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Chapter 8 : Molecular Structure, Biosynthesis, and Pathogenic Roles of Lipopolysaccharides

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Abstract:

This chapter reviews the attributes and structure of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), especially the relationship between molecular structure and pathogenesis. The outermost O-specific polysaccharide chain is a polymer of identical repeating units that may contain up to seven different sugars, depending on the bacterial species and strain. Fresh clinical isolates of produce highmolecular-weight, smooth-form LPS (S-LPS). Compared with other bacterial species, the core regions of strains exhibit an unusual conformation as determined by chemical structural studies. As exemplified by the core oligosaccharide of NCTC 11637, a branching occurs from the D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (DD-Hep) residue in the inner core through a second such residue to which the first repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide chain is attached. Survival of below pH 4 is dependent on urease activity, whereas urease-independent mechanisms, although less well characterized, operate at greater than pH 4. Bacterial interactions with extracellular and basement membrane proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis and virulence of a number of infections. Elevated pepsinogen, a precursor of mucolytic and barrier-breaking pepsin, is considered a marker for the development and recurrence of duodenal ulcers.

Citation: Moran A. 2001. Molecular Structure, Biosynthesis, and Pathogenic Roles of Lipopolysaccharides, p 81-95. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch8

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Lipid A
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Figure 1

Schematic representation of the three major domains of the LPS molecule.

Citation: Moran A. 2001. Molecular Structure, Biosynthesis, and Pathogenic Roles of Lipopolysaccharides, p 81-95. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch8
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Proposed chemical structure of the polysaccharide moiety of LPS of NCTTC 11637 ( ). Further substitution of the lateral DD-Hep (indicated by arrow) by heptose and glucose occurs in some other strains. Abbreviations: Fuc, fucose; Gal, galactose; Glc, glucose; GlcNAc, N-acetylglucosamine; DD-Hep, LD-Hep, L- Kdo, 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid.

Citation: Moran A. 2001. Molecular Structure, Biosynthesis, and Pathogenic Roles of Lipopolysaccharides, p 81-95. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch8
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Structural relationship between A, B, H, and Lewis (Le) blood group determinants. Except for fucose, which is in the L-form, all sugars possess the D-configuration. Abbreviations: Fuc, fucose; Gal, galactose; GalNAc, N-acetylgalactosamine; Glc, glucose; GlcNAc, N-acetylglucosamine; NANA, N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid.

Citation: Moran A. 2001. Molecular Structure, Biosynthesis, and Pathogenic Roles of Lipopolysaccharides, p 81-95. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch8
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Modular structures of the polysaccharide component of some examples of LPS. For an explanation of sugar abbreviations, see the legend to Fig. 3 .

Citation: Moran A. 2001. Molecular Structure, Biosynthesis, and Pathogenic Roles of Lipopolysaccharides, p 81-95. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch8
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Proposed chemical structures of (A) the predominant lipid A molecular structure found in R-LPS and S-LPS and (B) a minor lipid A species found in S-LPS ( ). Numbers in circles refer to the number of carbon atoms in acyl chains. Further heterogeneity occurs by nonstoichiometric replacement of 3-(18:0)-O-18:0 with 3-(16:0)-O-18:0 on the nonreducing glucosamine unit of the lipid A backbone. Polar headgroups are indicated by R' (phosphate or ethanolamine) and R" (H or phosphate).

Citation: Moran A. 2001. Molecular Structure, Biosynthesis, and Pathogenic Roles of Lipopolysaccharides, p 81-95. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch8
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