Chapter 24 : Viral Immune Evasion

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Viral Immune Evasion, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817978/9781555812140_Chap24-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817978/9781555812140_Chap24-2.gif


The effects of viral immune evasion proteins can occur outside host cells, in the case of chemokines, cytokines, or cell surface receptors, or inside cells, in the case of signal transduction and antigen presentation pathways. This chapter attempts to summarize examples of viral immune evasion strategies, especially the facets of the immune system frequently targeted by viruses. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human retroviruses, and vaccinia virus incorporate host complement control proteins (CCPs), CD55 and CD59, into the virion envelopes, mediating resistance to complement. The poxviruses variola virus, vaccinia virus (VV), and cowpox virus (CPV) all express CCPs, which were discovered based on sequence similarity to human and mouse CCPs. The ability of viruses to induce IFN gene expression via dsRNA varies greatly, and the viral proteins which have evolved to intercept this dsRNA-dependent activation can function either to block IFN-induced transcription or by neutralizing IFN-induced molecules that establish an antiviral state. The discovery of virus-encoded homologs of IFN regulatory factors (vIRFs) within the genome of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) suggested a mechanism whereby the viral homolog could outcompete cellular IRFs needed for the transcriptional activation of host cell IFN response genes. Inactivation occurs only after direct contact between herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected fibroblasts and the lymphocytes, not when the lymphocytes are incubated with high concentrations of cell-free virus.

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24

Key Concept Ranking

African swine fever virus
Viral Proteins
Major Histocompatibility Complex
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Viral inhibition of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway.

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Viral inhibition of the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway.

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Albini, A.,, R. Benelli,, D. Giunciuglio,, T. Cai,, G. Mariani,, S. Ferrini,, and D. M. Noonan. 1998a. Identification of a novel domain of HIV tat involved in monocyte chemotaxis. J. Biol. Chem. 273:1589515900.
2. Albini, A.,, S. Ferrini,, R. Benelli,, S. Sforzini,, D. Giunciuglio,, M. G. Aluigi,, A. E. Proudfoot,, S. Alouani,, T. N. Wells,, G. Mariani., et al. 1998b. HIV-1 Tat protein mimicry of chemokines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:1315313158.
3. Alcami, A.,, and U. H. Koszinowski. 2000. Viral mechanisms of immune evasion. Trends Microbiol. 8:410418.
4. Ambagala, A. P.,, S. Hinkley,, and S. Srikumaran. 2000. An early pseudorabies viral protein downregulates MHC class I expression by inhibition of the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP). J. Immunol. 164:9399.
5. Arvanitakis, L.,, E. Geras-Raaka,, A. Varma,, M. C. Gershengorn,, and E. Cesarman. 1997. Human herpesvirus KSHV encodes a constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptor linked to cell proliferation. Nature 385:347349.
6. Baggiolini, M.,, and P. Loetscher. 2000. Chemokines in inflammation and immunity. Immunol. Today 21:418420.
7. Bakker, A. B.,, J. Wu,, J. H. Phillips,, and L. L. Lanier. 2000. NK cell activation: distinct stimulatory pathways counterbalancing inhibitory signals. Hum. Immunol. 61:1827.
8. Barry, M.,, and G. McFadden,. 1997. Virokines and viroceptors, p. 251261. In D. G. Remick, and J. S. Friedland (ed.), Cytokines in Health and Disease. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y..
9. Barry, M.,, and G. McFadden. 1998a. Apoptosis regulators from DNA viruses. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 10:422430.
10. Barry, M.,, and G. McFadden. 1998b. Virus encoded cytokines and cytokine receptors. Parasitology 115:S89S100.
11. Bauer, S.,, V. Groh,, J. Wu,, A. Steinle,, J. H. Phillips,, L. L. Lanier,, and T. Spies. 1999. Activation of NK cells and T cells by NKG2D, a receptor for stress-inducible MICA. Science 285: 727729.
12. Benedict, C. A.,, K. D. Butrovich,, N. S. Lurain,, J. Corbeil,, I. Rooney,, P. Schneider,, J. Tschopp,, and C. F. Ware. 1999. Cutting edge: a novel viral TNF receptor superfamily member in virulent strains of human cytomegalovirus, J. Immunol. 162: 69676970.
13. Benedict, C. A.,, P. S. Norris,, T. I. Prigozy,, J. L. Bodmer,, J. A. Mahr,, C. T. Garnett,, F. Martinon,, J. Tschopp,, L. R. Gooding,, and C. F. Ware. Three adenovirus E3 proteins cooperate to evade apoptosis by TRAIL receptor-1 and 2. J. Biol. Chem., in press.
14. Bennett, E. M.,, J. R. Bennink,, J. W. Yewdell,, and F. M. Brodsky. 1999. Cutting edge: adenovirus E19 has two mechanisms for affecting class I MHC expression, J. Immunol. 162:50495052.
15. Bertoletti, A.,, A. Sette,, F. V. Chisari,, A. Penna,, M. Levrero,, M. De Carli,, F. Fiaccadori,, and C. Ferrari. 1994. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells. Nature 369:407410.
16. Biron, C. 1998. Role of early cytokines, including alpha and beta interferons, in innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. Semin. Immunol. 10:383390.
17. Biron, C. A. 1999. Initial and innate responses to viral infections— pattern setting in immunity or disease. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2:374381.
18. Biron, C. A.,, K. B. Nguyen,, G. C. Pien,, L. P. Gousens,, and T. P. Salazar-Mather. 1999. Natural killer cells in antiviral defense: function and regulation by innate cytokines. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17:189220.
19. Bodaghi, B.,, T. R. Jones,, D. Zipeto,, C. Vita,, L. Sun,, L. Laurent,, F. Arenzana-Seidedos,, J. L. Virelizier,, and S. Michelson. 1998. Chemokine sequestration by viral chemoreceptors as a novel viral strategy: withdrawal of chemokines from the environment of cytomegalovirus-infected cells. J. Exp. Med. 188:855866.
20. Born, T.,, L. A. Morrison,, D. J. Esteban,, T. VandenBos,, L. G. Thebeau,, N. Chen,, M. K. Spriggs,, J. E. Sims,, and R. M. L. Buller. 2000. A poxvirus protein that binds to and inactivates IL-18, and inhibits NK cell response. J. Immunol.164:32463254.
21. Boshoff, C.,, Y. Endo,, P. D. Collins,, Y. Takeuchi,, J. D. Reeves,, V. L. Schweickart,, M. A. Siani,, T. Sasaki,, T. J. Williams,, P. W. Gray, et al. 1997. Angiogenic and HIV-inhibitory functions of KSHV-encoded chemokines. Science 278:290294.
22. Bowie, A.,, E. Kiss-Toth,, J. A. Symons,, G. L. Smith,, S. K. Dower,, and L. A. J. O’Neill. 2000. A46R and A52R from vaccinia virus are antagonists of host IL-1 and toll-like receptor signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1016210167.
23. Bukowski, J. F.,, J. F. Warner,, G. Dennert,, and R. M. Welsh. 1985. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrating the antiviral effect of natural killer cells in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 161:4052.
24. Burysek, L.,, W. S. Yeow,, and P. M. Pitha. 1999. Unique properties of a second herpesvirus 8-encoded interferon regulatory factor (vIRF-2). J. Hum. Virol. 2:1932.
25. Cebulla, C. M.,, D. M. Miller,, and D. D. Sedmak. 1999. Viral inhibition of interferon signal transduction. Intervirology 42: 325330.
26. Cesarman, E.,, E. A. Mesri,, and M. C. Gershengorn. 2000. Viral G-protein-coupled receptor and Kaposi’s sarcoma: a model of paracrine neoplasia? J. Exp. Med. 191:417421.
27. Chapman, T. L.,, I. You,, I. M. Joseph,, P. J. Bjorkman,, S. L. Morrison,, and M. Raghavan. 1999. Characterization of the interaction between the herpes simplex virus I Fc receptor and immunoglobulin G. J. Biol. Chem. 274:69116919.
28. Chirivi, R. G. S.,, G. Taraboletti,, M. R. Bani,, L. Barra,, G. Piccinini,, M. Giacca,, F. Bussolino,, and R. Giavazzi. 1999. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-Tat protein promotes migration of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma cells and enhances their adhesion to endothelial cells. Blood 94: 17471754.
29. Clemens, M. J.,, and A. Elia. 1997. The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR: structure and function. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 17:503524.
30. Cohen, G. B.,, R. T. Gandhi,, D. M. Davis,, O. Mandelboim,, B. K. Chen,, J. L. Strominger,, and D. Baltimore. 1999. The selective downregulation of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins by HIV-1 protects HIV-infected cells from NK cells. Immunity 10:661671.
31. Corey, L.,, and P. G. Spear. 1986. Infections with herpes simplex viruses. N. Engl. J. Med. 314:749757.
32. Coscoy, L.,, and D. Ganem. 2000. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes two proteins that block cell surface display of MHC class I chains by enhancing their endocytosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:80518056.
33. Cosman, D.,, N. Fanger,, and L. Borges. 1999. Human cytomegalovirus MHC class I and inhibitory signalling receptors: more questions than answers. Immunol. Rev. 168:177185.
34. Cretney, E.,, M. A. Degli-Esposti,, E. H. Densley,, H. E. Farrell,, N. J. Davis-Poynter,, and M. J. Smyth. 1999. m144, a murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-encoded major histocompatibility complex class I homologue, confers tumor resistance to natural killer cell-mediated rejection. J. Exp. Med. 190:435444.
35. Cunnion, K. M. 1999. Tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by poxviruses. Mol. Genet. Metab. 67:278282.
36. Dairaghi, D. J.,, D. R. Greaves,, and T. J. Schall. 1998. Abduction of chemokine elements by herpesviruses. Semin. Virol. 8:377385.
37. Denzin, L. K.,, C. Hammond,, and C. Cresswell. 1996. HLA-DM interacts with intermediates in HLA-DR maturation and a role for HLA-DM in stabilizing empty HLA-DR molecules. J. Exp. Med. 184:21532165.
38. Deveraux, Q. L.,, H. R. Stennicke,, G. S. Salvesen,, and J. C. Reed. 1999. Endogenous inhibitors of caspases. J. Clin. Immunol. 19: 388398.
39. DiMaio, D.,, C.-C. Lai,, and O. Klein. 1998. Virocrine transformation: the intersection between viral transforming proteins and cellular signal transduction pathways. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 52: 397421.
40. Dingwell, K. S.,, C. R. Brunetti,, R. L. Hendricks,, Q. Tang,, M. Tang,, A. J. Rainbow,, and D. C. Johnson. 1994. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins E and I facilitate cell-to-cell spread in vivo and across junctions of cultured cells. J. Virol. 68:834845.
41. Dubin, G.,, I. Frank,, and H. M. Friedman. 1990. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes two Fc receptors which have different binding characteristics for monomeric immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG complexes. J. Virol. 64:27252731.
42. Earnshaw, W. C.,, L. M. Martins,, and S. H. Kaufmann. 1999. Mammalian caspases: structure, activation, substrates, and functions during apoptosis. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 68:383424.
43. Fantuzzi, G.,, and C. A. Dinarello. 1999. Interleukin-18 and interleukin- 1β: two cytokine substrates for ICE (caspase-1). J. Clin. Immun. 19:111.
44. Farrell, H.,, M. Degli-Esposti,, E. Densley,, E. Cretney,, M. Smyth,, and N. Davis-Poynter. 2000. Cytomegalovirus MHC class I homologues and natural killer cells: an overview. Microbes Infect. 2:521532.
45. Favoreel, H. W.,, H. J. Nauwynck,, P. Van Oostveldt,, T. C. Mettenleiter,, and M. B. Pensaert. 1997. Antibody-induced and cytoskeleton-mediated redistribution and shedding of viral glycoproteins, expressed on pseudorabies virus-infected cells. J. Virol. 71:82548261.
46. Fish, K. N.,, C. Soderberg-Naucler,, and J. A. Nelson. 1998. Steady-state plasma membrane expression of human cytomegalovirus gB is determined by the phosphorylation of state of ser900. J. Virol. 72:66576664.
47. Fleming, P.,, N. Davis-Poynter,, M. Degli-Esposti,, E. Densley,, J. Papadimitriou,, G. Shellam,, and H. Farrell. 1999. The murine cytomegalovirus chemokine homolog, m131/ 129, is a determinant of viral pathogenicity. J. Virol. 73:68006809.
48. Fodor, W. L.,, S. A. Rollins,, S. Bianco-Caron,, R. P. Rother,, E. R. Guilmette,, W. V. Burton,, J. C. Albrecht,, B. Fleckenstein,, and S. P. Squinto. 1995. The complement control protein homolog of herpesvirus saimiri regulates serum complement by inhibiting C3 convertase activity. J. Virol. 69:38893892.
49. Frank, I.,, and H. M. Friedman. 1989. A novel function of the herpes simplex virus type 1 Fc receptor: participation in bipolar bridging of antiviral immunoglobulin G. J. Virol. 63:44794488.
50. Fruh, K.,, A. Gruhler,, R. M. Krishna,, and G. J. Schoenhals. 1999. A comparison of viral immune escape strategies targeting the MHC class I assembly pathway. Immunol. Rev. 168:157166.
51. Gale, M.,, and M. G. Katze. 1998. Molecular mechanisms of interferon resistance mediated by viral-directed inhibition of PKR, the interferon-induced protein kinase. Phamacol. Ther. 78:29 46.
52. Gilbert, M. J.,, S. R. Riddell,, B. Plachter,, and P. D. Greenberg. 1996. Cytomegalovirus selectively blocks antigen processing and presentation of its immediate-early gene product. Nature 383: 720722.
53. Goldsmith, K.,, W. Chen,, D. C. Johnson,, and R. L. Hendricks. 1998. ICP47 enhances herpes simplex virus neurovirulence by blocking the CD8_ T cell response. J. Exp. Med. 187:341348.
54. Goodbourn, S.,, L. Didcock,, and R. E. Randall. 2000. Interferons: cell signaling, immune modulation, antiviral response and virus countermeasures. J. Gen. Virol. 81:23412364.
55. Graham, K. A.,, A. S. Lalani,, J. L. Macen,, T. L. Ness,, M. Barry,, L.-Y. Liu,, A. Lucas,, I. Clark-Lewis,, R. W. Moyer,, and G. McFadden. 1997. The T1/35kDa family of poxvirus secreted proteins bind chemokines and modulate leukocyte influx into virus infected tissues. Virology 229:1224.
56. Griffin, D. E.,, and J. M. Hardwick. 1999. Perspective: virus infections and the death of neurons. Trends Microbiol. 7:155160.
57. Groh, V.,, R. Rhinehart,, J. Randolph-Habecker,, M. S. Topp,, S. R. Riddell,, and T. Spies. 2000. Costimulation of CD8αβ T cells by NKG2D via engagement by MIC induced on virus-infected cells. Nat. Immunol. 2:255260.
58. Guidotti, L. G.,, and F. V. Chisari. 2000. Cytokine-mediated control of viral infections. Virology 273:221227.
59. Harton, J. A.,, and J. P. Ting. 2000. Class II transactivator: mastering the art of major histocompatibility complex expression. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20:61856194.
60. Heise, M. T.,, M. Connick,, and H. W. Virgin III. 1998. Murine cytomegalovirus inhibits interferon gamma-induced antigen presentation to CD4 T cells by macrophages via regulation of expression of major histocompatibility complex class II-associated genes. J. Exp. Med. 187:10371046.
61. Hengel, H.,, U. Reusch,, G. Geginat,, R. Holtappels,, T. Ruppert,, E. Hellebrand,, and U. H. Koszinowski. 2000. Macrophages escape inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class I-dependent antigen presentation by cytomegalovirus. J. Virol. 74:78617868.
62. Hengel, H.,, U. Reusch,, A. Gutermann,, H. Ziegler,, S. Jonjic,, P. Lucin,, and U. H. Koszinowski. 1999. Cytomegaloviral control of MHC class I function in the mouse. Immunol. Rev. 168:167176.
63. Huard, B.,, and K. Fruh. 2000. A role for MHC class I downregulation in NK cell lysis of herpes virus-infected cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30:509515.
64. Isaacs, S. N.,, G. J. Kotwal,, R. McKenzie,, M. M. Frank,, and B. Moss. 1992. Vaccinia virus complement-control protein prevents antibody-dependent complement-enhanced neutralization of infectivity and contributes to virulence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:628632.
65. Ishido, S.,, J. K. Choi,, B. S. Lee,, C. Wang,, M. DeMaria,, R. Johnson,, G. B. Cohen,, and J. U. Jung. 2000a. Inhibition of natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K5 protein. Immunity 13:365374.
66. Ishido, S.,, C. Wang,, B. S. Lee,, G. B. Cohen,, and J. U. Jung. 2000b. Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K3 and K5 proteins. J. Virol. 74:53005309.
67. Janeway, C.,, and R. Medzhitov. 2000. Viral interference with IL- 1 and Toll signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:10682 10683.
68. Jerome, K. R.,, J. F. Tait,, D. M. Koelle,, and L. Corey. 1998. Herpes simplex virus type 1 renders infected cells resistant to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-induced apoptosis. J. Virol. 72:436441.
69. Johnson, A. E.,, and N. G. Haigh. 2000. The ER translocon and retrotranslocation: is the shift into reverse manual or automatic? Cell 102:709712.
70. Johnson, D. C.,, M. C. Frame,, M. W. Ligas,, A. M. Cross,, and N. D. Stow. 1988. Herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G Fc receptor activity depends on a complex of two viral glycoproteins, gE and gI. J. Virol. 62:13471354.
71. Johnson, D. C.,, and A. B. Hill. 1998. Herpesvirus evasion of the immune system. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 232:149177.
72. Jones, K. D.,, Y. Aoki,, Y. Chang,, P. S. Moore,, R. Yarchoan,, and G. Tosato. 1999. Involvement of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and viral IL-6 in the spontaneous growth of Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus- associated infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. Blood 94:28712879.
73. Kalvakolanu, D. V. 1999. Virus interception of cytokine-regulated pathways. Trends Microbiol. 7:166171.
74. Kasof, G. M.,, L. Goyal,, and E. White. 1999. Btf, a novel death-promoting transcriptional repressor that interacts with Bcl-2- related proteins. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19:43904404.
75. Kerkau, T.,, I. Bacik,, J. R. Bennink,, J. W. Yewdell,, T. Hunig,, A. Schimpl,, and U. Schubert. 1997. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein interferes with an early step in the biosynthesis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. J. Exp. Med. 185:12951305.
76. Kim, S.-H.,, M. Eisenstein,, L. Reznikov,, G. Fantuzzi,, D. Novick,, M. Rubinstein,, and C. A. Dinarello. 2000. Structural requirements of six naturally occurring isoforms of the IL-18 binding protein to inhibit IL-18. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:11901195.
77. Klenerman, P.,, S. Rowland-Jones,, S. McAdam,, J. Edwards,, S. Daenke,, D. Lalloo,, B. Koppe,, W. Rosenberg,, D. Boyd,, A. Edwards, et al. 1994. Cytotoxic T-cell activity antagonized by naturally occurring HIV-1 Gag variants. Nature 369:403407.
78. Kotwal, G. J. 2000. Poxviral mimicry of complement and chemokine system components: what’s the end game? Immunol. Today 21:242248.
79. Kotwal, G. J.,, C. G. Miller,, and D. E. Justus. 1998. The inflammation modulatory protein (IMP) of cowpox virus drastically diminishes the tissue damage by down-regulating cellular infiltration resulting from complement activation. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 185:3946.
80. Krajcsi, P.,, and W. S. M. Wold. 1998. Viral proteins that regulate cellular signalling. J. Gen. Virol. 79:13231335.
81. Lacaille, V. G.,, and M. J. Androlewicz. 1998. Herpes simplex virus inhibitor ICP47 destabilizes the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) heterodimer. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 1738617390.
82. Lalani, A. S.,, J. Barrett,, and G. McFadden. 2000. Modulating chemokines: More lessons from viruses. Immunol. Today 21: 100106.
83. Lalani, A. S.,, J. Masters,, K. Graham,, L. Liu,, A. Lucas,, and G. McFadden. 1999. The role of the myxoma virus soluble CC-chemokine inhibitor glycoprotein, M-T1, during myxoma virus pathogenesis. Virology 256:233245.
84. Lalani, A. S.,, and G. McFadden. 1999. Evasion and exploitation of chemokines by viruses. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 10:219233.
85. Lanier, L. L. 1998. NK cell receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16: 359393.
86. Lehner, T.,, J. M. Wilton,, and E. J. Shillitoe. 1975. Immunological basis for latency, recurrences and putative oncogenicity of herpes simplex virus. Lancet ii:6062.
87. Leib, D. A.,, M. A. Machalek,, B. R. G. Williams,, R. H. Silverman,, and H. W. Virgin. 2000. Specific phenotypic restoration of an attenuated virus by knockout of a host resistance gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:60976101.
88. Leonard, G. T.,, and G. C. Sen. 1997. Restoration of interferon responses of adenovirus E1A-expressing HT1080 cell lines by overexpression of p48 protein. J. Virol. 71:50955101.
89. Leong, C. C.,, T. L. Chapman,, P. J. Bjorkman,, D. Formankova,, E. S. Mocarski,, J. H. Phillips,, and L. L. Lanier. 1998. Modulation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity in human cytomegalovirus infection: the role of endogenous class I major histocompatibility complex and a viral class I homolog. J. Exp. Med. 187:16811687.
90. Levitskaya, J.,, A. Sharipo,, A. Leonchiks,, A. Ciechanover,, and M. G. Masucci. 1997. Inhibition of ubiquitin / proteasome-dependent protein degradation by the Gly-Ala repeat domain of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:1261612621.
91. Li, M. T.,, H. Lee,, J. Guo,, F. Neipel,, B. Fleckenstein,, K. Ozato,, and J. U. Jung. 1998. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral interferon regulatory factor. J. Virol. 72:54335440.
92. Li, Q.,, M. K. Spriggs,, S. Kovats,, S. M. Turk,, M. R. Comeau,, B. Nepom,, and L. M. Hutt-Fletcher. 1997. Epstein-Barr virus uses HLA class II as a cofactor for infection of B lymphocytes. J. Virol. 71:46574662.
93. Liu, L. Y.,, A. Lalani,, E. Dai,, B. Seet,, C. Macauley,, R. Singh,, L. Fan,, G. McFadden,, and A. Lucas. 2000. The viral anti-inflammatory chemokine-binding protein M-T7 reduces intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. J. Clin. Investig. 105:16131621.
94. Lubinski, J.,, L. Wang,, D. Mastellos,, A. Sahu,, J. D. Lambris,, and H. M. Friedman. 1999. In vivo role of complement-interacting domains of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC. J. Exp. Med. 190:16371646.
95. Lubyova, B.,, and P. M. Pitha. 2000. Characterization of a novel human herpesvirus 8-encoded protein, vIRF-3, that shows homology to viral and cellular interferon regulatory factors. J. Virol. 74:81948201.
96. Lukashok, S. A.,, L. Tarassishin,, Y. Li,, and M. S. Horwitz. 2000. An adenovirus inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis complexes with dynein and a small GTPase. J. Virol. 74:47054709.
97. Lusso, P. 2000. Chemokines and viruses: the dearest enemies. Virology 273:228240.
98. Macen, J. L.,, R. S. Garner,, P. Y. Musy,, M. A. Brooks,, P. C. Turner,, R. W. Moyer,, G. McFadden,, and R. C. Bleackley. 1996. Differential inhibition of the Fas- and granule-mediated cytolysis pathways by the orthopoxvirus cytokine response modifier A/ SPI-2 and SPI-1 protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 91089113.
99. Mahalingam, S.,, and G. Karupiah. 2000. Modulation of chemokines by poxvirus infections. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 12:409412.
100. McFadden, G.,, A. Lalani,, H. Everett,, P. Nash,, and X. Xu. 1998. Virus encoded-receptors for cytokines and chemokines. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 9:359368.
101. McFadden, G.,, and P. M. Murphy. 2000. Host-related immunomodulators encoded by poxviruses and herpesviruses. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3:371378.
102. McMillan, T. N.,, and D. C. Johnson. 2001. Cytoplasmic domain of herpes simplex virus gE causes accumulation in the trans- Golgi network, a site of virus envelopment and sorting of virions to cell junctions. J. Virol. 75:19281940.
103. Meinl, E.,, H. Fickenscher,, M. Thome,, J. Tschopp,, and B. Fleckenstein. 1998. Anti-apoptotic strategies of lymphotropic viruses. Immunol. Today 19:474479.
104. Miller, D. M.,, Y. Zhang,, B. M. Rahill,, W. J. Waldman,, and D. D. Sedmak. 1999. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits IFN-alphastimulated antiviral and immunoregulatory responses by blocking multiple levels of IFN-alpha signal transduction. J. Immunol. 162:61076113.
105. Miller, L. K. 1997. Baculovirus interaction with host apoptotic pathways. J. Cell. Physiol. 173:178182.
106. Miskin, J. E.,, C. C. Abrams,, and L. K. Dixon. 2000. African swine fever virus protein A238L interacts with the cellular phosphatase calcineurin via a binding domain similar to that of NFAT. J. Virol. 74:94129420.
107. Miskin, J. E.,, C. C. Abrams,, L. C. Goatley,, and L. K. Dixon. 1998. A viral mechanism for inhibition of the cellular phosphatase calcineurin. Science 281:562565.
108. Moretta, A.,, R. Biassoni,, C. Bottino,, M. C. Mingari,, and L. Moretta. 2000. Natural cytotoxicity receptors that trigger human NK-cell-mediated cytolysis. Immunol. Today 21:228234.
109. Mossman, K.,, P. Nation,, J. Macen,, M. Garbutt,, A. Lucas,, and G. McFadden. 1996. Myxoma virus M-T7, a secreted homolog of the interferon-γ receptor, is a critical virulence factor for the development of myxomatosis in European rabbits. Virology 215: 1730.
110. Murdoch, C.,, and A. Finn. 2000. Chemokine receptors and their role in inflammation and infectious disease. Blood 95:30323043.
111. Nash, P.,, J. Barrett,, J.-X. Cao,, S. Hota-Mitchell,, A. S. Lalani,, H. Everett,, X.-M. Xu,, J. Robichaud,, S. Hnatiuk,, C. Ainslie. et al. 1999. Immunomodulation by viruses: the myxoma virus story. Immunol. Rev. 168:103120.
112. Neilan, J. G.,, Z. Lu,, G. F. Kutish,, L. Zsak,, T. L. Lewis,, and D. L. Rock. 1997. A conserved African swine fever virus IκB homolog, 5EL, is nonessential for growth in vitro and virulence in domestic swine. Virology 235:377385.
113. Novick, D.,, S.-H. Kim,, G. Fantuzzi,, L. L. Reznikov,, C. A. Dinarello,, and M. Rubinstein. 1999. Interleukin-18 binding proteins: a novel modulator of the Th1 cytokine response. Immunity 10: 127136.
114. O’Brien, V. 1998. Viruses and apoptosis. J. Gen. Virol. 79:18331845.
115. Osborne, J.,, P. S. Moore,, and Y. Chang. 1999. KSHV-encoded viral IL-6 activates multiple human IL-6 signaling pathways. Hum. Immunol. 60:921927.
116. Parry, B. C.,, J. P. Simas,, V. P. Smith,, C. A. Stewart,, A. C. Minson,, S. Efstathiou,, and A. Alcamí. 2000. A broad spectrum secreted chemokine binding protein encoded by a herpesvirus. J. Exp. Med. 191:573578.
117. Pease, J. E.,, and P. M. Murphy. 1998. Microbial corruption of the chemokine system: An expanding paradigm. Semin. Immunol. 10:169178.
118. Penfold, M. E.,, D. J. Dairaghi,, G. M. Duke,, N. Saederup,, E. S. Mocarski,, G. W. Kemble,, and T. J. Schall. 1999. Cytomegalovirus encodes a potent alpha chemokine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:98399844.
119. Pickup, D. J. 1994. Poxviral modifiers of cytokine responses to infection. Infect. Agents Dis. 3:116127.
120. Pieters, J. 2000. MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and presentation. Adv. Immunol. 75:159208.
121. Piguet, V.,, O. Schwartz,, S. Le Gall,, and D. Trono. 1999. The downregulation of CD4 and MHC-I by primate lentiviruses: a paradigm for the modulation of cell surface receptors. Immunol. Rev. 168:5163.
122. Piguet, V.,, L. Wan,, C. Borel,, A. Mangasarian,, N. Demaurex,, G. Thomas,, and D. Trono. 2000. HIV-1 Nef protein binds to the cellular protein PACS-1 to downregulate class I major histocompatibility complexes. Nat. Cell Biol. 2:163167.
123. Pitha, P. M.,, W. C. Au,, W. Lowther,, Y. T. Juang,, S. L. Schafer,, L. Burysek,, J. Hiscott,, and P. A. Moore. 1998. Role of the interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) in virus-mediated signaling and regulation of cell growth. Biochimie 80:651658.
124. Raftery, M. J.,, C. K. Behrens,, A. Muller,, P. H. Krammer,, H. Walczak,, and G. Schonrich. 1999. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of activated cytotoxic T cells: induction of fratricide as a mechanism of viral immune evasion. J. Exp. Med. 190:11031114.
125. Reyburn, H. T.,, O. Mandelboim,, M. Vales-Gomez,, D. M. Davis,, L. Pazmany,, and J. L. Strominger. 1997. The class I MHC homologue of human cytomegalovirus inhibits attack by natural killer cells. Nature 386:514517.
126. Roulston, A.,, R. C. Marcellus,, and P. E. Branton. 1999. Viruses and apoptosis. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53:577628.
127. Saederup, N.,, Y. C. Lin,, D. J. Dairaghi,, T. J. Schall,, and E. S. Mocarski. 1999. Cytomegalovirus-encoded beta chemokine promotes monocyte-associated viremia in the host. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1088110886.
128. Salazar-Mather, T.,, T. Hamilton,, and C. Biron. 2000. A chemokine-to-cytokine cascade critical in antiviral defense. J. Clin. Investig. 105:985993.
129. Saldanha, C. E.,, J. Lubinski,, C. Martin,, T. Nagashunmugam,, L. Wang,, H. van der Keyl,, R. Tal-Singer,, and H. M. Friedman. 2000. Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein E domains involved in virus spread and disease. J. Virol. 74:67126719.
130. Schreiber, M.,, L. Sedger,, and G. McFadden. 1997. Distinct domains of M-T2, the myxoma virus TNF receptor homolog, mediate extracellular TNF binding and intracellular apoptosis inhibition. J. Virol. 71:21712181.
131. Schubert, U.,, L. C. Anton,, I. Bacik,, J. H. Cox,, S. Bour,, J. R. Bennink,, M. Orlowski,, K. Strebel,, and J. W. Yewdell. 1998. CD4 glycoprotein degradation induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein requires the function of proteasomes and the ubiquitin-conjugating pathway. J. Virol. 72:2280 2288.
132. Sears, A. E.,, B. S. McGwire,, and B. Roizman. 1991. Infection of polarized MDCK cells with herpes simplex virus 1: two asymmetrically distributed cell receptors interact with different viral proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:50875091.
133. Senkevich, T. G.,, and B. Moss. 1998. Domain structure, intracellular trafficking, and beta2-microglobulin binding of a major histocompatibility complex class I homolog encoded by molluscum contagiosum virus. Virology 250:397407.
134. Smith, G. L. 1999. Vaccinia virus immune evasion. Immunol. Lett. 65:5562.
135. Smith, G. L. 2000. Secreted poxvirus proteins that interact with the immune system, p. 491-507. In M. W. Cunningham and R. S. Fujinami (ed.), Effects of Microbes on the Immune System. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Phildelphia, Pa..
136. Smith, G. L.,, J. A. Symons,, and A. Alcamí. 1998. Poxviruses: interfering with interferon. Semin. Virol. 8:409416.
137. Smith, K. J.,, J. Yeager,, and H. Skelton. 1999. Molluscum contagiosum: its clinical histopathologic and immunohistochemical spectrum. Int. J. Dermatol. 38:664672.
138. Smith, V. P.,, N. A. Bryant,, and A. Alcamí. 2000. Ectromelia, vaccinia and cowpox viruses encode secreted interleukin-18- binding proteins. J. Gen. Virol. 81:12231230.
139. Soderberg-Naucler, C.,, K. N. Fish,, and J. A. Nelson. 1997. Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus by allogeneic stimulation of blood cells from healthy donors. Cell 91:119126.
140. Spear, G. T.,, N. S. Lurain,, C. J. Parker,, M. Ghassemi,, G. H. Payne,, and M. Saifuddin. 1995. Host cell-derived complement control proteins CD55 and CD59 are incorporated into the virions of two unrelated enveloped viruses. Human T cell leukemia /lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). J. Immunol. 155:43764381.
141. Spiller, O. B.,, B. P. Morgan,, F. Tufaro,, and D. V. Devine. 1996. Altered expression of host-encoded complement regulators on human cytomegalovirus-infected cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 26: 15321538.
142. Spriggs, M. K. 1996. One step ahead of the game: Viral immunomodulatory molecules. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:101131.
143. Spriggs, M. K.,, R. J. Armitage,, M. R. Comeau,, L. Strockbine,, T. Farrah,, B. Macduff,, D. Ulrich,, M. R. Alderson,, J. Mullberg,, and J. I. Cohen. 1996. The extracellular domain of the Epstein- Barr virus BZLF2 protein binds the HLA-DR beta chain and inhibits antigen presentation. J. Virol. 70:55575563.
144. Stine, J. T.,, C. Wood,, M. Hill,, A. Epp,, C. J. Raport,, V. L. Schweickart,, Y. Endo,, T. Sasaki,, G. Simmons,, C. Boshoff, et al. 2000. KSHV-encoded CC chemokine vMIP-III is a CCR4 agonist, stimulates angiogenesis, and selectively chemoattracts TH2 cells. Blood 95:11511157.
145. Stoiber, H.,, C. Pinter,, A. G. Siccardi,, A. Clivio,, and M. P. Dierich. 1996. Efficient destruction of human immunodeficiency virus in human serum by inhibiting the protective action of complement factor H and decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55). J. Exp. Med. 183:307310.
146. Stordeur, P.,, and M. Goldman. 1998. Interleukin-10 as a regulatory cytokine induced by cellular stress: molecular aspects. Int. Rev. Immunol. 16:501522.
147. Streblow, D. N.,, C. Soderberg-Naucler,, J. Vieira,, P. Smith,, E. Wakabayashi,, F. Ruchti,, K. Mattison,, Y. Altschuler,, and J. A. Nelson. 1999. The human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor US28 mediates vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Cell 99: 511520.
148. Tomazin, R.,, J. Boname,, N. R. Hegde,, D. M. Lewinsohn,, Y. Altschuler,, T. R. Jones,, P. Cresswell,, J. A. Nelson,, S. R. Riddell,, and D. C. Johnson. 1999. Cytomegalovirus US2 destroys two components of the MHC class II pathway, preventing recognition by CD4+ T cells. Nat. Med. 5:10391043.
149. Tortorella, D.,, B. E. Gewurz,, M. H. Furman,, D. J. Schust,, and H. L. Ploegh. 2000. Viral subversion of the immune system. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 18:861926.
150. Tschopp, J.,, M. Irmler,, and M. Thome. 1998. Inhibition of fas death signals by FLIPs. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 10:552558.
151. Turner, P. C.,, and R. W. Moyer. 1998. Control of apoptosis by poxviruses. Semin. Virol. 8:453469.
152. Tzahar, E.,, J. D. Moyer,, H. Waterman,, E. G. Barbacci,, G. Levkowitz,, M. Shelly,, S. Strano,, R. Pinkas-Kramarski,, J. H. Pierce,, G. C. Andrews,, and Y. Yarden. 1998. Pathogenic poxviruses reveal viral strategies to exploit the ErbB signaling network. EMBO J. 17:59485963.
153. van Berkel, V.,, J. Barrett,, H. L. Tiffany,, D. H. Fremont,, P. M. Murphy,, G. McFadden,, S. H. Speck,, and H. W. Virgin. 2000. Identification of a gammaherpesvirus selective chemokine binding protein that inhibits chemokine action. J. Virol. 74:67416747.
154. Vanderplasschen, A.,, E. Mathew,, M. Hollinshead,, R. B. Sim,, and G. L. Smith. 1998. Extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus is resistant to complement because of incorporation of host complement control proteins into its envelope. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:75447549.
155. Wan, X. Y.,, H. L. Wang,, and J. Nicholas. 1999. Human herpesvirus 8 interleukin-6 (vIL-6) signals through gp130 but has structural acid receptor-binding properties distinct from those of human IL-6. J. Virol. 73:82688278.
156. Wells, T. N. C.,, and T. W. Schwartz. 1998. Plagiarism of the host immune system: lessons about chemokine immunology from viruses. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 8:741748.
157. Wensing, B.,, and P. J. Farrell. 2000. Regulation of cell growth and death by Epstein-Barr virus. Microbes Infect. 2:7784.
158. Wold, W. S.,, K. Doronin,, K. Toth,, M. Kuppuswamy,, D. L. Lichtenstein,, and A. E. Tollefson. 1999. Immune responses to adenoviruses: viral evasion mechanisms and their implications for the clinic. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 11:380386.
159. Xiang, Y.,, and B. Moss. 1999a. Identification of human and mouse homologs of the MC51L-53L-54L family of secreted glycoproteins encoded by the molluscum contagiosum poxvirus. Virology 257:297302.
160. Xiang, Y.,, and B. Moss. 1999b. IL-18 binding and inhibition of interferon _ induction by human poxvirus-encoded proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1153711542.
161. Xu, X.,, P. Nash,, and G. McFadden. 2000. Myxoma virus expresses a TNF receptor homolog with two distinct functions. Virus Genes 21:97109.
162. Zhou, Q.,, and G. S. Salvesen. 2000. Viral caspase inhibitors CrmA and p35. Apoptosis 322:143154.
163. Zimring, J. C.,, S. Goodbourn,, and M. K. Offermann. 1997. Human herpesvirus 8 encodes an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) homolog that represses IRF-1-mediated transcription. J. Virol. 72:701707.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Summary of anti-immune strategies used by viruses

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 2

Viral inhibitors of humoral immunity

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 3

Viral anti-interferon strategies

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 4

Viral antichemokine strategies

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 5

Viral anticytokine strategies

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error