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Chapter 63 : Using Geographical Information Systems for Risk Assessment and Control of Legionnaires' Disease Associated with Cooling Towers

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Using Geographical Information Systems for Risk Assessment and Control of Legionnaires' Disease Associated with Cooling Towers, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The recent outbreak of Legionnaires' disease at the Melbourne Aquarium has prompted widespread comment by public health officials regarding testing for . Cooling tower maintenance and biocide dosage have been shown to be major contributors to risk management, and review papers have stated that with proper management, can be readily controlled. Regular cleaning regimens and inspection and review of the cooling towers and water treatment equipment are also important aspects of a control strategy. Operation of cooling towers and cooling water temperature has been shown to positively correlate with concentrations of in cooling towers. Prevailing weather conditions such as cloud cover, ultraviolet light intensity, air temperature, and relative humidity have been shown to influence the survival and dispersion of Legionellae in aerosol. Routine maintenance procedures by owner/operators and water treatment personnel could be electronically reported to the system and risk assessments for each system could be made.

Citation: Bentham R, Pradhan M, Hakendorf P, Wilmot P. 2002. Using Geographical Information Systems for Risk Assessment and Control of Legionnaires' Disease Associated with Cooling Towers, p 318-320. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch63

Key Concept Ranking

Risk Management
0.56007516
Risk Assessment
0.55819046
Incubation Period
0.53333336
Legionella
0.5
0.56007516
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FIGURE 1

Bayesian belief model used to establish numerical risk of dissemination of from cooling towers.

Citation: Bentham R, Pradhan M, Hakendorf P, Wilmot P. 2002. Using Geographical Information Systems for Risk Assessment and Control of Legionnaires' Disease Associated with Cooling Towers, p 318-320. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch63
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References

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1. Addiss, D. G.,, J. P. Davis,, M. LaVenture,, P. J. Wand,, M. A. Hutchinson,, and R. M. McKinney. 1989. Community acquired legionnaires disease associated with a cooling tower: evidence for longer distance transport of Legionella pneumophila. J. Infect. Dis. 130:557568.
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3. Bentham, R. H.,, and C. R. Broadbent. 1993. A model for autumn outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease associated with cooling towers, linked to system operation and size. Epidemiol. Infect. 111:287295.
4. Bhopal, R. S.,, R.J. Fallon,, E. C. Buist,, R. J. Black,, and J. D. Urquhart. 1991. Proximity of the home to a cooling tower and risk of non-outbreak Legionnaires' Disease Br. Med. J. 302: 378383.
5. Fliermans, C. B. 1996. Ecology of Legionella: From data to knowledge with a little wisdom. Microb. Ecol. 32:203228.
6. Levy, M.,, V. Westley-Wise,, C. Blumer,, M. Frommer,, G. Rubin,, D. Lyle,, J. Brown,, and G. Stewart. 1994. Legionnaires' Disease outbreak, Fairfield 1992: public health aspects. Aust. J. Publ. Health 18:137142
7. Miller, R. D.,, and K. A. Kenepp,. 1993. Risk assessments for Legionnaires disease based on routine surveillance of cooling towers for legionellae, p. 4043. In J. M. Barbaree,, R. F. Breiman,, and A. P. Dufour (ed.), Legionella: Current Status and Emerging Perspectives. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
8. Shelton, B. G.,, W. D. Flanders,, and G. K. Morris. 1994. Legionnaires' disease outbreaks and cooling towers with amplified Legionella concentrations. Curr. Microbiol. 28:359363.
9.Standards Australia1995. Air Handling and Water Systems of Buildings—Microbial Control. Australia/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 3666. Standards Australia, Sydney.

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