1887

Chapter 46 : In Vivo Adaptation to the Host

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

In Vivo Adaptation to the Host, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818005/9781555812133_Chap46-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818005/9781555812133_Chap46-2.gif

Abstract:

The specificity of for the human host is the consequence of a series of adaptations that probably occurred many thousands of years ago. This adaptation has provided with an important advantage in vivo because unlike most gastrointestinal pathogens, it has little competition from other bacteria in its preferred ecological niche. One consequence of the high degree of host adaptation of is that it cannot survive for long periods outside the body. has evolved several mechanisms that enable it to vary gene expression and that are critical for host adaptation. Although clinical studies provide the most accurate means of studying adaptation to the host, such studies suffer from obvious limitations. The availability of small animal models of infection has permitted an improved understanding of adaptation to the host. Much of our current understanding of pathogenesis has been derived from in vitro studies. Nevertheless, in vitro methods cannot reproduce the complex interactions between pathogen and host. An important aspect of such interactions that is absent from in vitro assays is the host's immune response. Metabolic functions are likely to play an important role in colonization of, and adaptation to, the host. This observation would be consistent with the findings from in vivo-based investigations of bacterial virulence in other pathogens. Colonization of animal hosts by isolates have been discussed in this chapter.

Citation: Ferrero R, Jenks P. 2001. In Vivo Adaptation to the Host, p 583-592. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch46

Key Concept Ranking

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
0.41802466
Bacterial Pathogenesis
0.4065811
0.41802466
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818005.chap46
1. Achtman, M.,, T. Azuma,, D. E. Berg,, Y. Ito,, G. Morelli,, Z.-J. Pan,, S. Suerbaum,, S. A. Thompson,, A. van der Ende,, and L.-J. van Doom. 1999. Recombination and clonal groupings within Helicobacter pylori from different geographical regions. Mol. Microbiol. 32: 459 470.
2. Akada, J. K.,, M. Shirai,, H. Takeuchi,, M. Tsuda,, and T. Nakazawa. 2000. Identification of the urease operon in Helicobacter pylori and its control by mRNA decay in response to pH. Mol. Microbiol. 36: 1071 1084.
3. Akopyants, N. S.,, K. A. Eaton,, and D. E. Berg. 1995. Adaptive mutation and cocolonisation during Helicobacter pylori infection of gnotobiotic piglets. Infect. Immun. 63: 116 121.
4. Aim, R. A.,, L.-S. L. Ling,, D. T. Moir,, B. L. King,, E. D. Brown,, P. C. Doig,, D. R. Smith,, B. Noonan,, B. C. Guild,, B. L. dejonge,, G. Carmel,, P. J. Tummino,, A. Caruso,, M. Uria-Nickelsen,, D. M. Mills,, C. Ives,, R. Gibson,, D. Merberg,, S. D. Mills,, Q. Jiang,, D. E. Taylor,, G. F. Vovis,, and T. J. Trust. 1999. Genomic-sequence comparison of two unrelated isolates of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 397: 176 180.
5. Aim, R. A.,, and T. J. Trust. 1999. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Helicobacter pylori: the tale of two genomes. J. Mol. Med. 77: 834 846.
6. Applemelk, B. J.,, S. L. Martin,, M. A. Monteiro,, C. A. Clayton,, A. A. McColm,, P. Zheng,, T. Verboom,, J. J. Maaskant,, D. van den Eijnden,, C. H. Hokke,, M. B. Perry,, C. M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls,, and J. G. Kusters. 1999. Phase variation in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide due to changes in the lengths of poly(C) tracts in α3-fucosyltransferase genes. Infect. Immun. 67: 5361 5366.
7. Atherton, J. C.,, K. T. Tham,, R. M. Peek, Jr.,, T. L. Cover,, and M. J. Blaser. 1996. Density of Helicobacter pylori infection in vivo as assessed by quantitative culture and histology. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 552 556.
8. Bellamy, R.,, N. Beyers,, K. P. W. J. McAdam,, C. Ruwende,, R. Gie,, P. Samaai,, D. Bester,, M. Meyer,, T. Corrah,, M. Collin,, D. R. Camidge,, D. Wilkinson,, E. Hoal-van Helden,, H. C. Whittle,, W. Amos,, P. van Helden,, and A. V. S. Hill. 2000. Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in Africans: a genome-wide scan. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 8005 8009.
9. Bhatia, S. J.,, N. Kochar,, P. Abraham,, N. G. Nair,, and A. P. Mehta. 1989. Lactobacillus acidophilus inhibits growth of Campylobacter pylori in vitro. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2328 2330.
10. Bjorkman, J.,, D. Hughes,, and D. I. Andersson. 1998. Virulence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 3949 3953.
11. Blanchard, T. G.,, K. J. McGovern,, P. Youngman,, J. Gutierez,, and S. J. Czinn. 1999. Is gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase essential for infection of the gastric mucosa by H. pylori? Gut 45: A26.
12. Blaser, M. J.,, and D. Kirschner. 1999. Dynamics of Helicobacter pylori colonization in relation to the host response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 8359 8364.
13. Cantorna, M. T.,, and E. Balish. 1990. Inability of human clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori to colonize the alimentary tract of germfree rodents. Can. J. Microbiol. 36: 237 241.
14. Casadevall, A.,, and L.-A. Pirofski. 1999. Host-pathogen interactions: redefining the basic concepts of virulence and pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 67: 3703 3713.
15. Censini, S.,, C. Lange,, Z. Xiang,, J. E. Crabtree,, P. Ghiara,, M. Borodovsky,, R. Rappuoli,, and A. Covacci. 1996. cag, a pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori, encodes type I-specific and disease-associated virulence factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 14648 14653.
16. Chevalier, C.,, J.-M. Thiberge,, R. L. Ferrero,, and A. Labigne. 1999. Essential role of Helicobacter pylori γ-glutamyltrans-peptidase for the colonization of the gastric mucosa of mice. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 1359 1372.
17. Covacci, A.,, and R. Rappuoli. 1998. Helicobacter pylori: molecular evolution of a bacterial quasi-species. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1: 96 108.
18. Cox, J. M.,, C. L. Clayton,, D. M. Wallace,, M. K. Trower,, P. A. Robinson,, and J. E. Crabtree. 1998. Identification of H. pylori epithelial cell response genes by screening high-density cDNA arrays. Gut 43: A1.
19. Crabtree, J. E.,, D. Kersulyte,, S. D. Li,, I. J. D. Lindley,, and D. E. Berg. 1999. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori induced interleukin-8 synthesis in gastric epithelial cells mediated by cag PAI encoded VirD4 homologue. J. Clin. Pathol. 52: 653 657.
20. Danon, S. J.,, B. J. Luria,, R. E. Mankoski,, and K. A. Eaton. 1998. RFLP and RAPD analysis of in vivo genetic interactions between strains of Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter 3: 254 259.
21. Danon, S. J.,, J. L. O'Rourke,, N. D. Moss,, and A. Lee. 1995. The importance of local acid production in the distribution of Helicobacter felis in the mouse stomach. Gastroenterology 108: 1386 1395.
22. Dubois, A.,, D. E. Berg,, E. T. Incecik,, N. Fiala,, L. M. Heman-Ackah,, J. Del Valle,, M. Yang,, H.-P. Wirth,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, and M. J. Blaser. 1999. Host specificity of Helicobacter pylori strains and host responses in experimentally challenged nonhuman primates. Gastroenterology 116: 90 96.
23. Dubois, A.,, D. E. Berg,, E. T. Incecik,, N. Fiala,, L. M. Heman-Ackah,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, and M. J. Blaser. 1996. Transient and persistent experimental infection of nonhuman primates with Helicobacter pylori: implications for human disease. Infect. Immun. 64: 2885 2891.
24. Eaton, K. A.,, and S. Krakowka. 1998. Co-colonization and in vivo interaction between strains of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 114: G3973.
25. Eaton, K. A.,, D. R. Morgan,, and S. Krakowka. 1989. Campylobacter pylori virulence factors in gnotobiotic piglets. Infect. Immun. 57: 1119 1125.
26. Eaton, K. A.,, S. R. Ringler,, and S. J. Danon. 1999. Murine splenocytes induce severe gastritis and delayed-type hypersensitivity and suppress bacterial colonization in Helicobacter pylori-infected SCID mice. Infect. Immun. 67: 4594 4602.
27. El-Omar, E. M.,, M. Carrington,, W.-H. Chow,, K. E. L. McColl,, J. H. Bream,, H. A. Young,, J. Herrera,, J. Lissowska,, C.-C. Yuan,, N. Rothman,, G. Lanyon,, M. Martin,, J. F. J. Fraumeni,, and C. S. Rabkin. 2000. Interleukin-1 polymorphisms associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Nature 404: 398 402.
28. Fan, X. J.,, A. Chua,, C. N. Shahi,, J. McDevitt,, P. W. N. Keeling,, and D. Kelleher. 1994. Gastric T lymphocyte responses to Helicobacter pylori in patients with H. pylori colonisation. Gut 35: 1379 1384.
29. Ferrero, R. L. Unpublished data.
30. Ferrero, R. L.,, J. M. Thiberge,, M. Huerre,, and A. Labigne. 1998. Immune responses of specific-pathogen-free mice to chronic Helicobacter pylori (strain SSI) infection. Infect. Immun. 66: 1349 1355.
31. Go, M. F.,, V. Kapur,, D. Y. Graham,, and J. M. Musser. 1996. Population genetic analysis of Helicobacter pylori by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis: extensive allelic diversity and recombinational population structure. J. Bacteriol. 178: 3934 3938.
32. Guruge, J. L.,, P. G. Falk,, R. G. Lorenz,, M. Dans,, H.-P. Wirth,, M. J. Blaser,, D. E. Berg,, and J. I. Gordon. 1998. Epithelial attachment alters the outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 3925 3930.
33. Hazell, S. L.,, R. H. Andrews,, H. M. Mitchell,, and G. Daskalopolous. 1997. Genetic relationship among isolates of Helicobacter pylori: evidence for the existence of a Helicobacter pylori species-complex. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 150: 27 32.
34. Hirschl, A. M.,, M. Richter,, A. Makristathis,, P. M. Priickl,, B. Willinger,, K. Schiitze,, and M. L. Rotter. 1994. Single and multiple strain colonization in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis: detection by macrorestriction DNA analysis. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 473 475.
35. Janvier, B.,, B. Grignon,, C. Audibert,, L. Pezennec,, and J. L. Fauchere. 1999. Phenotypic changes of Helicobacter pylori components during experimental infection in mice. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 24: 27 33.
36.. Jenks, P. J. Unpublished data.
37. Jenks, P. J.,, R. L. Ferrero,, and A. Labigne. 1999. The role of the rdxA gene in the evolution of metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43: 753 758.
38. Jenks, P. J.,, A. Labigne,, and R. L. Labigne. 1999. Exposure to metronidazole in vivo readily induces resistance in Helicobacter pylori and reduces the efficacy of eradication therapy in mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 777 781.
39. Jenks, P. J.,, F. Megraud,, and A. Labigne. 1998. Clinical outcome after infection with Helicobacter pylori does not appear to be reliably predicted by the presence of any of the genes of the cag pathogenicity island. Gut 43: 752 758.
40. Jeong, J. Y.,, W. W. Su,, P. S. Hoffman,, and D. E. Berg. 1999. Mutation in Helicobacter pylori resulting in metronidazole resistance decreases its fitness, abstr. D/B-182, p. 244. In Abstr. 99th Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1999. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
41. Jiang, Q.,, K. Hiratsuka,, and D. E. Taylor. 1996. Variability of gene order in different Helicobacter pylori strains contributes to genome diversity. Mol. Microbiol. 20: 833 842.
42. Jorgensen, M.,, G. Daskalopoulos,, V. Warburton,, H. M. Mitchell,, and S. L. Hazell. 1996. Multiple strain colonization and metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients: identification from sequential and multiple biopsy specimens. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 631 635.
43. Kabir, A. M. A.,, Y. Aiba,, A. Takagi,, S. Kamiya,, T. Miwa,, and Y. Koga. 1997. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection by lactobacilli in a gnotobiotic murine model. Gut 41: 49 55.
44. Kansau, I.,, J. Raymond,, E. Bingen,, P. Courcoux,, N. Kalach,, M. Bergeret,, N. Braimi,, C. Dupont,, and A. Labigne. 1996. Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori isolates by sequencing of PCR products and comparison with the RAPD technique. Res. Microbiol. 147: 661 669.
45. Kersulyte, D.,, H. Calkauskas,, and D. E. Berg. 1999. Emergence of recombinant strains of Helicobacter pylori during human infection. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 31 43.
46. Kingsley, R. A.,, and A. J. Baumler. 2000. Host adaptation and the emergence of infectious disease: the Salmonella paradigm. Mol. Microbiol. 36: 1006 1014.
47. Kuipers, E. J.,, D. A. Israel,, J. G. Kusters,, M. M. Gerrits,, J. Weel,, A. van der Ende,, R. W. M. van der Hulst,, H. P. Wirth,, J. Hook-Nikanne,, S. A. Thompson,, and M. J. Blaser. 2000. Quasispecies development of Helicobacter pylori observed in paired isolates obtained years apart from the same host. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 273 282.
48. Lee, A.,, J. Fox,, and S. Hazell. 1993. Pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori: a perspective. Infect. Immun. 61: 1601 1610.
49. Lee, A.,, J. O'Rourke,, M. C. D. Ungria,, B. Robertson,, G. Daskalopoulos,, and M. F. Dixon. 1997. A standardized mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection: introducing the Sydney strain. Gastroenterology 112: 1386 1397.
50. Logan, R. P. H.,, M. M. Walker,, J. J. Misiewicz,, P. A. Gummett,, Q. N. Karim,, and J. H. Baron. 1995. Changes in the intragastric distribution of Helicobacter pylori during treatment with omeprazole. Gut 36: 12 16.
51. Mankoski, R.,, T. Hoepf,, S. Krakowka,, and K. A. Eaton. 1999. flak mRNA transcription level correlates with Helicobacter pylori colonisation efficiency in gnotobiotic piglets. J. Med. Microbiol. 48: 395 399.
52. Manos, J.,, T. Kolesnikow,, and S. L. Hazell. 1998. An investigation of the molecular basis of the spontaneous occurrence of a catalase-negative phenotype in Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter 3: 28 38.
53. Matsuoka, M.,, Y. Yoshida,, K. Hayakawa,, S. Fukuchi,, and K. Sugano. 1999. Simultaneous colonisation of Helicobacter pylori with and without mutations in the 23S rRNA gene in patients with no history of clarithromycin exposure. Gut 45: 503 507.
54. McGee, D. J.,, F. J. Radcliff,, G. L. Mendz,, R. L. Ferrero,, and H. L. T. Mobley. 1999. Helicobacter pylori rocF is required for arginase activity and acid protection in vitro but is not essential for colonization of mice or for urease activity. J. Bacterial. 181: 7314 7322.
55. Mel, S. F.,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1996. Modulation of horizontal gene transfer in pathogenic bacteria by in vivo signals. Cell 87: 795 798.
56. Midolo, P. D.,, J. R. Lambert,, R. Hull,, F. Luo,, and M. L. Grayson. 1995. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 by organic acids and lactic acid bacteria. J. Appl. Bacterial 79: 475 479.
57. Miehlke, S.,, R. Thomas,, O. Guiterrez,, D. Y. Graham,, and M. F. Go. 1999. DNA fingerprinting of single colonies of Helicobacter pylori from gastric cancer patients suggests infection with a single predominant strain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 245 247.
58. Moran, A. P.,, I. M. Helander,, and T. U. Kosunen. 1992. Compositional analysis of Helicobacter pylori rough-form lipopolysaccharides. J. Bacterial. 174: 1370 1377.
59. Muotiala, A.,, I. M. Helander,, L. Pybala,, T. U. Kosunen,, and A. P. Moran. 1992. Low biological activity of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 60: 1714 1716.
60. Ng, E. K. W.,, S. A. Thompson,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, I. Kansau,, A. van der Ende,, A. Labigne,, J. J. Y. Sung,, S. C. S. Chung,, and M. J. Blaser. 1999. Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein A: serologic responses and genetic diversity. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 6: 377 382.
61. Piitsep, K.,, C.-I. Branden,, H. G. Boman,, and S. Normack. 1999. Antibacterial peptide from H. pylori. Nature 398: 671 672.
62. Radcliff, F. J.,, A. Labigne,, and R. L. Ferrero. Unpublished data.
63. Rasko, D. A.,, T. J. M. Wilson,, D. Zopf,, and D. E. Taylor. 2000. Lewis antigen expression and stability in Helicobacter pylori isolated from serial gastric biopsies. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 1089 1095.
64. Saunders, N. J.,, J. F. Peden,, D. W. Hood,, and E. R. Moxon. 1998. Simple sequence repeats in the Helicobacter pylori genome. Mol. Microbiol. 27: 1091 1098.
65. Schneider, H.,, S. B. Formal,, and L. S. Baron. 1961. Experimental genetic recombination in vivo between Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J. Exp. Med. 114: 141 148.
66. Shirai, M.,, T. Arichi,, T. Nakazawa,, and J. A. Berzofsky. 1997. Persistent infection by Helicobacter pylori down-modulates virus-specific CD8 + cytotoxic T cell response and prolongs viral infection. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 72 80.
67. Skouloubris, S.,, J. M. Thiberge,, A. Labigne,, and H. D. Reuse. 1998. The Helicobacter pylori UreI protein is not involved in urease activity but is essential for bacterial survival in vivo. Infect. Immun. 66: 4517 4521.
68. Spohn, G.,, and V. Scarlato. 1999. The autoregulatory HspR repressor protein governs chaperone gene transcription in Helicobacter pylori. Mol. Microbiol. 34: 663 674.
69. Spohn, G.,, and V. Scarlato. 1999. Motility of Helicobacter pylori is coordinately regulated by the transcriptional activator FlgR, an NtrC homolog. J. Bacteriol. 181: 593 599.
70. Suerbaum, S.,, J. Maynard Smith,, K. Bapumia,, G. Morelli,, N. H. Smith,, E. Kunstmann,, I. Dyrek,, and M. Achtman. 1998. Free recombination within Helicobacter pylori. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 12619 12624.
71. Tomb, J.-F.,, O. White,, A. R. Kervalage,, R. A. Clayton,, G. G. Sutton,, R. D. Fleischmann,, K. A. Ketchum,, H. P. Klenk,, S. Gill,, B. A. Dougherty,, K. Nelson,, J. Quackenbush,, L. Zhou,, E. F. Kirkness,, S. Peterson,, B. Loftus,, D. Richardson,, R. Dodson,, H. G. Khalak,, A. Glodek,, K. McKenney,, L. M. Fitzegerald,, N. Lee,, M. D. Adams,, E. K. Hickey,, D. E. Berg,, J. D. Gocayne,, T. R. Utterback,, J. D. Peterson,, J. M. Kelley,, M. D. Cotton,, J. M. Weidman,, C. Fujii,, C. Bowman,, L. Watthey,, E. Wallin,, W. S. Hayes,, M. Borodovsky,, P. D. Karp,, H. O. Smith,, C. M. Fraser,, and J. C. Ventor. 1997. The complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 388: 539 547.
72. Tsuchida, T.,, N. Ueda,, H. Ohno,, I. Kobayashi,, T. Mine,, and T. Fujita. 1998. Urease-negative variants of H. pylori isolated from gastric mucosa of the patients with peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis. Gastroenterology 114: G4481.
73. van der Ende, A.,, E. A. J. Rauws,, M. Feller,, C. J. J. Mulder,, G. N. J. Tytgat,, and J. Dankert. 1996. Heterogeneous Helicobacter pylori isolates from members of a family with a history of peptic ulcer disease. Gastroenterology 111: 638 647.
74. van Doom, L.-J.,, C. Figueiredo,, F. Megraud,, S. Pena,, P. Midolo,, D. M. D. M. Queiroz,, F. Carneiro,, B. Vanderborght,, M. D. G. F. Pegado,, R. Sanna,, W. de Boer,, P. M. Schneeberger,, P. Correa,, E. K. W. Ng,, J. Atherton,, M. J. Blaser,, and W. G. V. Quint. 1999. Geographic distribution of vacA allelic types of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 116: 823 830.
75. van Doom, N. E. M.,, F. Namavar,, M. Sparrius,, J. Stoof,, E. P. van Rees,, L.-J. van Doom,, and C. M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls. 1999. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis in mice is host and strain specific. Infect. Immun. 67: 3040 3046.
76. Vanet, A.,, L. Marsan,, A. Labigne,, and M.-F. Sagot. 2000. Inferring regulatory elements from a whole genome. An analysis of Helicobacter pylori σ 80 family of promoter signals. J. Mol Biol. 297: 335 353.
77. van Zanten, S. J. O.,, M. F. Dixon,, and A. Lee. 1999. The gastric transitional zones: neglected links between gastroduodenal pathology and Helicobacter ecology. Gastroenterology 116: 1217 1229.
78. Wang, G.,, M. S. Rahmann,, M. Z. Humayun,, and D. E. Taylor. 1999. Multiplex sequence analysis demonstrates the competitive growth advantage of the A-to-G mutants of clarithro-mycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 683 685.
79. Wang, G.,, D. A. Rasko,, R. Sherburne,, and D. E. Taylor. 1999. Molecular genetic basis for the variable expression of Lewis Y antigen in Helicobacter pylori: analysis of the a(l, 2) fucosyltransferase gene. Mol Microbiol. 31: 1265 1274.
80. Wirth, H.-P.,, M. H. Beina,, M. Yang,, K. T. Tham,, and M. J. Blaser. 1998. Experimental infection of Mongolian gerbils with wild-type and mutant Helicobacter pylori strains. Infect. Immun. 66: 4856 4866.
81. Wirth, H.-P.,, M. Yang,, A. Dubois,, D. E. Berg,, and M. J. Blaser. 1998. Host Lewis phenotype-dependent selection of H. pylori Lewis expression in rhesus monkeys. Gut 43: A26.
82. Wirth, H.-P.,, M. Yang,, R. M. J. Peek,, K. T. Tham,, and M. J. Blaser. 1997. Helicobacter pylori Lewis expression is related to the host Lewis phenotype. Gastroenterology 113: 1091 1098.
83. Yoshitake, S.,, M. Okada,, A. Kimura,, and T. Sasazuki. 1999. Contribution of major histocompatibility complex genes to susceptibility and resistance in Helicobacter pylori related diseases. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11: 875 880.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Colonization of animal hosts by isolates

Citation: Ferrero R, Jenks P. 2001. In Vivo Adaptation to the Host, p 583-592. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch46

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error