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Chapter 8 : Mycoplasmas

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Abstract:

Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas represent a complex and unique group of microorganisms that has previously been ignored by most diagnostic laboratories. Bacteria commonly referred to as mycoplasmas (fungus form) are included within the class Mollicutes (soft skin), which comprises four orders, five families, eight genera, and over 150 known species. Diagnostic kits for the detection and preliminary characterization of mycoplasmas are generally similar, consisting of strips with wells containing specific dried or lyophilized substrates and inhibitors. Descriptions of some of the most widely used commercial mycoplasma growth media, corresponding diagnostic kits, and their manufacturers are provided. The availability of frozen or freezedried mycoplasma media from commercial sources facilitates such transport or subculture as may be needed on an infrequent basis for low-volume laboratories that do not offer complete diagnostic service for mycoplasmas. There are no automated instruments or procedures available to detect mycoplasmas in clinical specimens. Recent data obtained using the Bact/ALERT instrument have again demonstrated the inability of automated blood culture systems to flag blood cultures containing mycoplasmas. The culture-based procedures and products described in this chapter are suitable for performance in a high-complexity hospital-based general microbiology laboratory or reference laboratory. The availability of complete diagnostic kits, similar to those now sold in Europe and some other areas may further increase the likelihood that hospital-based microbiology laboratories will begin offering diagnostic services for mycoplasmas, provided the kits can be proven to be accurate when compared directly with standard methods.

Citation: Waites K, Talkington D, Bébéar C. 2002. Mycoplasmas, p 201-224. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch8

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Immuno (Meridian Diagnostics). The Meridian Immuno is a qualitative, membrane-based EIA that can be performed in 10 min or less to detect the presence of IgM antibody directed against . A positive test is indicated by the development of a blue color in both of the upper reaction ports. Photograph courtesy of Lanier Thacker.

Citation: Waites K, Talkington D, Bébéar C. 2002. Mycoplasmas, p 201-224. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

IgG and IgM Antibody Test System (Remel Laboratories). The Remel IgG and IgM Antibody Test System is a qualitative, membrane-based EIA that can be performed in 10 min or less to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against . A positive test is indicated by the presence of a visible purple dot in the test well. Photograph courtesy of Lanier Thacker.

Citation: Waites K, Talkington D, Bébéar C. 2002. Mycoplasmas, p 201-224. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Etest technique for determining in vitro susceptibilities for . Shown is a Remel SP4 agar plate and quinupristin-dalfopristin Etest demonstrating in vitro susceptibility testing of at low power (a) and high power (b). MIC = 0.5 μg/ml.

Citation: Waites K, Talkington D, Bébéar C. 2002. Mycoplasmas, p 201-224. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch8
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Mycoplasma detection and susceptibility testing kits produced in France and sold in various countries

Citation: Waites K, Talkington D, Bébéar C. 2002. Mycoplasmas, p 201-224. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Major test kits for detection of serum antibodies to sold in the United States

Citation: Waites K, Talkington D, Bébéar C. 2002. Mycoplasmas, p 201-224. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch8

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