Chapter 7 : Cell Envelope

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This chapter reviews the physical and biochemical composition of the cell envelope, with reference where appropriate to the microbiological and pathogenic implications. The genome has homologs of all the enzymes required for the cytoplasmic synthesis of precursors required for peptidoglycan assembly. The unusual cellular fatty acid profile of was a major criterion for the exclusion of the organism from the genus . The total lipid content (by weight) is 6% neutral lipids, 20.6% glycolipids, and 73.4% phospholipids. The major phospholids are phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin, and phosphatidylglycerol. Gold particles were distributed on the cell envelope and on the sheath of the flagella. The observation that urease, HspB, and catalase are surface associated helps explain how they can serve as vaccine components in animal trials. Many surface proteins of pathogenic bacteria play important roles in adhesion, colonization, and the immune response. The cell envelope is likely equipped with cytoplasmic membrane iron transport permeases and transport proteins, reviewed elsewhere, but they are poorly characterized. The ability of bacterial cells to agglutinate red blood cells is a convenient assay for detecting bacterial receptors, which usually have affinity for eukaryotic glycolipids or glycoproteins. Many of the vaccine candidates for are proteins found on the cell surface, underlining the importance of further characterization of these proteins and of elucidating the precise mechanism of interaction of the cell surface with gastric mucosa.

Citation: O'Toole P, Clyne M. 2001. Cell Envelope, p 69-80. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch7

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Outer Membrane Proteins
Flagellar Hook Protein
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
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Figure 1

The biosynthesis of the Lewis blood group antigens. In italics: the transferases involved in each step of biosynthesis. In bold: the blood group antigens formed after each step.

Citation: O'Toole P, Clyne M. 2001. Cell Envelope, p 69-80. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch7
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Flagellar configuration of In this negatively stained preparation (1% phosphotungstic acid), terminal and sub-terminal flagella, hook, sheath, and terminal bulb are visible.

Citation: O'Toole P, Clyne M. 2001. Cell Envelope, p 69-80. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch7
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Table 1

Cell-envelope proteins of

Citation: O'Toole P, Clyne M. 2001. Cell Envelope, p 69-80. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch7

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