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Chapter 25 : The Social Life of Legionellae

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The Social Life of Legionellae, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Legionellae were initially characterized by criteria typically used to describe an autonomous unicellular organism. Bacteria of the genus were described as gram-negative, aerobic, and rod shaped with one or more polar or lateral flagella. A more complete ecological profile of legionellae will provide the scientific basis for selecting the most appropriate host for pathogenesis studies as well as studies to identify procedures to control amplification of the bacteria in certain environments. Analysis of bacterial group behavior represents the most recent facet in the study of the ecology of legionellae. In building water systems, legionellae are most frequently detected in biofilms of plumbing fixtures and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment. The complex nutrients available with biofilms have led some researchers to propose that the biofilm might allow the survival and multiplication of legionellae outside a host cell. If legionellae can multiply extracellularly within biofilms, the study and characterization of this phenomenon could have tremendous impact on control strategies for the prevention of legionellosis. Researchers have only begun to characterize the interaction of legionellae with the microbial community. Controlling legionellae within biofilms may lead to the most effective control measures to prevent legionellosis.

Citation: Fields B. 2002. The Social Life of Legionellae, p 135-142. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch25

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Photograph of the biofilm reactors. Reactors are submerged in a 30°C water bath and operated as an open system with dechlorinated tap water at a flow rate of 1 ml/min (retention time of 6.7 h) for 24 h for the duration of the experiment.

Citation: Fields B. 2002. The Social Life of Legionellae, p 135-142. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Bacterial concentration in the biofilm reactors in the presence of . The percentage of RI-243-GFP that has lost fluorescence due to the absence of selective pressure is shown as %GFP–. Coupons from separate reactor experiments were processed for each data point presented in all graphs. Error bars indicate the standard deviation for = 3. Symbols: ▪, , and spp. in biofilm; Δ, in biofilm; ?○, in biofilm; ?, in bulk liquids. Abbreviations: Lp, Hv,

Citation: Fields B. 2002. The Social Life of Legionellae, p 135-142. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Scanning electron micrograph showing trophozoites feeding on the biofilm of heterotrophic bacteria on a stainless-steel coupon. Magnification, × 1,155.

Citation: Fields B. 2002. The Social Life of Legionellae, p 135-142. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Bacterial concentration in the biofilm reactors in the absence of . The percentage of RI-243-GFP that has lost fluorescence due to the absence of selective pressure is shown as %GFP–. Coupons from separate reactor experiments were processed for each data point presented in all graphs. Error bars indicate the standard deviation for = 3. Symbols: ♦, , and spp. in biofilm; Δ, in biofilm.

Citation: Fields B. 2002. The Social Life of Legionellae, p 135-142. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch25
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Download as Powerpoint

References

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1. Benson, R. F.,, and B. S. Fields. 1998. Classification of the genus Legionella. Semin. Respir. Infect. 13:9099.
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12. Lo Presti, F.,, S. RifFard,, H. Meugnier,, M. Reyrolle,, Y. Lasne,, P. A. D. Grimont,, F. Grimont,, F. Vandenesch,, J. Etienne,, J. Fleurette, andj. Freney. 1999. Legionella taurinensis sp. nov., a new species antigenically similar to Legionella spiritensis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:397403.
12a. Murga, R.,, T. S. Forster,, E. Brown,, J. M. Pruckler,, B. S. Fields,, and R. M. Donlan. The role of biofilms in the survival of Legionella pneumophila in a model potable water system. Microbiology, in press.
13. Rowbotham, T. J. 1980. Preliminary report on the pathogenicity of Legionella pneumophila for freshwater and soil amoebae. J. Clin. Pathol. 33: 11791183.
14. Segal, G.,, and H. A. Shuman. 1998. How is the intracellular fate of the Legionella pneumophila phagosome determined? Trends Microbiol. 6:253255.
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