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Chapter 41 : Markers of Infection

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Abstract:

Markers for the presence of a infection consist of features or events that suggest that the infection is, or has been, present and include alterations in gastroduodenal structure and function, as well as tests to detect the bacterium itself or the presence of bacterial enzymes. It is now recognized that primary mucosa-associated gastric lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) and approximately 10% of cases of nonulcer dyspepsia are also directly related to infection. There are a number of biochemical markers suggestive of the presence of an active or past infection. A group of expert pathologists recommended that for diagnosis of infection and characterization of the pattern of gastritis, two biopsies should routinely be taken from the antrum and two from the body of the stomach for histological evaluation. The accuracy of rapid urease testing is high, such that a correlation between histology and rapid urease testing provides a simple measure to gauge the accuracy of the pathology department. Detection of anti- antibody is the easiest noninvasive approach to test for the presence of an infection. With some tests only a few drops of fingerstick blood are required and the results are available in less than 5 min.

Citation: Graham D, Qureshi W. 2001. Markers of Infection, p 499-510. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch41

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Figures

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Figure 1

Example of the El-Zimaity dual stain of gastric mucosa ( ). The stain combines periodic acid-Schiff and a silver stain and is the preferred stain when the density of is very low or when searching for in the duodenum.

Citation: Graham D, Qureshi W. 2001. Markers of Infection, p 499-510. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch41
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Examples of three commercial rapid urease tests including the original CLO test and two second-generation tests. One of each pair is the control, the other is after the color change.

Citation: Graham D, Qureshi W. 2001. Markers of Infection, p 499-510. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch41
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Recommendations for collecting gastric mucosal biopsies for detection of

Citation: Graham D, Qureshi W. 2001. Markers of Infection, p 499-510. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 2

Considerations regarding the accuracy of the C-urea breath test

Citation: Graham D, Qureshi W. 2001. Markers of Infection, p 499-510. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch41

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