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Chapter 37 : Detection of Antigen in Urine Samples: Recognition of Serogroups and Monoclonal Subgroups

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Abstract:

A study by Benson et al. compared the usefulness of urinary antigen detection for diagnosing Legionnaires’ disease caused by serogroup 1 of different monoclonal subgroups in addition to cases caused by other serogroups. A total of 152 urine samples from 152 patients with culture-proven legionellosis were tested. Urine samples were tested simultaneously using Binax urinary enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Biotest Urin Antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Taking all cases of legionellosis into account, a sensitivity of 77% for both Binax EIA and Biotest EIA was found. This is in good agreement with other studies. In addition, the authors demonstrated that the sensitivities for infections caused by monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3/1- and MAb 2-positive strains are much higher, exceeding 95%; thus, urinary antigen detection is the best method for diagnosing community-acquired as well as travel-associated cases. Diagnosis of such infections has especially far-reaching implications for nosocomially acquired legionellosis, which is significantly more often caused by strains belonging to monoclonal subgroups OLDA/Oxford and Bellingham or to serogroups 2 to 15 than are community-acquired infections.

Citation: Helbig J, Lück C, Uldum S, Harrison T. 2002. Detection of Antigen in Urine Samples: Recognition of Serogroups and Monoclonal Subgroups, p 204-206. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch37

Key Concept Ranking

Legionella pneumophila
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Enzyme Immunoassay
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References

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1. Aguero-Rosenfeld, M. E.,, and P. H. Edelstein. 1988. Retrospective evaluation of the Du Pont radioimmunoassay kit for detection of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigenuria in humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1775 1778.
2. Benson, R. F.,, P. W. Tang,, and B. S. Fields. 2000. Evaluation of the Binax and Biotest urinary antigen kits for the detection of Legionnaires' disease due to multiple serogroups and species of Legionella. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2763 2765.
3. Dominguez, J. A.,, N. Gali,, P. Pedroso,, A. Fargas,, E. Paddilla,, J. M. Manterola,, and L. Matas. 1998. Comparison of the Binax Legionella Urinary Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) with the Biotest Legionella Urin EIA for detection of Legionella antigen in both concentrated and nonconcentrated urine samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2718 2722.
4. Dournon, E. W.,, F. Bibb,, P. Rjagopalan,, N. Desplaces,, and R. M. McKinney. 1988. Monoclonal antibody reactivity as a virulence marker for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. J. Infect. Dis. 157: 496 501.
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6. Helbig, J. H.,, P. C. Luck,, Y. A. Knirel,, W. Witzleb,, and U. Zahringer. 1995. Molecular characterization of a virulence-associated epitope on the lipopolysaccharide of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Epidemiol. Infect. 115: 71 78.
7. Joly, J. R.,, R. M. McKinney,, O. J. Tobin,, W. F. Bibb,, I. D. Watkins,, and D. Ramsay. 1986. Development of a standardized subgrouping scheme for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 using monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 768 771.
8. Joseph, C. A.,, J. M. Watson,, T. G. Harrison,, and C. L. R. Bartlett. 1994. Nosocomial Legionnaires' disease in England and Wales, 19801992. Epidemiol. Infect. 112: 329 345.
9. Kazandjian, D.,, R. Chiew,, and G. L. Gilbert. 1997. Rapid diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 infections with the Binax enzyme immunoassay urinary antigen test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 954 956.
10. Plouffe, J. F.,, T. M. Mile,, R. F. Breiman,, B. A. Hackmann,, S. J. Salstrom,, B. J. Marston,, B. S. Fields, and The Community-Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group. 1995. Reevaluation of the definition of Legionnaires' disease: use of the urinary antigen assay. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 1286 1291.
11. Ruf, B.,, D. Schürmann,, I. Horbach,, F. J. Fehrenbach,, and H. D. Pohle. 1990. Prevalence and diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia: a 3-year prospective study with emphasis on application of urinary antigen detection. J. Infect. Dis. 162: 1341 1348.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Urinary antigen detection in specimens from culture-proven legionellosis

Citation: Helbig J, Lück C, Uldum S, Harrison T. 2002. Detection of Antigen in Urine Samples: Recognition of Serogroups and Monoclonal Subgroups, p 204-206. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch37

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