and nonculture tests after confirmation of positive results

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 35

PACE 2 with different specimen delivery methods

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 36

PACE 2 and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 37

AMP-CT and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 38

Resolved performance characteristics for detection of by AMP-CT for gender and specimen type

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 39

AMP-CT and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 40

Performance characteristics for AMP-CT before resolution by discrepant analysis (initial results)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 41

Performance characteristics for AMP-CT after resolution by discrepant analysis

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 42

Amplification

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 43

Delineation of inhibitors of amplification using urine specimens

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 44

AMP-CT, PCR, LCR, and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 45

Detection of true infections by cell culture and amplification assays

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 46

AMP-CT (TMA) and COBAS AMPLICOR (PCR)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 47

AMP-CT (TMA), LCR, and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 48

Performance characteristics of TMA assay, LCR, and culture for the detection of in urogenital specimens

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 49

COBAS AMPLICOR and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 50

LCR, COBAS AMPLICOR, and EIA

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 51

LCR, COBAS AMPLICOR (PCR), culture, and EIA

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 52

Amplicor CT (PCR)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 53

Amplicor (PCR), COBAS AMPLICOR (PCR), LCR, culture, and nested PCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 54

COBAS AMPLICOR and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 55

Test results by specimen type

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 56

SDA and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 57

EIA and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 58

Vidas and culture (TC)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 59

Vidas, Amplicor, and Chlamydiazyme

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 60

COBAS AMPLICOR (PCR), LCR, and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 61

Diagnostic performance of different samples in detection of urogenital infection

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 62

Amplicor CT (PCR), COBAS AMPLICOR, LCR, and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 63

Amplicor CT (PCR) and EIA

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 64

LCR and Amplicor CT (PCR)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 65

Amplicor CT/NG, EIA, and DFA

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 66

Amplicor CT, PACE 2, and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 67

Amplicor, COBAS AMPLICOR, and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 68

Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for detection of by COBAS AMPLICOR calculated on a sample basis

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 69

ACCESS Chlamydia trachomatis and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 70

Amplicor CT/NG and performance study of CT, PCR, and DFA

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 71

Amplicor CT/GC (PCR) and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 72

Amplicor CT (PCR) and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 73

COBAS AMPLICOR CT/GC and radioimmune dot blot

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 74

PACE 2 and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 75

PACE 2, EIA, and Amplicor Ct

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 76

AMP-CT (TMA) and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 77

AMP-CT (TMA), Amplicor (PCR), and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 78

Abbott IMX and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 79

HC II, CT-ID, culture, and Amplicor CT (PCR)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 80

HC II, CT-ID, and PACE 2

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 81

BIOSTAR, culture, DFA, and Amplicor CT (PCR)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 82

BIOSTAR and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 83

BIOSTAR and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 84

LCR and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 85

Evaluation of LCR and cell culture assays for relative to the number of confirmed cases of infection among 614 men and 602 women

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 86

BD ProbeTec ET (Chlamydia), LCR, and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 87

BD ProbeTec ET (Chlamydia), culture, DFA, and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 88

PACE 2, Clearview EIA, LCR, and AMP-CT (TMA)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 89

Comparison of tests using endocervical swabs and urine

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 90

Amplicor (PCR) and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 91

Summary of improved reproducibility following procedural changes in the Abbott LCR and tests

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 92

Index to specific references comparing molecular assays

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 93

PACE 2, LCR, and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 94

PACE 2 (GC) and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 95

PACE 2 and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 96

Test results by sample type

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 97

HC II GC-ID and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 98

ProbeTec ET GC and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 99

ProbeTec ET GC and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 100

LCR and culturea

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 101

Summary of assay sensitivity and specificity for

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 102

LCR and culture (for swabs)

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 103

ProbeTec ET GC, LCR, and culture-DFA

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 104

ProbeTec ET GC, culture, DFA, and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 105

BD ProbeTec ET GC and LCR

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 106

HC II GC-ID and PACE 2

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 107

Amplicor CT/NG and culture and/or microscopy

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 108

Amplicor CT/NG and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 109

LCR and culture

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 110

Evaluation of LCR and cell culture assays for relative to the number of confirmed cases of infection among 220 men and 383 women

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7
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TABLE 111

Roche Amplicor

Citation: Jerris R, Black C. 2002. Chlamydia trachomatis, p 128-200. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch7