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Chapter 37 : Germination and Outgrowth

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on spore germination principally as it is understood in . The protease that initiates small acid-soluble spote proteins (SASP) hydrolysis during spore germination is discussed. While SASP degradation may be slower than cortex degradation, the latter event is not necessary for SASP hydrolysis. Spore outgrowth begins after spore germination, but in a spore population these two events overlap to a significant degree. Given the unique aspects of spore germination, it seems logical that there be some gene products involved uniquely in spore germination. The necessity for spore cortex hydrolysis for completion of normal spore germination and the unique aspects of spore cortex structure have focused attention on the possible involvement of one or more cortex lytic enzymes (CLEs) as playing a key role in spore germination. While spore outgrowth seems likely to utilize pathways and gene products needed for vegetative growth, although with perhaps a bit of outgrowth-specific regulation, it is clear that spore germination has a number of unique aspects. However, the mechanism and regulation of spore germination are far from being understood. The hydrolysis of a large amount of spore core protein early in spore germination indicates that a protease must be active at this time. This protease, termed the germination protease (GPR), is specific for its SASP substrates, which it cleaves one to three times within a highly conserved amino acid sequence.

Citation: Paidhungat M, Setlow P. 2002. Germination and Outgrowth, p 537-548. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch37

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Acetyl Coenzyme A
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Cell Wall Proteins
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Cell Wall Components
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FIGURE 1

Events in spote germination and outgrowth. The events in spore activation are notknown, hence the question marks. Spore germination is divided into two phases, as cortex hydrolysis(phase 2) appears not to be required for the events in phase 1. Small, acid-soluble protein (SASP)degradation proceeds only slowly without cortex hydrolysis, but cortex hydrolysis can proceed withoutSASP hydrolysis. Dormancy may be broken in phase 1 of germination, but this is really an outgrowth-specific event (hence the italics) and is needed neithet for phase 1 nor for phase 2 of germination.Similarly, the resumption of metabolism and macromolecular synthesis in phase 2 ofgermination are not needed for this process and are also outgrowth-specific events. Some of theevents in phase 1 of germination (ion and dipicolinic acid [DPA] release and partial core rehydration)likely take only seconds for an individual spore, although there may be a lag of several minutesbefore these events are initiated; SASP and cortex degradation may take several minutes in an individualspore. The time for completion of outgrowth is dependent on the medium but is 60 to 100min for Data are taken from references , and .

Citation: Paidhungat M, Setlow P. 2002. Germination and Outgrowth, p 537-548. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch37
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Model for early steps in spore germination. See text for details.

Citation: Paidhungat M, Setlow P. 2002. Germination and Outgrowth, p 537-548. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch37
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

genes

The question mark indicates that the σ factor is either unknown or that the σ factor assigned is likely, but not proven. b The products of the gerA, Β, and Κ operons are homologous.

Citation: Paidhungat M, Setlow P. 2002. Germination and Outgrowth, p 537-548. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch37
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Degradative enzymes active in spore germination

Product of the yaaH gene in .

Citation: Paidhungat M, Setlow P. 2002. Germination and Outgrowth, p 537-548. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch37

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