Chapter 37 : Vaccines

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Vaccines, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818005/9781555812133_Chap37-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818005/9781555812133_Chap37-2.gif


The immune response to is remarkably diverse. Evidence from human and animal studies has shown that the immune system expends substantial energy in response to . Recent findings show that the survival of may also be linked to its capacity to negatively select T cells via induction of apoptosis. It is precisely because polarizes the type and magnitude of the host response that immunization may be viewed as a means to deviate a Th1-dominant response resulting in infection and gastritis to another immunologic state capable of interfering with persistence and disease. There is now direct evidence that the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor inactivates transcription of the p53 tumor suppressor and that immune deviation can lessen the severity of chronic gastritis and limit the evolution of gastric atrophy. Animal models of helicobacter vaccine immunity have been discussed in this chapter. The initial vaccine studies employed bacterial lysates delivered orally with cholera toxin (CT) as a prototype mucosal adjuvant. However, the complex nature of whole-cell vaccines and their potential for eliciting undesirable immune reactions have favored the use of purified recombinant antigens for vaccine development. The construction of additional mutant labile toxin (LT) molecules, as well as the design of novel CTA-based fusion protein adjuvants and nanoparticulate delivery systems with IL-12-dependent adjuvant activity, should further encourage work into the search for clinically viable mucosal adjuvants for vaccines.

Citation: Pappo J, Czinn S, Nedrud J. 2001. Vaccines, p 441-455. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch37
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Vaccination with Groups of C57BL/6 wild-type donor mice were immunized intranasally with 100 µg lysate antigen and 10 µg CT adjuvant, or with CT adjuvant alone. immunization protected from infection relative to treatment with CT alone (2.9 × 10 vs. 2.4 × 10 CFU/biopsy, respectively; . by Wilcoxon rank sum analysis). Spleen Th-cell effectors were isolated from protected donor mice and expanded in vitro with lysate, IL-2, and IL-4. -specific CD4 T cells were then magnetically sorted and adoptively transferred (10) by intravenous injection into groups of C57BL/6, MHC class II, or CD4 recipient mice. The mice were subsequently challenged with and immune protection was assessed 2 weeks later by quantitative bacterial culture. Micrographs show representative cross sections (7 μm) of stomach from the indicated strains. T cells were stained with anti-TCRβ and anti-CD4, and the mean frequency per mm3 of stomach was derived from serial sections. The circles enclose TCRαβCD4 cells. The infection density represents the mean CFU/biopsy × 10. Protection represents the extent of attenuation of the infection in adoptively transferred mice compared with untreated mice, analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Adapted from reference 87.

Citation: Pappo J, Czinn S, Nedrud J. 2001. Vaccines, p 441-455. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch37
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Agren, L. C.,, L. Ekman,, B. Lowenadler,, J. G. Nedrud,, and N. Y. Lycke. 1999. Adjuvanticity of the cholera toxin Al-based gene fusion protein, CTA1-DD, is critically dependent on the ADP-ribosyltransferase and Ig-binding activity. J. Immunol. 162:24322440.
2. Ahlstedt, I.,, C. Lindholm,, H. Lonroth,, A. Hamlet,, A. M. Svennerholm,, and M. Quiding-Jarbrink. 1999. Role of local cytokines in increased gastric expression of the secretory component in Helicobacter pylori infection. Infect. Immun. 67: 49214925.
3. Aim, R. A.,, L.-S. L. Ling,, D. T. Moir,, B. L. King,, E. D. Brown,, P. C. Doig,, D. R. Smith,, B. Noonan,, B. C. Guild,, B. L. dejonge,, G. Carmel,, P. J. Tummino,, A. Caruso,, M. Uria-Nickelsen,, D. M. Mills,, C. Ives,, R. Gibson,, D. Merberg,, S. D. Mills,, Q. Jiang,, D. E. Taylor,, G. F. Vovis,, and T. J. Trust. 1999. Genomic-sequence comparison of two unrelated isolates of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 397:176180.
4. Angelakopoulos, H.,, and E. L. Hohmann. 2000. Pilot study of phoP/phoQ-deleted Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing Helicobacter pylori urease in adult volunteers. Infect. Immun. 68:21352141.
5. Appelmelk, B. J.,, S. L. Martin,, M. A. Monteiro,, C. A. Clayton,, A. A. McColm,, P. Zheng,, T. Verboom,, J. J. Maaskant,, D. H. van den Eijnden,, C. H. Hokke,, M. B. Perry,, C. M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls,, and J. G. Kusters. 1999. Phase variation in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide due to changes in the lengths of poly(C) tracts in a3-fucosyltransferase genes. Infect. Immun. 67:53615366.
6. Atherton, J. C.,, K. T. Tham,, R. M. Peek,, T. L. Cover,, and M. J. Blaser. 1996. Density of Helicobacter pylori infection in vivo as assessed by quantitative culture and histology. J. Infect. Dis. 174:552556.
7. Bamford, K. B.,, X. Fan,, S. E. Crowe,, J. F. Leary,, W. K. Gourley,, G. K. Luthra,, E. G. Brooks,, D. Y. Graham,, V. E. Reyes,, and P. B. Ernst. 1998. Lymphocytes in the human gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori have a T helper cell 1 phenotype. Gastroenterology 114:482492.
8. Batchelder, M.,, J. Fox,, A. Hayward,, L. Yan,, B. Shames,, J. Murphy,, and L. Palley. 1996. Natural and experimental Helicobacter mustelae reinfection following successful antimicrobial eradication in ferrets. Helicobacter 1:3442.
9. Batchelder, M.,, J. G. Fox,, T. Monath,, L. Yan,, L. Attardo,, K. Georgakopoulos,, X. Li,, R. Marini,, Z. Shen,, J. Pappo,, and C. Lee. 1996. Oral vaccination with recombinant urease reduces gastric Helicobacter pylori colonization in the cat. Gastroenterology 110:A58.
10. Berg, D. J.,, N. A. Lynch,, R. G. Lynch,, and D. M. Lauricella. 1998. Rapid development of severe hyperplastic gastritis with gastric epithelial dedifferentiation in Helicobacter felis-infected IL-10-/- mice. Am. J. Pathol. 152:13771386.
11. Blanchard, T. G.,, S. J. Czinn,, and J. G. Nedrud. 1999. Host response and vaccine development. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 241:181213.
12. Blanchard, T. G.,, S. J. Czinn,, R. W. Redline,, N. Sigmund,, G. Harriman,, and J. G. Nedrud. 1999. Antibody-independent protective mucosal immunity to gastric helicobacter infection in mice. Cell. Immunol. 191:7480.
13. Blanchard, T. G.,, N. Lycke,, S. J. Czinn,, and J. G. Nedrud. 1998. Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit is not an effective mucosal adjuvant for oral immunization of mice against H. felis. Immunology 94:2227.
14. Blanchard, T. G.,, J. G. Nedrud,, E. S. Reardon,, and S. J. Czinn. 1999. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the local and systemic antibody response in mice and humans with helicobacter immunity and infection.J. Infect. Dis. 179: 725728.
15. Blaser, M. J. 1997. Ecology of Helicobacter pylori in the human stomach. J. Clin. Invest. 100:759762.
16. Blaser, M. J.,, and D. Kirschner. 1999. Dynamics of Helicobacter pylori colonization in relation to the host response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:83598364.
17. Bogstedt, A. K.,, S. Nava,, T. Wadstrom,, and L. Hammarstrom. 1996. Helicobacter pylori infections in IgA deficiency: lack of role for the secretory immune system. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 105:202204.
18. Chen, M.,, A. Lee,, and S. L. Hazell. 1992. Immunisation against Helicobacter infection in a mouse Helicobacter felis model. Lancet i:11201121.
19. Chen, M.,, A. Lee,, S. Hazell,, P. Hu,, and Y. Li. 1993. Immunisation against gastric infection with Helicobacter species: first step in the prophylaxis of gastric cancer? Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 280:155165.
20. Chiba, N.,, B. V. Rao,, J. W. Rademaker,, and R. H. Hunt. 1992. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87: 17161727.
21. Corthesy-Theulaz, I.,, N. Porta,, M. Glauser,, E. Saraga,, A.-C. Vaney,, R. Haas,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl,, A. L. Blum,, and P. Michetti. 1995. Oral immunization with Helicobacter pylori urease B subunit as a treatment against Helicobacter infection in mice. Gastroenterology 109:115121.
22. Corthesy-Theulaz, I. E.,, S. Hopkins,, D. Bachmann,, P. F. Saldinger,, N. Porta,, R. Haas,, Y. Zheng-Xin,, T. Meyer,, H. Bouzourene,, A. L. Blum,, and J. P. Kraehenbuhl. 1998. Mice are protected from Helicobacter pylori infection by nasal immunization with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium phoPc expressing urease A and B subunits. Infect. Immun. 66: 581586.
23. Cover, T. L. 1997. Commentary: Helicobacter pylori transmission, host factors, and bacterial factors. Gastroenterology 113:S29S30.
24. Crabtree, J. E.,, T. M. Shallcross,, J. I. Wyatt,, J. D. Taylor,, R. V. Heatley,, B. J. Rathbone,, and M. S. Losowsky. 1991. Mucosal humoral immune response to Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 36:12661273.
25. Crowe, S. E.,, L. Alvarez,, M. Dytoc,, R. H. Hunt,, M. Muller,, P. Sherman,, J. Patel,, Y. Jin,, and P. B. Ernst. 1995. Expression of interleukin 8 and CD54 by human gastric epithelium after Helicobacter pylori infection in vitro. Gastroenterology 108: 6574.
26. Cuenca, R.,, T. G. Blanchard,, S. J. Czinn,, J. G. Nedrud,, T. P. Monath,, C. K. Lee,, and R. W. Redline. 1996. Therapeutic immunization against Helicobacter mustelae infection in naturally infected ferrets. Gastroenterology 110:17701775.
27. Czinn, S. J.,, and J. G. Nedrud. 1991. Oral immunization against Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 59:23592363.
28. Czinn, S. J.,, A. Cai,, and J. G. Nedrud. 1993. Protection of germ-free mice from infection by Helicobacter felis after active oral or passive IgA immunization. Vaccine 11:637642.
29. Dangler, C. A.,, N. S. Taylor,, Z. Kabok,, L. Castriotta,, J. Pappo,, and J. G. Fox. 1998. Comparison of gastric colonization and lesion development in ICR and C57BL/6 mice following long-term infection with Helicobacter pylori strains SSI or H244. Gut 43:A28.
30. Debets-Ossenkopp, Y. J.,, A. J. Herscheid,, R. G. J. Pot,, E. J. Kuipers,, J. G. Kusters,, and C. M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls. 1999. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxycillin, tetracycline and trovafloxicin in The Netherlands. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43:511515.
31. D'Elios, M. M.,, A. Amedei,, M. Manghetti,, F. Costa,, C. S. Baldari,, A. S. Quazi,, J. L. Telford,, S. Romagnani,, and G. Del Prete. 1999. Impaired T-cell regulation of B-cell growth in Helicobacter pylori-related gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma. Gastroenterology 117:11051112.
32. D'Elios, M. M.,, M. Manghetti,, F. Almerigogna,, A. Amedei,, F. Costa,, D. Burroni,, C. T. Baldari,, S. Romagnani,, J. L. Telford,, and G. Del Prete. 1997. Different cytokine profile and antigen-specificity repertoire in Helicobacter pylori-specific T cell clones from the antrum of chronic gastritis patients with or without peptic ulcer. Eur. J. Immunol. 27:17511755.
33. D'Elios, M. M.,, M. Manghetti,, M. De Carli,, F. Costa,, C. T. Baldari,, D. Burroni,, J. L. Telford,, S. Romagnani,, and G. Del Prete. 1997. T helper 1 effector cells specific for Helicobacter pylori in the gastric antrum of patients with peptic ulcer disease. J. Immunol. 158:962967.
34. DiPetrillo, M. D.,, T. Tibbetts,, H. Kleanthous,, K. P. Killeen,, and E. L. Hohmann. 1999. Safety and immunogenicity of phoP/phoQ-deleted Salmonella typhi expressing Helicobacter pylori urease in adult volunteers. Vaccine 18:449459.
35. Di Tommaso, A.,, Z. Xiang,, M. Bugnoli,, P. Pileri,, N. Figura,, P. F. Bayeli,, R. Rappuoli,, S. Abrignani,, and M. T. De Magistris. 1995. Helicobacter pylori-specific CD4+T-cell clones from peripheral blood and gastric biopsies. Infect. Immun. 63:11021106.
36. Doidge, C.,, I. Gust,, A. Lee,, F. Buck,, S. Hazell,, and U. Manne. 1994. Therapeutic immunization against helicobacter infection. Lancet 343:913914.
37. Dubois, A.,, D. E. Berg,, E. T. Incecik,, N. Fiala,, L. M. Heman-Ackah,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, and M. J. Blaser. 1996. Transient and persistent experimental infection of nonhuman primates with Helicobacter pylori: implications for human disease. Infect. Immun. 64:28852891.
38. Dubois, A.,, D. E. Berg,, E. T. Incecik,, N. Fiala,, L. M. Heman-Ackah,, J. Del Valle,, M. Yang,, H. P. Wirth,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, and M.J. Blaser. 1999. Host specificity of Helicobacter pylori strains and host responses in experimentally challenged non-human primates. Gastroenterology 116:9096.
39. Dubois, A.,, C. K. Lee,, N. Fiala,, H. Kleanthous,, P. T. Mehlman,, and T. Monath. 1998. Immunization against natural Helicobacter pylori infection in nonhuman primates. Infect. Immun. 66:43404346.
40. Dunkley, M. L.,, S. J. Harris,, R. J. McCoy,, M. J. Musicka,, F. M. Eyers,, L. G. Beagley,, P. J. Lumley,, K. W. Beagley,, and R. L. Clancy. 1999. Protection against Helicobacter pylori infection by intestinal immunisation with a 50/52-kDa sub-unit protein. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 24:221225.
41. Eaton, K. A.,, and S. Krakowka. 1992. Chronic active gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori in immunized gnotobiotic piglets. Gastroenterology 103:15801586.
42. Eaton, K. A.,, S. R. Ringler,, and S. J. Danon. 1999. Murine splenocytes induce severe gastritis and delayed-type hypersensitivity and suppress bacterial colonization in Helicobacter pylori-infected SCID mice. Infect. Immun. 67:45944602.
43. Eaton, K. A.,, S. R. Ringler,, and S. Krakowka. 1998. Vaccination of gnotobiotic piglets against Helicobacter pylori. J. Infect. Dis. 178:13991405.
44. Ellyn, D. S.,, C. Lange,, A. Covacci,, L. S. Tompkins,, and S. Falkow. 1996. Helicobacter pylori attachment to gastric cells induces cytoskeletal rearrangements and tyrosine phosphorylation of host cell proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 12591264.
45. Ellyn, D. S.,, C. Lange,, A. Covacci,, L. S. Tompkins,, and S. Falkow. 1997. Induction of host signal transduction pathway by Helicobacter pylori. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 75957599.
46. El-Omar, E. M.,, M. Carrington,, W.-H. Chow,, K. E. L. McColl,, J. H. Bream,, H. A. Young,, J. Herrera,, J. Lissowska,, C.-C. Yuan,, N. Rothman,, G. Lanyon,, M. Martin,, J. F. Fraumeni,, and C. S. Rabkin. 2000. Interleukin-1 polymorphisms associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Nature 404:398402.
47. Engstrand, L.,, A. Scheynius,, C. Pathlson,, L. Grimelius,, A. Schwan,, and S. Gustavsson. 1989. Association of Campylobacter pylori with induced expression of class II transplantation antigens on gastric epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 57: 827832.
48. Ermak, T. H.,, E. P. Dougherty,, H. R. Bhagat,, Z. Kabok,, and J. Pappo. 1995. Uptake and transport of copolymer biodegradable microspheres by rabbit Peyer's patch M cells. Cell Tissue Res. 279:433436.
49. Ermak, T. H.,, R. Ding,, B. Ekstein,, J. Hill,, G. A. Myers,, C. K. Lee,, J. Pappo,, H. K. Kleanthous,, and T. P. Monath. 1997. Gastritis in urease-immunized mice after Helicobacter felis challenge may be due to residual bacteria. Gastroenterology 113:11181128.
50. Ermak, T. H.,, P. J. Giannasca,, R. Nichols,, G. A. Myers,, J. Nedrud,, R. Weltzin,, C. K. Lee,, H. Kleanthous,, and T. P. Monath. 1998. Immunization of mice with urease vaccine affords protection against Helicobacter pylori infection in the absence of antibodies and is mediated by MHC class II-restricted responses. J. Exp. Med. 188:22772288.
51. Ernst, P. B.,, and J. Pappo. 2000. Preventive and therapeutic vaccines against Helicobacter pylori: current status and future challenges. Curr. Pharm. Design 6:15571573.
52. Fan, X.,, S. E. Crowe,, S. Behar,, H. Gunasena,, Y. Ge,, H. Haeberle,, N. Van Houten,, W. K. Gourley,, P. B. Ernst,, and V. E. Reyes. 1998. The effect of class II major histocompatibility complex expression on adherence of Helicobacter pylori and induction of apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells: a mechanism for T helper cell type-1 mediated damage. J. Exp. Med. 187: 16591669.
53. Ferrero, R. L.,, J.-M. Thiberge,, I. Kansau,, N. Wuscher,, M. Huerre,, and A. Labigne. 1995. The groES homolog of Helicobacter pylori confers protective immunity against mucosal infection in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:64996503.
54. Forster, R.,, A. E. Mattis,, E. Kremmer,, E. Wolf,, G. Brem,, and M. Lipp. 1996. A putative chemokine receptor, BLR1, directs B cell migration to defined lymphoid organs and specific anatomic compartments of the spleen. Cell 87:10371047.
55. Fox, J. G.,, M. Batchelder,, R. Marini,, L. Yan,, L. Handt,, X. Li,, B. Shames,, A. Hayward,, J. Campbell,, and J. C. Murphy. 1995. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in the domestic cat. Infect. Immun. 63:26742681.
56. Fox, J. G.,, P. Beck,, C. A. Dangler,, M. T. Whary,, T. C. Wang,, H. N. Shi,, and C. Nagler-Anderson. 2000. Concurrent enteric helminth infection modulates inflammation and gastric immune responses and reduces helicobacter-induced gastric atrophy. Nat. Med. 6:536542.
57. Fox, J. G.,, M. Blanco,, J. C. Murphy,, N. S. Taylor,, A. Lee,, Z. Kabok,, and J. Pappo. 1993. Local and systemic immune responses in murine Helicobacter felis active chronic gastritis. Infect. Immun. 61:23092315.
58. Fox, J. G.,, P. Correa,, N. S. Taylor,, A. Lee,, G. Otto,, J. C. Murphy,, and R. Rose. 1990. Helicobacter mustelae-associated gastritis in ferrets: an animal model of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in humans. Gastroenterology 99:352361.
59. Fox, J. G.,, S. Perkins,, L. Yan,, S. Shen,, L. Attardo,, and J. Pappo. 1996. Local immune response in Helicobacter pylori infected cats and identification of H. pylori in saliva, gastric fluid and faeces. Immunology 88:400406.
60. Garcia, G.,, A. Ibraghimov,, Z. Kabok,, and J. Pappo. 1998. Does Helicobacter pylori infection induce immunological tolerance in mice?, p. 106. In Abstr. 10th Int. Congr. Immunol. 1998. Hogrefe and Huber Publishers, New Delhi, India.
61. Ghiara, P.,, M. Rossi,, M. Marchetti,, A. Di Tommaso,, C. Vindigni,, F. Ciampolini,, A. Covacci,, J. L. Telford,, M. T. De Magistris,, M. Pizza,, R. Rappuoli,, and G. Del Giudice. 1997. Therapeutic intragastric vaccination against Helicobacter pylori in mice eradicates an otherwise chronic infection and confers protection against reinfection. Infect. Immun. 65: 49965002.
62. Gomez-Duarte, O. G.,, B. Lucas,, Z. X. Yan,, K. Panthel,, R. Haas,, and T. F. Meyer. 1998. Protection of mice against gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori by single oral dose immunization with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium producing urease subunits A and B. Vaccine 16:460471.
63. Goto, T.,, A. Nishizono,, T. Fujioka,, J. Ikewaki,, K. Mifune,, and M. Nasu. 1999. Local secretory immunoglobulin A and postimmunization gastritis correlate with protection against Helicobacter pylori infection after oral vaccination of mice. Infect. Immun. 67:25312539.
64. Gottwein, J. M.,, T. G. Blanchard,, O. S. Targoni,, J. C. Eisenberg,, B. M. Zagorski,, R. P. Trezza,, R. V. Redline,, J. G. Nedrud,, M. Tary-Lehmann,, P. V. Lehman,, and S. J. Czinn. Systemic vaccination with the human adjuvant aluminum hydroxide induces protective type-2 cell-mediated immunity against Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa. Submitted for publication.
65. Graham, D. Y. 1998. Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori: implications for therapy. Gastroenterology 115: 12721277.
66. Graham, D. Y.,, A. R. Opekun,, M. S. Osato,, H. M. T. El-Zimatiy,, M. Cadoz,, W. A. Qureshi,, and T. P. Monath. Challenge model for H. pylori infection in human volunteers. Gut 45:A57.
67. Greiner, A.,, A. Marx,, J. Heesemann,, J. Leebmann,, B. Schmausser,, and H. K. Muller-Hermelink. 1994. Idiotype identity in a MALT-type lymphoma and B cells in Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis. Lab. Invest. 70: 572578.
68. Guy, B.,, C. Hessler,, S. Fourage,, J. Haensler,, E. Vialon-Lafay,, B. Rokbi,, and M.-J. Q. Millet. 1998. Systemic immunization with urease protects mice against Helicobacter pylori infection. Vaccine 16:850856.
69. Guy, B.,, C. Hessler,, S. Fourage,, B. Rokbi,, and M. J. Millet. 1999. Comparison between targeted and untargeted systemic immunizations with adjuvanted urease to cure Helicobacter pylori infection in mice. Vaccine 17:11301135.
70. Haeberle, H. A.,, M. Kubin,, K. B. Bamford,, R. Garofalo,, D. Y. Graham,, F. El-Zaatari,, R. Karttunen,, S. E. Crowe,, V. E. Reyes,, and P. B. Ernst. 1997. Differential stimulation of in-terleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 by live and killed Helicobacter pylori in vitro and association of IL-12 production with gamma interferon-producing T cells in the human gastric mucosa. Infect. Immun. 65:42294235.
71. Hansen, P. S.,, M. F. Go,, K. Varming,, L. P. Andersen,, R. M. Genta,, D. Y. Graham,, and H. Nielsen. 1999. Proinflammatory activation of neutrophils and monocytes by Helicobacter pylori in patients with different clinical presentations. Infect. Immun. 67:31713174.
72. Harris, P. R.,, P. B. Ernst,, S. Kawabata,, H. Kiyono,, M. F. Graham,, and P. D. Smith. 1998. Recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease activates primary mucosal macrophages. J. Infect. Dis. 178:15161520, 1998.
73. Hatz, R. A.,, G. Rieder,, M. Stolte,, E. Bayerdorffer,, G. Meimarakis,, F. W. Schildberg,, and G. Enders. 1997. Pattern of adhesion molecule expression on vascular endothelium in Helicobacter pylori-associated antral gastritis. Gastroenterology 112:19081919.
74. Hayat, M.,, D. S. Arora,, M. F. Dixon,, B. Clark,, and S. O'Mahony. 1999. Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the natural history of lymphocytic gastritis. Gut 45:495498.
75. Hocking, D.,, E. Webb,, F. Radcliff,, L. Rothel,, S. Taylor,, G. Pinczower,, C. Kapouleas,, H. Braley,, A. Lee,, and C. Doidge. 1999. Isolation of recombinant protective Helicobacter pylori antigens. Infect. Immun. 67:47134719.
76. Hornquist, C. E.,, L. Ekman,, K. D. Grdic,, K. Schon,, and N. Y. Lycke. 1995. Paradoxical IgA immunity in CD4-deficient mice. Lack of cholera toxin-specific protective immunity despite normal gut mucosal IgA differentiation. J. Immunol. 155:28772887.
77. Hudson, J. D.,, M. A. Shoaibi,, R. Maestro,, A. Carnero,, G. J. Hannon,, and D. H. Beach. 1999. A proinflammatory cytokine inhibits p53 tumor suppressor activity. J. Exp. Med. 190: 13751382.
78. Ibraghimov, A.,, G. Garcia,, and J. Pappo. 1999. Unpublished data.
79. Ibraghimov, A.,, Z. Kabok,, G. Garcia,, L. Castriotta,, D. Torrey,, and J. Pappo. 1999. Development of gastric α β +CD4+ intraepithelial lymphocytes induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. Immunol. Lett. 69:29.
80. Ibraghimov, A.,, Z. Kabok,, G. Garcia,, L. Castriotta,, D. Torrey,, and J. Pappo. 2000. Gastric CD4+ intraepithelial lymphocytes: a novel mucosa-associated lymphoid compartment induced in mice by Helicobacter pylori infection. Mucosal Immunol. Update 8:912.
81. Ibraghimov, A.,, and J. Pappo. 2000. The immune response against Helicobacter pylori. A direct linkage to the development of gastroduodenal disease. Microb. Infect. 2: 10731077.
82. Ihan, A.,, B. Tepez,, I. Kavcic,, and M. Gubina. 1996. IL-2 receptor expression on gastric mucosa T lymphocytes is enhanced in duodenal ulcer patients compared with non-ulcer dyspeptic patients. Hepato-Gastroenterology 43:16651670.
83. liver, D.,, A. Arnqvist,, J. Ogren,, I. M. Frick,, D. Kersulyte,, E. T. Incecik,, D. E. Berg,, A. Covacci,, L. Engstrand,, and T. Boren. 1998. Helicobacter pylori adhesin binding fucosylated histo-blood group antigens revealed by retagging. Science 279:173177.
84. Isaacson, P. 1982. Immunoperoxidase study of the secretory immunoglobulin system and lysozyme in normal and diseased gastric mucosa. Gut 23:578588.
85. Jiang, B.,, M. Jordana,, Z. Xing,, F. Smaill,, D. P. Snider,, R. Borojevic,, D. Steele-Norwood,, R. H. Hunt,, and K. Croitoru. 1999. Replication-defective adenovirus infection reduces Helicobacter felis colonization in the mouse in a gamma interferon- and interleukin-12-dependent manner. Infect. Immun. 67:45394544.
86. Kabok, Z.,, W. Gao,, L. Castriotta,, D. Torrey,, A. Saninainen,, H. Park,, A. Ibraghimov,, and J. Pappo. 1998. Administration of anti-interleukin 4 monoclonal antibody exacerbates murine Helicobacter pylori infection. Gut 43:A30.
87. Kabok, Z.,, W. Gao,, and J. Pappo. 1999. Function of murine Helicobacter-specific CD4+ T cells in protection against Helicobacter pylori in C57BL/6 and MHC class II-/- knockout mice. Gut 45:A58.
88. Karttunen, R.,, T. Karttunen,, H. P. Ekre,, and T. T. MacDonald. 1995. Interferon gamma and interleukin 4 secreting cells in the gastric antrum in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative gastritis. Gut 36:341345.
89. Kawai, T.,, M. Seki,, K. Hiromatsu,, J. W. Eastcott,, G. F. Watts,, M. Sugai,, D. J. Smith,, S. A. Porcelli,, and M. A. Taubman. 1999. Selective diapedesis of Th1 cells induced by endothelial cell RANTES. J. Immunol. 163:32693278.
90. Keates, S.,, Y. Hitti,, M. Upton,, and C. Kelly. 1997. Helicobacter pylori infection activates NF-kB in gastric epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 113:10991109.
91. Keenan, J.,, J. Oliaro,, N. Domigan,, H. Potter,, G. Aitken,, R. Allardyce,, and J. Roake. 2000. Immune response to an 18-kilodalton outer membrane antigen identifies lipoprotein 20 as a Helicobacter pylori vaccine candidate. Infect. Immun. 68:33373343.
92. Kehrt, R.,, M. Becker,, H. Brosicke,, N. Kruger,, and H. Helge. 1997. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nicara-guan children with persistent diarrhoea diagnosed by the 13C-urea breath test. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 25:8488.
93. Kerneis, S.,, A. Bogdanova,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl,, and E. Pringault. 1997. Conversion by Peyer's patch lymphocytes of human enterocytes into M cells that transport bacteria. Science 277:949952.
94. Kim, S. Y.,, H. J. Doh,, J. S. Ahn,, Y. J. Ha,, M. H. Jang,, S. I. Chung,, and H. J. Park. 1999. Induction of mucosal and systemic immune response by oral immunization with H. pylori lysates encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. Vaccine 17:607616.
95. Kimmel, B.,, A. Bosserhoff,, R. Frank,, R. Gross,, W. Goebel,, and D. Beier. 2000. Identification of immunodominant antigens from Helicobacter pylori and evaluation of their reactivities with sera from patients with different gastroduodenal pathologies. Infect. Immun. 68:915920.
96. Kleanthous, H.,, G. A. Myers,, K. M. Georgakopoulos,, T. J. Tibbitts,, J. W. Ingrassia,, H. L. Gray,, R. Ding,, Z. Z. Zhang,, W. Lei,, R. Nichols,, C. K. Lee,, T. H. Ermak,, and T. P. Monath. 1998. Rectal and intranasal immunizations with recombinant urease induce distinct local and serum immune responses in mice and protect against Helicobacter pylori infection. Infect. Immun. 66:28792886.
97. Knipp, U.,, S. Birkholz,, W. Kaup,, and W. Opferkuch. 1996. Partial characterization of a cell proliferation-inhibiting protein produced by Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 64: 34913496.
98. Kotloff, K.,, G. Losonsky,, S. Wasserman,, and R. Walker. 1999. Safety and immunogenicity of a Helicobacter pylori vaccine in human volunteers. Third Annual Winter H. pylori Workshop, Orlando, Fla.
99. Krakowka, S.,, K. A. Eaton,, and D. M. Rings. 1995. Occurrence of gastric ulcers in gnotobiotic piglets colonized by Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 63:23522355.
100. Lee, A.,, J. G. Fox,, G. Otto,, and J. Murphy. 1990. A small animal model of human Helicobacter pylori active chronic gastritis. Gastroenterology 99:13151323.
101. Lee, A.,, J. O'Rourke,, M. C. De Ungria,, B. Robertson,, G. Daskalopoulos,, and M. F. Dixon. 1997. A standardised mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection. Introducing the Sydney strain. Gastroenterology 112:13861397.
102. Lee, C. K.,, K. Soike,, P. Giannasca,, J. Hill,, R. Weltzin,, H. Kleanthous,, J. Blanchard,, and T. P. Monath. 1999. Immunization of rhesus monkeys with a mucosal prime, parenteral boost strategy protects against infection with Helicobacter pylori. Vaccine 17:30723082.
103. Lee, C. K.,, K. Soike,, J. Hill,, K. Georgakopoulos,, T. Tibbitts,, J. Ingrassia,, H. Gray,, J. Boden,, H. Kleanthous,, P. Giannasca,, T. Ermak,, R. Weltzin,, J. Blanchard,, and T. P. Monath. 1999. Immunization with recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease decreases colonization levels following experimental infection of rhesus monkeys. Vaccine 17:14931505.
104. Lee, C. K.,, R. Weltzin,, W. D. J. Thomas,, H. Kleanthous,, T. H. Ermak,, G. Soman,, J. E. Hill,, S. K. Ackerman,, and T. P. Monath. 1995. Oral immunization with recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease induces secretory IgA antibodies and protects mice from challenge with Helicobacter felis. J. Infect. Dis. 172:161172.
105. Lindholm, C.,, M. Quiding-Jarbrink,, H. Lonroth,, A. Hamlet,, and A. M. Svennerholm. 1998. Local cytokine response in Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects. Infect. Immun. 66: 59645971.
106. Luzza, F.,, T. Parrello,, G. Monteleone,, L. Sebkova,, M. Imeneo,, A. La Vecchia,, M. Maletta,, C. Docimo,, and F. Pallone. 1999. Changes in the mucosal expression of interleukin 15 in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 24:233238.
107. Lycke, N. 1997. The mechanism of cholera toxin adjuvanticity. Res. Immunol. 148:504520.
108. Macatonia, S. E.,, N. A. Hosken,, M. Litton,, P. Vieira,, C. S. Hsieh,, J. A. Culpeper,, M. Wysocka,, G. Trinchieri,, K. M. Murphy,, and A. O'Garra. 1995. Dendritic cells produce IL-12 and direct the development of Th1 cells from naive CD4+ T cells. J. Immunol. 154:50715079.
109. Malaty, H. M.,, D. Y. Graham,, W. A. Wattigney,, S. R. Srinivasan,, M. Osato,, and G. S. Berenson. 1999. Natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood: 12-year follow-up cohort study in a biracial community. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:279282.
110. Marchetti, M.,, B. Arico,, D. Burroni,, N. Figura,, R. Rappuoli,, and P. Ghiara. 1995. Development of a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection that mimics human disease. Science 267:16551658.
111. Marchetti, M.,, M. Rossi,, V. Giannelli,, M. M. Giuliani,, M. Pizza,, S. Censini,, A. Covacci,, P. Massari,, C. Pagliaccia,, R. Manetti,, J. L. Telford,, G. Douce,, G. Dougan,, R. Rappuoli,, and P. Ghiara. 1998. Protection against Helicobacter pylori infection in mice by intragastric vaccination with H. pylori antigens is achieved using a non-toxic mutant of E. coli heatlabile enterotoxin (LT) as adjuvant. Vaccine 16:3337.
112. Mattsson, A.,, H. Lonroth,, M. Quiding-Jarbrink,, and A. M. Svennerholm. 1998. Induction of B cell responses in the stomach of Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects after oral cholera vaccination.J. Clin. Invest. 102:5156.
113. Mattsson, A.,, M. Quiding-Jarbrink,, H. Lonroth,, A. Hamlet,, I. Ahlstedt,, and A. M. Svennerholm. 1998. Antibody-secreting cells in the stomachs of symptomatic and asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects. Infect. Immun. 66: 27052712.
114. Mattsson, A.,, A. Tinnert,, A. Hamlet,, H. Lonroth,, I. Bolin,, and A. M. Svennerholm. 1998. Specific antibodies in sera and gastric aspirates of symptomatic and asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 5:288293.
115. Mazzucchelli, L.,, A. Blaser,, A. Kappeler,, P. Scharli,, J. Laissue,, M. Baggiolini,, and M. Uguccioni. 1999. BCA-1 is highly expressed in Helicobacter pylori-induced mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and gastric lymphoma. J. Clin. Invest. 104:R49R54.
116. Megraud, F. 1997. Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 11:4353.
117. Michetti, M.,, C. P. Kelly,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl,, H. Bouzourene,, and P. Michetti. 1999. The vascular addressin ICAM-1 is required for protective immunization against helicobacter in mice. Gut 45:A58.
118. Michetti, P.,, I. Corthesy-Thelaz,, C. Davin,, R. Haas,, A.-C. Vaney,, M. Heitz,, J. Bille,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl,, E. Saraga,, and A. L. Blum. 1994. Immunization of Balb/c mice against Helicobacter felis infection with Helicobacter pylori urease. Gastroenterology 107:10021011.
119. Michetti, P.,, C. Kreiss,, K. L. Kotloff,, N. Porta,, J. L. Blanco,, D. Bachmann,, M. Herranz,, P. F. Saldinger,, I. Corthesy-Theulaz,, G. Losonsky,, R. Nichols,, J. Simon,, M. Stolte,, S. Acker-man,, T. P. Monath,, and A. L. Blum. 1999. Oral immunization with urease and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin is safe and immunogenic in Helicobacter pylori-infected adults. Gastroenterology 116:804812.
120. Mohammadi, M.,, S. Czinn,, R. Redline,, and J. Nedrud. 1996. Helicobacter-specific cell-mediated immune responses display a predominant TH1 phenotype and promote a DTH response in the stomachs of mice. J. Immunol. 156: 47294738.
121. Mohammadi, M.,, J. Nedrud,, R. Redline,, N. Lycke,, and S. Czinn. 1997. Murine CD4 T cell responses to Helicobacter infection: TH1 cells enhance gastritis and TH2 cells reduce bacterial load. Gastroenterology 113:18481857.
122. Molinari, M.,, M. Salio,, C. Galli,, N. Norais,, R. Rappouli,, A. Lanzavecchia,, and C. Montecucco. 1998. Selective inhibition of Ii-dependent antigen presentation by Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA. J. Exp. Med. 187:135140.
123. Monteleone, G.,, T. T. McDonald,, N. C. Wathen,, F. Pallone,, and S. L. F. Pender. 1999. Enhancing lamina propria Th1 cell responses with interleukin 12 produces severe tissue injury. Gastroenterology 117:10691077.
124. Novak, M. J.,, L. E. Smythies,, S. A. McPherson,, P. D. Smith,, and C. D. Morrow. 1999. Poliovirus replicons encoding the B subunit of Helicobacter pylori urease elicit a Th1 associated immune response. Vaccine 17:23842391.
125. Odenbreit, S.,, J. Puis,, B. Sedlmaier,, E. Gerland,, W. Fischer,, and R. Haas. 2000. Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion. Science 287:14971500.
126. O'Garra, A.,, L. M. McEvoy,, and A. Zlotnik. 1998. T-cell subsets: chemokine receptors guide the way. Curr. Biol. 8:R646R649.
127. Pappo, J.,, and T. H. Ermak. 1989. Uptake and translocation of fluorescent latex particles by rabbit Peyer's patch follicle epithelium: a quantitative model for M cell uptake. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 76:144148.
128. Pappo, J.,, W. D. Thomas,, Z. Kabok,, N. S. Taylor,, J. C. Murphy,, and J. G. Fox. 1995. Effect of oral immunization with recombinant urease on murine Helicobacter felis gastritis. Infect. Immun. 63:12461252.
129. Pappo, J.,, D. Torrey,, L. Castriotta,, A. Savinainen,, Z. Kabok,, and A. Ibraghimov. 1999. Helicobacter pylori infection in immunized mice lacking major histocompatability complex class I and class II functions. Infect. Immun. 67:337341.
130. Radcliff, F. J.,, S. L. Hazell,, T. Kolesnikow,, C. Doidge,, and A. Lee. 1997. Catalase, a novel antigen for Helicobacter pylori vaccination. Infect. Immun. 65:46684674.
131. Ramirez-Ramos, A.,, R. H. Gilman,, R. Leon-Barua,, S. Recavarren-Arce,, J. Watanabe,, G. Salazar,, W. Checkley,, J. McDonald,, Y. Valdez,, L. Cordero,, and J. Carrazco. 1997. Rapid recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian patients after successful eradication. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 10271031.
132. Rappuoli, R.,, M. Pizza,, G. Douce,, and G. Dougan. 1999. Structure and mucosal adjuvanticity of cholera and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins. Immunol. Today 20: 493500.
133. Rogers, P. R.,, and M. Croft. 1999. Peptide dose, affinity, and time of differentiation can contribute to the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. J. Immunol. 163:12051213.
134. Roth, K.,, S. Kapadia,, S. Martin,, and R. Lorenz. 1999. Cellular immune responses are essential for the development of Helicobacter felis-associated gastric pathology. J. Immunol. 163:14901497.
135. Rudi, J.,, D. Kuck,, S. Strand,, A. von Herbay,, S. M. Mariani,, P. H. Krammer,, P. R. Galle,, and W. Stremmel. 1998. Involvement of the CD95 (APO-l/Fas) receptor and ligand system in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric epithelial apoptosis. J. Clin. Invest. 102:15061514.
136. Rupnow, M. F.,, D. K. Owens,, R. Shachter,, and J. Parsonnet. 1999. Helicobacter pylori vaccine development and use: a cost-effectiveness analysis using the Institute of Medicine methodology. Helicobacter 4:272280.
137. Rupnow, M. F.,, R. D. Shachter,, D. K. Owens,, and J. Par-sonnet. 2000. A dynamic transmission model for predicting trends in Helicobacter pylori and associated diseases in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:228237.
138. Saldinger, P. F.,, N. Porta,, P. Launois,, J. A. Louis,, G.A. Waanders,, H. Bouzourene,, P. Michetti,, A. L. Blum,, and I. E. Corthesy-Theulaz. 1998. Immunization of BALB/c mice with helicobacter urease B induces a T helper 2 response absent in helicobacter infection. Gastroenterology 115:891897.
139. Satin, B.,, G. D. Giudice,, V. D. Bianca,, S. Dusi,, C. Laudanna,, F. Tonello,, D. Kelleher,, R. Rappuoli,, C. Montecucco,, and F. Rossi. 2000. The neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) of Helicobacter pylori is a protective antigen and a major virulence factor. J. Exp. Med. 191:14671476.
140. Sawai, N.,, M. Kita,, T. Kodama,, T. Tanahashi,, Y. Yamaoka,, Y. Tagawa,, Y. Iwakura,, and J. Imanishi. 1999. Role of gamma interferon in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammatory responses in a mouse model. Infect. Immun. 67: 279285.
141. Schreiber, S.,, M. Stuben,, C. Josenhans,, P. Scheid,, and S. Suerbaum. 1999. In vivo distribution of Helicobacter felis in the gastric mucus of the mouse: experimental method and results Infect. Immun. 67:51515156.
142. Shimoyama, T.,, S. M. Everett,, M. F. Dixon,, A. T. Axon,, and J. E. Crabtree. 1998. Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. J. Clin. Pathol. 51:765770.
143. Shirai, Y.,, Y. Wakatsuki,, T. Kusumoto,, M. Nakata,, M. Yoshida,, T. Usui,, T. Iizuka,, and T. Kita. 2000. Induction and maintenance of immune effector cells in the gastric tissue of mice orally immunized to Helicobacter pylori requires salivary glands. Gastroenterology 118:749759.
144. Smith, R. E.,, A. M. Donachie,, D. Grdic,, N. Lycke,, and A. M. Mowat. 1999. Immune-stimulating complexes induce an IL-12-dependent cascade of innate immune responses. J. Immunol. 162:55365546.
145. Solnick, J. V.,, D. R. Canfield,, L. M. Hansen,, and S. Z. Torabian. 2000. Immunization with recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease in specific-pathogen-free rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto). Infect. Immun. 68:25602565.
146. Sommer, F.,, G. Faller,, P. Konturek,, T. Kirchner,, E. G. Hahn,, J. Zeus,, M. Röllinghoff,, and M. Lohoff. 1998 Antrum- and corpus mucosa-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes in Helicobacter pylori gastritis display a Th1 phenotype. Infect. Immun. 66:55435546.
147. Stolte, M.,, and S. Eidt. 1989. Lymphoid follicles in antral mucosa: immune response to Campylobacter pylori? J. Clin. Pathol. 42:12691271.
148. Su, B.,, P. M. Hellström,, C. Rubio,, J. Celik,, M. Granstrom,, and S. Normark. 1998. Type I Helicobacter pylori shows Lewisb independent adherence to gastric cells requiring de novo protein synthesis in both host and bacteria. J. Infect. Dis. 178:13791390.
149. Su, B.,, S. Johansson,, M. Fallman,, M. Patarroyo,, M. Granström,, and S. Normark. 1999. Signal transduction-mediated adherence and entry of Helicobacter pylori into cultured cells. Gastroenterology 117:595604.
150. Sutton, P.,, J. Wilson,, R. Gneta,, D. Torrey,, A. Savinainen,, J. Pappo,, and A. Lee. 1999. A genetic basis for atrophy: dominant non-responsiveness and helicobacter induced gastritis in F1 hybrid mice. Gut 45:335340.
151. Sutton, P.,, J. Wilson,, T. Kosaka,, I. Wolowezuk,, and A. Lee. 2000. Therapeutic immunization against Helicobacter pylori infection in the absence of antibodies. Immunol. Cell Biol. 78:2830.
152. Syder, A. J.,, J. L. Guruge,, Q. Li,, Y. Hu,, C. M. Oleksiewicz,, R. G. Lorenz,, S. M. Karam,, P. G. Falk,, and J. L. Gordon. 1999. Helicobacter pylori attaches to NeuAcα 2,3Galβ l,4 glycoconjugates produced in the stomach of transgenic mice lacking parietal cells. Mol. Cell 3:263274.
153. Thomas, J. E.,, S. Austin,, A. Dale,, P. McClean,, M. Harding,, W. A. Coward,, and L. T. Weaver. 1993. Protection by human milk IgA against Helicobacter pylori infection in infancy. Lancet 342:121.
154. Van Doom, N. E. M.,, F. Namavar,, M. Sparrius,, J. Stoof,, E. P. van Rees,, L.-J. van Doom,, and C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls. 1999. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis in mice is host and strain specific. Infect. Immun. 67:30403046.
155. Vollmers, H. P.,, J. Dammrich,, H. Ribbert,, S. Grassel,, S. Debus,, J. Heesemannn,, and H. K. Muller-Hermelink. 1994. Human monoclonal antibodies from stomach carcinoma patients react with Helicobacter pylori and stimulate stomach cancer cells in vitro. Cancer 74:15251532.
156. Wang, J.,, E. G. Brooks,, T. L. Denning,, J. Pappo,, and P. B. Ernst. Negative selection of T cells by the Cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori as a model for strain selection. Submitted for publication.
157. Wang, T. C.,, C. A. Dangler,, D. Chen,, J. R. Goldenring,, T. Koh,, R. Raychowdhury,, R. L. Coffey,, S. Ito,, A. Varro,, G. J. Dockray,, and J. G. Fox. 2000. Synergistic interaction between hypergastrinemia and helicobacter infection in a mouse model of gastric cancer. Gastroenterology 118:3647.
158. Watanabe, T.,, M. Tada,, H. Nagai,, S. Sasaki,, and M. Nakao. 1998. Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer in mongolian gerbils. Gastroenterology 115:642648.
159. Wee, A.,, M. Teh,, and J. Y. Kang. 1992. Association of Helicobacter pylori with HLA-DR antigen expression in gastritis. J. Clin. Pathol. 45:3033.
160. Weltzin, R.,, B. Guy,, W. D. Thomas, Jr.,, P. J. Giannasca,, and T. P. Monath. 2000. Parenteral adjuvant activities of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and its B subunit for immunization of mice against gastric Helicobacter pylori infection. Infect. Immun. 68:27752782.
161. Weltzin, R.,, H. Kleanthous,, F. Guirakhoo,, T. P. Monath,, and C. K. Lee. 1997. Novel intranasal immunization techniques for antibody induction and protection of mice against gastric Helicobacter felis infection. Vaccine 15:370376.
162. Whary, M. T.,, L. S. Palley,, M. Batchelder,, J. C. Murphy,, L. Yan,, N. S. Taylor,, and J. G. Fox. 1997. Promotion of ulcerative duodenitis in young ferrets by oral immunization with Helicobacter mustelae and muramyl dipeptide. Helicobacter 2:6577.
163. Yamaguchi, H.,, T. Osaki,, M. Kai,, H. Taguchi,, and S. Kamiya. 2000. Immune response against a cross-reactive epitope on the heat shock protein 60 homologue of Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 68:34483454.
164. Ye, G.,, C. Barrera,, X. Fan,, W. C. Gourley,, S. E. Crowe,, P. B. Ernst,, and V. E. Reyes. 1997. Expression of B7-1 and B7-2 costimulatory molecules by gastric epithelial cells. Potential role in CD4+ T cell activation during Helicobacter pylori infection. J. Clin. Invest. 99:16281636.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Animal models of Helicobacter vaccine immunity

Citation: Pappo J, Czinn S, Nedrud J. 2001. Vaccines, p 441-455. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch37

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error