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Chapter 25 : Regulation and Function of Heat-lnducible Genes in

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Abstract:

All bactetial heat shock genes are regulated at the level of transcription either by alternate sigma factors or by repressor proteins. Two major groups of heat shock proteins (hsps) constitute the heat stress stimulon of : σ-dependent general stress proteins, which are induced not only by heat but by a different set of stress and starvation stimuli conferring a nonspecific multiple stress resistance, and heat-specific stress proteins, which may exert a specific protective function against heat stress only. Three different experiments unambiguously proved that CIRCE serves as a key regulatory element and furthermore acts as a binding site for a repressor protein. First, deletion of the CIRCE element located upstream of the monocistronic dnaJ gene of resulted in a strong constitutive expression. Second, site-directed mutagenesis of the sequence within CIRCE in the dnaK operon of resulted in a higher level of dnaK expression at 37° C. Third, the distance between the groE transcription start site and CIRCE was increased systematically by insertion of DNA sequences 5 to 21 bp long between these two sites, resulting in a gradual increase in expression. Indeed, the promoter regions of the dnaK and groESL operons of , the groESL operon of and , and the gene of contain both the highly conserved CIRCE-HrcA recognition sequence as well as the CtsR target site, organized in tandem.

Citation: Schumann W, Hecker M, Msadek T. 2002. Regulation and Function of Heat-lnducible Genes in , p 359-368. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch25

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Genetic and transcriptional map of the and operon. (A) The bicistronic operon; (B) the heptacistronic operon. The lengths of the various transcripts as deduced from Northern blot analyses are indicated, and the thickness of the arrows represents their relative abundance within the cells under non-heat shock conditions. P are σ-dependent promoters; the two upstream promoters are under the negative control of the HrcA repressor protein binding to the CIRCE operators. Potential stem-loop structures are numbered 1 to 6.

Citation: Schumann W, Hecker M, Msadek T. 2002. Regulation and Function of Heat-lnducible Genes in , p 359-368. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

The HrcA-GroE reaction cycle. (A) In the absence of heat stress, most HrcA molecules are in their active form able to bind to their operator, the CIRCE element. GroE is needed to convert inactive into active HrcA. (B) After a sudden thermal upshift, the amount of nonnative proteins increase, thereby titrating the GroE chaperonins, leading to an increase in the amount of inactive HrcA repressors. This in turn leads to enhanced transcription of the and operons.

Citation: Schumann W, Hecker M, Msadek T. 2002. Regulation and Function of Heat-lnducible Genes in , p 359-368. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch25
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FIGURE 3

Alignment of the CtsR amino acid sequence with those of and Identical residues are shaded, and the helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain is boxed.

Citation: Schumann W, Hecker M, Msadek T. 2002. Regulation and Function of Heat-lnducible Genes in , p 359-368. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Structure of the operons of various gram-positive bacteria.

Citation: Schumann W, Hecker M, Msadek T. 2002. Regulation and Function of Heat-lnducible Genes in , p 359-368. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Comparison of HrcA and CtsR heat shock regulons of various gram-positive bacteria, revealing partial or complete overlap.

Citation: Schumann W, Hecker M, Msadek T. 2002. Regulation and Function of Heat-lnducible Genes in , p 359-368. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch25
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

CtsR regulons in different gram-positive bacteria

Citation: Schumann W, Hecker M, Msadek T. 2002. Regulation and Function of Heat-lnducible Genes in , p 359-368. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch25

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