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Chapter 76 : Australian Risk Management Approaches to Control of in Cooling Water Systems

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Australian Risk Management Approaches to Control of in Cooling Water Systems, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The elevated water temperatures and large wetted surface area in cooling water systems present ideal conditions for microbial growth. To reduce contamination in cooling water systems, attention must be paid to equipment design, installation, operation, and maintenance. The aim is to minimize microbial multiplication in these environments, to ensure water treatment is adequate, and to minimize the production and release of aerosols. The approach taken in Australia has been to produce a prescriptive standard, which has been incorporated into uniform building regulations and most of the State Health acts and regulations within Australia. Both chemical and physical monitoring of the water-treatment program are essential for system life and performance, as well as for controlling microorganisms such as spp. In case study 1, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease was associated with a hotel. serogroup 1 count was 2.8 X 10 CFU/ml. In case study 2, several cases of Legionnaires' disease occurred at an industrial site at which there were both large process cooling towers ( serogroup 1 count, 1,000 CFU/ml) and small comfort air-conditioning towers (not sampled for legionellae). At both locations, monitoring programs, including water sampling for legionellae, were implemented. No further clinical cases nor significant spp. detections have been experienced. These case studies are examples only of the increasing awareness of as an environmental pathogen that has led to control and monitoring strategies on a wide scale in Australia; sampling for legionellae may now be important as a defense under common law.

Citation: Broadbent C. 2002. Australian Risk Management Approaches to Control of in Cooling Water Systems, p 371-375. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch76

Key Concept Ranking

Legionella pneumophila
0.62096775
Risk Management
0.4274614
0.62096775
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817985.chap76
1.American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers. 2000. Guideline 12. Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Ga..
2. Bentham, R. H. 1993. Environmental factors affecting the colonization of cooling towers by Legionella spp. in South Australia. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 31:5563.
3. Broadbent, C. 1996. Guidance for the Control of Legionella. National Environmental Health Forum Monograph, Water Series No. I. South Australian Department of Human Services, Adelaide, Australia.
4. Broadbent, C. R. 1999. Control of Legionnaires' disease—an Australian perspective. Am. Soc. Heating, Refrig. Air-cond. Eng. Trans. 105:595606.
5. Shelton, B. G.,, W. D. Flanders,, and G. K. Morris. 1994. Legionnaires' disease outbreaks and cooling towers with amplified Legionella concentrations. Curr. Microbiol. 28:359363.
6.Standards Australia. 1995. Air-Handling and Water Systems of Buildings, Microbial Control. AS/NZS 3666 (parts 1 and 2). Standards Australia, Sydney, Australia.
7.Standards Australia. 1998. AS 3896: Waters-Examination for Legionellae Including Legionella pneumophila. Standards Australia, Sydney, Australia.
8.Standards Australia. 2000. Air-Handling and Water Systems of Buildings, Microbial Control. AS/NZS 3666. Part 3: Performance-Based Maintenance of Cooling Water Systems. Standards Australia, Sydney, Australia.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease

Citation: Broadbent C. 2002. Australian Risk Management Approaches to Control of in Cooling Water Systems, p 371-375. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch76
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TABLE 2

Risk factors to be assessed and controlled

Citation: Broadbent C. 2002. Australian Risk Management Approaches to Control of in Cooling Water Systems, p 371-375. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch76

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