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Chapter 54 : Prevalence of in Whirlpool Spas: Correlation with Total Bacterial Numbers

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Prevalence of in Whirlpool Spas: Correlation with Total Bacterial Numbers, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence of species in public whirlpool spas (in the absence of disease) by examining a large population of these spas over the past 18 years. Additionally, the presence of was correlated with other microbiological parameters, including the presence of another disease-causing bacterium () that may be transmitted via whirlpool spas, and the total bacterial numbers as a measure of the overall microbiology and disinfection status of the spas. A similar relationship was found between and high total bacterial counts. On the basis of these results, it would appear that and proliferate primarily in spas where the disinfection (i.e., free halogen concentrations) and other maintenance procedures are inadequate to control the total bacterial numbers. In conclusion, the current data would support a conclusion that Legionnaires' disease is a preventable illness, at least as associated with whirlpool spas. Prevention of disease would be related to tight control of free available halogen levels and other regular maintenance procedures, coupled with bacterial monitoring to assess the effectiveness of these procedures.

Citation: Miller R, Koebel D. 2002. Prevalence of in Whirlpool Spas: Correlation with Total Bacterial Numbers, p 275-279. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch54

Key Concept Ranking

Legionella pneumophila
0.749762
Bacterial Diseases
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Citation: Miller R, Koebel D. 2002. Prevalence of in Whirlpool Spas: Correlation with Total Bacterial Numbers, p 275-279. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch54
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References

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1. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 2000. Guideline 12-2000: Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Adanta, Ga.
2. Barbaree, J. M.,, B. S. Fields,, W. T. Martin,, W. E. Morrill,, and G. N. Sanden. 1992. Procedures for the Recovery of Legionella from the Environment. Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga.
3. Groothuis, D. G.,, A. H. Havelaar,, and H. R. Veenendaal. 1985. A note on legionellas in whirlpool spas. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 58:479482.
4. Miller, R. D.,, and K. A. Kenepp,. 1993. Risk assessments for Legionnaires disease based on routine surveillance of cooling towers for legionellae, p. 4043. In J. M. Barbaree,, R. F. Breiman,, and A. P. Dufour (ed.), Legionella: Current Status and Emerging Perspectives, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
5. Miller, R. D.,, and K. A. Kenepp,. 1996. Legionella in cooling towers: use of Legionella-TOTAL bacteria ratios, p. 99107. In M. Muilenberg, and H. Burge (ed.), Aerobiology. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla.
6. Witherel, L. E.,, L. A. Orciari,, K. C. Spitalny,, R. A. Pelletier,, W. B. Cherry,, L. H. Orrison,, L. F. Novick,, K. M. Stone,, and R. M. Vogt. 1983. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from recreational whirlpool spas. J. Environ. Health 46:7780.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Prevalence of , and total bacteria in 458 whirlpool spas

Citation: Miller R, Koebel D. 2002. Prevalence of in Whirlpool Spas: Correlation with Total Bacterial Numbers, p 275-279. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch54
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Relationship between , and total bacterial counts in 458 whirlpool spas

Citation: Miller R, Koebel D. 2002. Prevalence of in Whirlpool Spas: Correlation with Total Bacterial Numbers, p 275-279. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch54

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