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Chapter 14 : Biosynthetic Pathways Related to Cell Structure and Function

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Abstract:

The spiral morphology of appears to confer an advantage to the bacterium in the viscous gastric mucus, since its spiral forms move more effectively in media with high viscosity than more conventional rod-shaped organisms. Peptidoglycans are the stress-bearing structures of bacteria that maintain the integrity of the cell wall and the shape of the bacterium. There is an overall decrease in monomers as the bacteria age, while the percentage of dimers, "anhydro" residues, and dipeptide monomers increases. The lack of detectable trimers or tetramers in murein indicates that cross-linking does not occur between three or more glycan chains, whereas cross-linking between three or four glycan chains is detectable in . The presence of pentapeptide as the main fraction of muropeptides indicates that it possesses little carboxypeptidase activity. On the basis of protein sequence homologies, the genome of appears to code for homologs of all the enzymes involved in the cytoplasmic synthesis of the disaccharide pentapeptide, starting with the synthesis of UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid and finishing with UDP-disaccharide pentapeptide linked to an undecaprenyl lipid carrier. The second step in building the murein sacculus is the polymerization reaction, accompanied by the insertion of the newly made material into the existing peptidoglycan (PG) layer. Analysis of the genome shows the presence of genes coding for all the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the disaccharide pentapeptide, which is the basic building block of murein.

Citation: Krishnamurthy P, Phadnis S, Dunn B, Deloney C, Rosenthal R. 2001. Biosynthetic Pathways Related to Cell Structure and Function, p 159-166. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch14

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Figure 1

General composition and age changes in PG. As cells age from early to late log phase, the composition of their PG changes. The shaded region represents the amino acids that are removed from the PG in late log phase, essentially resulting in a PG with increased dipeptides.

Citation: Krishnamurthy P, Phadnis S, Dunn B, Deloney C, Rosenthal R. 2001. Biosynthetic Pathways Related to Cell Structure and Function, p 159-166. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch14
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Structure of peptidoglycan isolated from H. strains SP1, 84–183, NCTC 11637 and MC 4100

Citation: Krishnamurthy P, Phadnis S, Dunn B, Deloney C, Rosenthal R. 2001. Biosynthetic Pathways Related to Cell Structure and Function, p 159-166. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 2

List of putative genes that are involved in PG biosynthesis

Citation: Krishnamurthy P, Phadnis S, Dunn B, Deloney C, Rosenthal R. 2001. Biosynthetic Pathways Related to Cell Structure and Function, p 159-166. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 3

26695 ORFs that show sequence motifs of PBPs

Citation: Krishnamurthy P, Phadnis S, Dunn B, Deloney C, Rosenthal R. 2001. Biosynthetic Pathways Related to Cell Structure and Function, p 159-166. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch14

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