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Chapter 64 : Routine Sampling and Temporal Variation of Concentrations in Cooling Tower Water Systems

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Routine Sampling and Temporal Variation of Concentrations in Cooling Tower Water Systems, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter presents biweekly sample data from 28 small cooling towers colonized by over a 4-month summer period. These data were used to appraise the validity of risk assessments on the basis of routine sampling and to investigate the temporal variation in concentrations of bacteria in cooling towers. All the cooling towers were maintained to comply with the Australian Standard AS 3666:1989, including weekly water treatment chemical dosage. Median concentrations and ranges were calculated for each cooling tower. Assessment of the risk of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks based solely on counts of may be misleading. The factors contributing to successful control of the bacteria are well established, and to some extent generic, although individual systems are almost always unique in some aspect. Risk assessment of cooling towers for dissemination should be focused upon the established and quantifiable criteria. The role of culture in determining risk should be subordinate, due to the absence of a quantifiable relationship between culture results, system status, and dose response.

Citation: Bentham R. 2002. Routine Sampling and Temporal Variation of Concentrations in Cooling Tower Water Systems, p 321-324. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch64

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Risk Assessment
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Legionella
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Median concentrations and ranges in cooling water systems over a 4-month summer period.

Citation: Bentham R. 2002. Routine Sampling and Temporal Variation of Concentrations in Cooling Tower Water Systems, p 321-324. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch64
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Number of cooling towers with median and maximum counts in defined ranges.

Citation: Bentham R. 2002. Routine Sampling and Temporal Variation of Concentrations in Cooling Tower Water Systems, p 321-324. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch64
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Number of cooling towers at each sampling interval at which there was correlation between consecutive culture results.

Citation: Bentham R. 2002. Routine Sampling and Temporal Variation of Concentrations in Cooling Tower Water Systems, p 321-324. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch64
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References

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1. Bentham, R. H. 1993. Environmental factors affecting the colonization of cooling towers by Legionella spp. in South Australia. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 31:5563.
2. Bhopal, R. S.,, and R. J. Fallon. 1991. Seasonal variation of Legionnaires' disease in Scotland. J. Infect. 22:23782383.
3. Dennis, P. J., 1988. Isolation of Legionellae from environmental specimens, p. 31172. In T. G. Harrison, and A. G. Taylor (ed.), Laboratory Manual for Legionella. John Wiley, London, United Kingdom.
4. Edelstein, P. H. 1984. Legionnaires' Disease Laboratory Manual. Report no. VAWMC/LD-84/1. Veterans Administration, Wadsworth Medical Centre.
5. Fields, B. S.,, G. N. Sanden,, J. M. Barbaree,, W. E. Morrill,, R. M. Wadowsky,, E. H. White,, and J. C. Feeley. 1989. Intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in amoebae isolated from hospital hot water tanks. Curr. Microbiol. 18:131137.
6. Fliermans, C. B.,, R. J. Soracco,, and D. H, Pope. 1981. Measure of L. pneumophila activity in situ. Curr. Microbiol. 6:8994.
7. Fliermans, C. B. 1996. Ecology of Legionella: from data to knowledge with a little wisdom. Microb. Ecol. 32:203228.
8. Miller, R. D.,, and K. A. Kenepp,. 1993. Risk assessments for Legionnaires' disease based on routine surveillance of cooling towers for legionellae, p. 4043. In J. M. Barbaree,, R. F. Breiman,, and A. P. Dufour (ed.), Legionella: Current Status and Emerging Perspectives. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
9. Shelton, B. G.,, G. K. Morris,, and G. W. Gorman,. 1993. Reducing risks associated with Legionella bacteria in building water systems, p. 279281. In M. Barbaree,, R. F. Breiman,, and A. P. Dufour (ed.), Legionella: Current Status and Emerging Perspectives. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
10. Shelton, B. G.,, W. D. Flanders,, and G. K. Morris. 1994. Legionnaires' disease outbreaks and cooling towers with amplified Legionella concentrations. Curr. Microbiol. 28:359363.
11.Standards Australia1989. Air Handling and Water Systems of Buildings—Microbial Control. Australian Standard A3666. Standards Australia, Sydney.

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