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Chapter 24 : Restriction and Modification Systems

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Abstract:

Prokaryotic restriction-modification (R-M) systems were first recognized in nearly 50 years ago and are now known to be ubiquitous among bacterial species. This chapter summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the structure and function of the large number of putative restriction-modification (R-M) genes and systems that are now recognized to be present in . Restriction enzyme activity is catalyzed by a complex containing both Mod and Res subunits; however, the gene product can function independently as a modification methylase. The genetic organization of type I R-M systems is similar to that found in and other enteric bacteria, in which each subunit is encoded by contiguous , , and genes. The HsdS subunit of type I R-M systems determines the DNA sequence specificity for both restriction and modification reactions. The HsdS proteins (S1, S2, S3) in either strain share no significant amino acid homology to each other. Type II and IIS R-M systems are generally encoded by contiguous genes and, unlike type I and III R-M systems, are composed of independent restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes. Expression of functional type III R-M systems has not yet been demonstrated in . The apparent requirement for slipped-strand repair of frameshift mutations in and suggests that these two putative type III systems may not be expressed.

Citation: Donahue J, Peek, Jr. R. 2001. Restriction and Modification Systems, p 269-276. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch24

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Horizontal Gene Transfer
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References

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Tables

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Table 1

Type I R-M genes predicted from genome sequences

Citation: Donahue J, Peek, Jr. R. 2001. Restriction and Modification Systems, p 269-276. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 2

Type II R-M genes predicted from genome sequences

Citation: Donahue J, Peek, Jr. R. 2001. Restriction and Modification Systems, p 269-276. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 3

Type III R-M genes predicted from genome sequences

Citation: Donahue J, Peek, Jr. R. 2001. Restriction and Modification Systems, p 269-276. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 4

Type II and IIS restriction enzymes isolated from various strains

Citation: Donahue J, Peek, Jr. R. 2001. Restriction and Modification Systems, p 269-276. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 5

Type II DNA methyltransferase activity in 19 strains

Citation: Donahue J, Peek, Jr. R. 2001. Restriction and Modification Systems, p 269-276. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch24

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