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Chapter 56 : Detection from South African Cooling Water Systems

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Detection from South African Cooling Water Systems, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Large numbers of legionellae in water distribution systems present a potentially serious health risk to workers and the general public. Sporadic infections are diagnosed with increasing frequency, clearly illustrating the importance of appropriate methods for detection. A Legionella Action Group formed in 1995, took up a study as part of an initiative to provide South African laboratories and industries with guidelines for the most appropriate culturing method for the environment, and with information on the prevalence of in industrial waters. Two of the internationally accepted culture methods and a locally developed adaptation of the most probable number (MPN) method, used by some laboratories in South Africa, were evaluated. The International Standard (ISO) method is widely accepted as a standard and used by some laboratories in South Africa. The quantitative MPN method has been adapted for enumeration of in water samples by South African workers. Single colonies with the typical groundglass appearance of legionellae were tested for cysteine dependence by inoculating buffered charcoal-yeast extract (BCYE) agar and nutrient agar and incubating these until growth was observed on the BCYE agar, as indicated in the ISO and Australian Standard (AS) methods.

Citation: Bartie C, Venter F, Nel L. 2002. Detection from South African Cooling Water Systems, p 284-290. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch56

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References

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1. Australian Standard. 1991. Waters-Examination for Legionellae. AS 3896-1991.
2. Bopp, C. A.,, J. W. Sumner,, G. K. Morris,, and J. G. Wells. 1981. Isolation of Legionella spp. from environmental water samples by low-pH treatment and use of a selective medium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:714719.
3. Grabow, N. A.,, R. Kfir,, and W. O. K. Grabow. 1991. A most probable number method for the enumeration of Legionella bacteria in water. Water Sci. Tech. 24:143147.
4. Groothuis, D. G.,, and H. R. Veenendal. 1983. Heat treatment as an aid for the isolation of Legionella pneumophila from clinical and environmental samples. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. [A] 255:3943.
5. International Organization for Standardization. 1996. Water Quality—Detection and Enumeration of Legionella. International Standard ISO/ DIS 11731. International Organization for Standardization.>
6. Jousimes-Somer, H. R.,, S. Waarala,, and M. L. Vaisanen,. 1993. Recovery of Legionella species from water samples by four different methods, p. 200201. In J. M. Barbaree,, R. F. Breiman,, and A. P. Dufour (ed.), Legionella: Current Status and Emerging Perspectives. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
7. Kusnetsov, J. M.,, H. R. Jousimies-Somer,, A. I. Nevalainen,, and P. J. Martikainen. 1994. Isolation of Legionella from water samples using various culture methods. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 76:155162.
8. Page, F. C. 1976. An Illustrated Key to Freshwater and Soil Amoebae with Notes on Cultivation and Ecology. Scientific Publication no. 34. Freshwater Biological Association, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
9. Reinthaler, F. F.,, J. Sattler,, K. Schaffler-Dulling,, B. Weinmayr,, and E. Marth. 1993. Comparative study of procedures for isolation and cultivation of Legionella pneumophila from tap water in hospitals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:12131216.
10. Roberts, K. P.,, C. M. August,, and J. D. Nelson, Jr. 1987. Relative sensitivities of environmental legionellae to selective isolation procedures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:27042707.
11. Sanden, G. N.,, W. E. Morrill,, B. S. Fields,, R. F. Breiman,, and J. M. Barbaree. 1992. Incubation of water samples containing amoebae improves detection of legionellae by the culture method. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:20012004.
12. Wilkinson, I. J.,, N. Sangster,, R. M. Ratcliff,, P. A. Mugg,, D. E. Davos,, and J. A. Lanser. 1990. Problems associated with identification of Legionella species from the environment and isolation of six possible new species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:796802.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Recovery of from seeded samples: comparison of culture media and pretreatment methodsa

Citation: Bartie C, Venter F, Nel L. 2002. Detection from South African Cooling Water Systems, p 284-290. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch56
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Comparison of culture media and pretreatment methods for detection from environmental samples

Citation: Bartie C, Venter F, Nel L. 2002. Detection from South African Cooling Water Systems, p 284-290. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch56
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Comparison of prevalence by different culturing methods

Citation: Bartie C, Venter F, Nel L. 2002. Detection from South African Cooling Water Systems, p 284-290. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch56

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