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Chapter 78 : Strategies for Prevention and Control of Legionnaires' Disease in Germany

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Strategies for Prevention and Control of Legionnaires' Disease in Germany, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

In Germany, several standards and regulations have been published with the objective of preventing cases and outbreaks of legionellosis; these standards and regulations need to be considered for the planning, operation, and maintenance of technical water systems. The following are environmental factors that generally favor the multiplication of : Inorganic deposits in heating elements, distribution beams, pipes, and fittings. These deposits have large surfaces, which can become colonized by microorganisms; the use of materials such as rubber or silicon (e.g., in washers, membrane expansion vessels, shower hoses), which quickly can become colonized by microorganisms generating a biofilm; and stagnant water in parts of the installation with inadequate or absent circulation (e.g., dead ends), in which can reach high concentrations. The filters in water treatment units for swimming and hot whirlpools are the most critical areas for colonization with . Usually, first the filters are colonized, and a detectable contamination of the pool water occurs only after grows through the filter material. Water samples can be obtained directly from the cooling water reservoirs of evaporation condensers and cooling towers. A section provides an overview of the objectives and reference values for testing for in hot water systems, swimming pools and hot whirlpools, and air-conditioning systems, according to German regulations and recommendations. In Germany, most water samples tested for are relatively unpolluted and usually have only little sediment (e.g., drinking or recreational water, humidifier water).

Citation: Exner M, Kramer M, Pleischl S. 2002. Strategies for Prevention and Control of Legionnaires' Disease in Germany, p 385-390. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch78

Key Concept Ranking

Legionella pneumophila
0.6058683
0.6058683
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817985.chap78
1.Deutsches Institutfür Normung. 1997. Treatment of the Water of Swimming-Pools and Baths-Part 1: General Requirements. DIN 19643-1. Deutsches Institut furNormung.
2.Deutsches Institut für Normung.1986. German Standard Methods for the Examination of Water, Waste Water and Sludge; General Information (Group A); Sampling of Untreated Water and Drinking Water (A 14). DIN 38402-14. Deutsches Institut fur Normung.
3.Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfachese.V.1993. HotWaterSystemsand Pipes; Technical Improvements for the Reduction of the Growth of Legionella. DVGW Manual W 551. Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V.
4.Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfachese.V.1996. Hot Water Systems and Pipes; Technical Improvements for the Reduction of the Growth of Legionella; Renovation and Operation. DVGW Manual W 552. Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfaches e. V.
5. Exner, M.,, K. D. Jung, et al. 1990. Nosocomial Legionella-infections connnected with a systemic legionella-contamination of a hot water system and experiences of renovation. Forum Städte-Hygiene 41:289293.
6. Exner, M. 1991. Incidence and evaluation of Legionella in hospitals and other large buildings. Forum Städte-Hygiene 42:178191.
7. Exner, M.,, G.-J. Tuschewitzki, et al. 1992. Incidence and evaluation of Legionella in hospitals and other large buildings. Forum Städte-Hygiene 43:130140.
8. Exner, M.,, and S. Pleischl,. 1996. Technical and hygienic improvements for prevention of infections with Legionella. Hygiene and technology in hospitals. W. Steuer,, Esslingen,, Bartz, W. J.. 207:151181.
9.ISO. 1998. Water Quality-Detection and Enumeration of Legionella. ISO 11731. ISO.
10.Federal Trade Association for Public SwimmingPools.1997. Prevention of Legionella in Hot Water Systems of Bathes. Leaflet 64.01. Federal Trade Association for Public Swimming Pools.
11. Pleischl, S.,, E. Frahm, et al. 1999. Comparison of two methods to recover Legionella out of water samples; results of a validation test by the DIN ad-hoc-working-group "Legionella." Bun-desgesundheitsblatt 42:650656.
12.Robert-Koch-Institut. 1994. Guidelines for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention. Enclosures 4.4.6 and 6.7/5.6, delivery 9/12. Robert-Koch-Institut.
13. Roth, S. 1997. Occurence of Legionella in hot water systems-danger or hysteria? ZdW Bay 9/97:4752.
14.Umweltbundesamt. 2000. Detection of Legionella in drinking water and water of swimming pools. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 43:911915.
15.Verein Deutscher Ingenieure.1998. Hygienic Standards for Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems—Offices and Assembly Rooms.VDI Guideline 6022. Verein Deutscher lngenieure.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Criteria for the interpretation of results of water testing and necessary interventions (simplified after Exner et al. [5])

Citation: Exner M, Kramer M, Pleischl S. 2002. Strategies for Prevention and Control of Legionnaires' Disease in Germany, p 385-390. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch78
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Objectives and reference values for Legionella testing in hot water systems, swimming pools and hot whirlpool waters, and air-conditioning systems according to German regulations and recommendations

Citation: Exner M, Kramer M, Pleischl S. 2002. Strategies for Prevention and Control of Legionnaires' Disease in Germany, p 385-390. In Marre R, Abu Kwaik Y, Bartlett C, Cianciotto N, Fields B, Frosch M, Hacker J, Lück P (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817985.ch78

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