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Chapter 15 : Evasion of the Toxic Effects of Oxygen

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Abstract:

Oxygen is an efficient terminal electron acceptor in respiratory pathways. In addition, toxic oxygen species (TOS) may be formed exogenously, for example, by chemical processes or through radiation. Microorganisms may neutralize TOS by mechanisms that include the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, peroxidases, and a variety of reductases. Also, they may modulate intracellular oxygen concentration or redox potential, thus minimizing their exposure to oxidative damage, or minimize such damage through the evolution of cellular structures resistant to oxidative damage. There are two prominent enzymes that facilitate resistance to oxidative damage in , catalase (KatA) and SOD. In addition, there is genetic and biochemical evidence for the presence of at least two other enzyme systems involved in resistance to oxidative damage, alkylhydroperoxide reductase (Ahp) and thioredoxin-linked thiol peroxidase (scavengease). The different types of superoxide dismutase, Cu, Zn-SOD, Fe-SOD, and Mn-SOD, appear to support various functions in resistance to oxidative stress by cells. Insertional mutagenesis of in resulted in an increased sensitivity to oxidative stresses induced by cumene hydroperoxide and atmospheric air. The pentose phosphate pathway was one of the first complete biochemical pathways identified in , but its role in the maintenance of the redox status has not been investigated.

Citation: Hazell S, Harris A, Trend M. 2001. Evasion of the Toxic Effects of Oxygen, p 167-175. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch15

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Diagrammatic representation of and surrounding genes. Adapted from Manos et al. ( ) with permission.

Citation: Hazell S, Harris A, Trend M. 2001. Evasion of the Toxic Effects of Oxygen, p 167-175. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch15
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