Chapter 29 : Gene Regulation

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is thought to experience little or no competition from other microorganisms in its gastric niche. Only four proteins have a perfect match to helix-turn-helix motifs, which are characteristic of DNA-binding proteins, or more specifically, for transcription factors. However, environmental changes such as varying pH levels, immunological responses, and temperature and nutrient fluctuations due to food intake by the host do occur in the gastric mucus. Therefore, like every other microorganism, has to adapt to these changes by regulating its gene expression to allow successful and persistent colonization of the stomach. Metal ions such as iron, nickel, and copper are essential elements for all organisms, where they function in basic cell metabolism. Nickel is of particular importance for , as the urease enzyme, which is produced in large amounts, requires nickel as a cofactor. Phase variation is the apparently random on- and off-switching of gene expression, and this mechanism of gene regulation is often encountered in bacterial surface-exposed structures such as flagella, adhesins, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Phase variation in methylase genes can provide an extra dimension to gene regulation by . The application of novel techniques and approaches such as DNA microarrays and proteomics will hopefully lead to the identification of additional environmentally regulated genes, while further characterization of the two-component systems will give insight into how responds to its environment and is able to cause disease.

Citation: de Vries N, Van Vliet A, Kusters J. 2001. Gene Regulation, p 321-334. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch29

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Gene Expression and Regulation
Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems
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Figure 1

The ferric uptake regulator homolog (Fur) as a putative global regulator. Fur is thought to be involved in a range of processes in , depicted in boxes, and responds to a variety of environmental stimuli, indicated above the arrows.

Citation: de Vries N, Van Vliet A, Kusters J. 2001. Gene Regulation, p 321-334. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch29
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Figure 2

.Regulation of chaperone genes. Structural organization of the chaperone genes is according to Tomb et al. ( ). Solid arrows indicate regulation by HspR confirmed by experimental data of Spohn and Scarlato ( ). Dashed arrows indicate putative regulatory pathways. Increase, decrease, or no change of expression under either heat stress or osmotic stress is shown by ↑, ↓ or =, respectively. Question marks indicate that no data are available. Chaperone genes are marked in white, regulatory genes are marked in black, and the HP1026 gene, encoding a conserved hypothetical helicase-like protein ( ), is in gray.

Citation: de Vries N, Van Vliet A, Kusters J. 2001. Gene Regulation, p 321-334. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch29
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Figure 3

Schematic representation of a two-component signal transduction system. Signal transduction occurs through autophosphorylation of the histidine kinase sensor (HKS) upon binding of a ligand from the environment. The subsequent transfer of the phos phoryl group (P) activates the response regulator (RR). In , the functions of two two-component systems have been identified. The system involved in the chemotactic response comprises the CheA HKS and the CheY RR. The system regulating flagellar biogenesis involves the HP0244 HKS and the FlgR RR. For further details see text.

Citation: de Vries N, Van Vliet A, Kusters J. 2001. Gene Regulation, p 321-334. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch29
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Figure 4

Schematic representation of regulation of flagellar biogenesis. For explanation see text.

Citation: de Vries N, Van Vliet A, Kusters J. 2001. Gene Regulation, p 321-334. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch29
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Figure 5

Schematic representation of the CheA-CheY two-component system for regulation of the chemotactic response. Putative homologs are written in the lower parts of the respective boxes. For further explanation see text.

Citation: de Vries N, Van Vliet A, Kusters J. 2001. Gene Regulation, p 321-334. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch29
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Table 1

Regulators of , their putative functions, and stimuli

Citation: de Vries N, Van Vliet A, Kusters J. 2001. Gene Regulation, p 321-334. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch29

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