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Chapter 11 : Phase Variation of Lipopolysaccharide and Other Virulence Determinants in

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Phase Variation of Lipopolysaccharide and Other Virulence Determinants in , Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

is an intracellular parasite of free-living amoeba species. In natural or man-made freshwater systems, is frequently found in tight association with biofilms. In the human host, is an intracellular pathogen of alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes. The authors have described the phase-variable expression of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) epitope in serogroup 1 strains. Associated with LPS phase variation, they observed the loss of virulence and serum resistance in the mutant strain. The profile of the primarily long-chain 3-hydroxylated fatty acids was shifted to shorter chains by about two carbons on average in phase-variant 811 compared with wild-type RC1. In the virulent wild-type strain RC1, the 30-kb element is located in the chromosome, whereas excision from the chromosome and replication as a high-copy plasmid resulted in the mutant phenotype. The colony material of the mutant strains is very sticky and appears slimy when suspended in aqueous solutions, which may facilitate adherence to and survival in biofilms outside a host cell and may protect the cells from dehydration as well.

Citation: Lüneberg E. 2002. Phase Variation of Lipopolysaccharide and Other Virulence Determinants in , p 56-59. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch11

Key Concept Ranking

Genetic Elements
0.7256885
Legionella pneumophila
0.61344165
0.7256885
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Infection of HL60 cells with After 2 h of coincubation of host cells and bacteria, extracellularly remaining bacteria were killed by gentamicin. The CFU determined at day 0 therefore represent intracellular bacteria. Symbols: circles, wild-type RC1; triangles, mutant 811; squares, 811-rev. CFU are shown as mean of duplicates. Reprinted from the ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Lüneberg E. 2002. Phase Variation of Lipopolysaccharide and Other Virulence Determinants in , p 56-59. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch11
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic drawing of the 30-kb plasmid isolated from mutant 811. ORF A is indicated and the other ORFs are positioned clockwise. One putative transcriptional unit starts from ORF A and terminates at ORF Ε as indicated by an arrowhead. The second predicted transcriptional unit covers ORF ZD to ORF F, the direction of transcription being opposite to ORF A to E. The attachment site located in ORF ZB is indicated (att). Sequence homologies of some of the ORFs are depicted on the outer side. Reprinted from ( ) with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Lüneberg E. 2002. Phase Variation of Lipopolysaccharide and Other Virulence Determinants in , p 56-59. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch11
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Download as Powerpoint

References

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1. Knirel, Y. A.,, H. Moll,, and U. Zahringer. 1996. Structural study of a highly O-acetylated core of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 lipopolysaccharide. Carbohydr. Res. 293:223234.
2. Kooistra, O.,, E. Liineberg,, Y. A. Knirel,, M. Frosch,, and U. Zahringer. N-methylation in poly-legionaminic acid is associated with the phase-variable epitope of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 lipopolysaccharide. Submitted.
3. Liineberg, E.,, U. Zahringer,, Y. A. Knirel,, D. Steinmann,, M. Hartmann,, I. Steinmetz,, M. Rohde,, J. Kohl,, and M. Frosch. 1998. Phase-variable expression of lipopolysaccharide contributes to the virulence of Legionella pneumophila. J. Exp. Med. 188:4960.
4. Liineberg, E.,, N. Zetzmann,, D. Alber,, Y. A. Knirel,, O. Kooistra,, U. Zahringer,, and M. Frosch. 2000. Cloning and functional characterization of a 30 kb gene locus required for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Legionella pneumophila. Intern. J. Med. Microbiol. 290:3749.
5. Liineberg, E.,, B. Mayer,, N. Daryab,, O. Kooistra,, U. Zahringer,, M. Rohde,, J. Swan-son,, and M. Frosch. 2001. Chromosomal insertion and excision of a 30 kb instable genetic element is responsible for phase variation of lipopolysaccharide and other virulence determinants in Legionella pneumophila. Mol. Microbiol. 39:12591271.
6. Zahringer, U.,, Y. A. Knirel,, B. Lindner,, J. H. Helbig,, A. Sonesson,, R. Marre,, and E. T. Rietschel. 1995. The lipopolysaccharide of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (strain Philadelphia 1): chemical structure and biological significance. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 392:113139.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Phenotypic characteristics affected by phase variation in

Citation: Lüneberg E. 2002. Phase Variation of Lipopolysaccharide and Other Virulence Determinants in , p 56-59. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch11

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